What is it culture? ‘Culture “ derives from the Latin word “Culture,” meaning “Cultivation,” and “Tillage,” which implies that just like land in need of tillage, human culture needs cultivating. The term “culture” and its interpretation vary greatly in literature. One important reason for that is culture and its connected values and beliefs are constantly shifting and moving within countries. There may be now around 200 definitions, but the most widely accepted one was proposed by Edward Hall in 1977, “ Culture is the total accumulation of beliefs, customs, values, behaviors, institutions and communication patterns that are shared, learned and passed down through the generation in an identifiable group of people.” So, culture is a social phenomenon, is also a historical phenomenon, is that people long to create the formation of the product. There are many differences between Chinese and Brazilian culture: integrity and individuality of the differences, differences in values and moral standards, social etiquette differences, differences in social mores. This paper analyzes the culturaldifferences on the impact of daily communication. Understanding these differences contribute to a better intercultural communication so as to avoid cultureclash that the Chinese enterprises have met.
Muslim empires, by and large, have an excellent record of treating non-Muslim minorities with respect and decorum (Muzaffar, 2000). There are also those who believe that Western and Eastern cultures are united not only by their religious roots, but also by a common Greek heritage. During the high Middle Ages, the works of Aristotle, which represents the ancient foundations of Western scientific development, were made available to European scholars through the translations of Arab philosophers such as Ibn Sina and Ibn Rusched. In the same way, as the Renaissance in Europe could not happened without the scientific achievements of the Islamic Orient, the modern Islamic world was deeply influenced by Western ideas and thinking. Napoleon’s expeditions to Egypt in 1798, for example, triggered a process of modernization which was encouraged by the Ottoman’s Sultan’s Governor in Egypt, Mohammed Ali (Hafez, 2000). The big methodological mistake of the analysists of the clash perspective is that they use the Western culture as a benchmark to evaluate the Islamic culture. Therefore, they look at the differences as points for conflicts and deny the right of others to choose their own way of life. As a result, they pave the way that will sooner or later threaten the democratic fundamental bases of the intercultural communication. The author also completely agrees with Abbas Malek and Krista Wiegand in their article “ Islam and the West: Cultural Encounters”, when they tell us that the key problem is a lack of cultural relatively, which allows one to judge another culture by its standards rather than by using Western standards (Malek & Wiegand, 1997). The second methodological problem of the clash perspective is that collective and individual behavior patterns among the peoples in Islamic countries are explained from the viewpoint of an abstract notion of Islam rather than being interpreted from a stance which takes into account geography and local history, social structure and human experience (Munoz, 1999). After Sep.11 2001, Muslims were depicted in the influential Western media as if they are terrorists (Hamada, 2002a). But it is clear that like
Germans’sentiments towards Greece should be mitigated by the introduction of the balance budget rules and more severe monitoring of future …scal policies in member countries adopted with the Fiscal Compact agreement in the Spring of 2012. Under the culturalclash explanation because these sentiments are a reaction to the past behavior of the Greeks, they should either be constant or even ampli…ed by the bail out packages decided meanwhile. The data in Table 3, Panel A seem to be more consistent with the latter than with the former explanation: if anything, Germans views towards Greece have deteriorated between the Spring of 2010 and that of 2012. In a recent article, Ardagna and Caselli (2012) have pointed out the di¢ culties of negotiations among heads of States at the European Council as a potential source of ine¢ cient solutions for the Greek crisis, and they conclude that perhaps the best way to avoid negotiation-related political economic frictions would have been to let the IMF handle the Greek crisis. The type of political economy failures we identify are di¤erent and so is the solution: the failures stem from heterogeneous cultures, and the clash that this heterogeneity in culture creates would be best addressed by the creation of a new type of institution - like a political/…scal union - free from the need to conform to the culture of any single country in the union. At the positive analysis level, we do not think the friction was (mainly) one of negotiation costs, because from the beginning the problem has basically been "what does Germany think", which therefore concerns more understanding Germany than understanding the negotiation process between Euro-area heads of state. At the normative analysis level, the cultural reasons why the Germans do not want to save the Greeks un- less the Greeks’ sovereignty is suspended have to do with moral hazard (cheating expectations), and hence Germany would have opposed such saving even through the IMF. On the other hand, a …scal union, which means elimination of the game between sovereign States, would …nd Germany more willing to help as less concerned by future moral hazard issues and Greece’s debt default less unforgivable. In other words, while IMF would still make donors upset about helping out countries who could be prone to moral hazard, going for a …scal union that requires transfer of power from national …nance ministers to a European …nance minister would avoid the ine¢ cient punishments as well as the risk of moral hazard and hence the related worries and cultural clashes.
The variables assessed in this study are cultural education, creativity promotion and innovation, definite attitudes regarding culture, cultural identity, public culture and traditional culture, promotion of culture exchange, cul- tural heritage preservation and access to culture in cur- rent status and optimal status among the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences staff. In order to decrease potential sources of bias such as individual’s refusal to answer ques- tions, the study objectives were precisely described to in- dividuals.
even Foucault’s suggestion of dispositif. While I do intend to suggest a sense of comparison between these concepts and the ideas that mobilise them as constructs, I use ‘cultural logic’ according to derivations of Anthony Cohen’s notion of ‘boundary’, as derived from his ethnographic encounters in the Hebrides. Cohen explains certain ways of knowing and being present as a set of logics that depict the shape of a culture. Bourdieusian scholars might see this as the formation of the habitus determined by the field and its actors. However I prefer Cohen’s theorisation of the boundary, as it provides a more pragmatic sense of how culture is made by people, but more importantly also, how the exchange between culture and individuals in coming to learn and know culture functions. This sense of ‘logics’ is furthered throughout the chapter as ‘cultural logics’.
A sizeable component of the work in Off-Centre was explicitly concerned with gender and consumer culture. Estella Tincknell’s chapter on ‘Enterprise Fictions’, for example, examined the popularity in the 1980s of entrepreneurial heroines who ‘make it’ from rags to riches. It focused on the heroine of Barbara Taylor Bradford’s bestselling novel-turned-hugely-popular TV series, A Woman of Substance, who starts life poor and ends up as the wealthy owner of a department store. Ticknell reads this narrative as an aspirational fantasy actively working to popularize the ideology of the individual bourgeois woman who can ‘make a space for herself within capitalism’, one which ‘recognizes class conflict but not class struggle’ and bypasses the mutual help of the second-wave feminist movement, evading ‘any sort of discussion of the obstacles in the way of aspiring female entrepreneurs’. What such fictions offer instead is
If we consider popular culture as the production of the modernization consuming culture through the mass media, the first instance of the ‘popular’ emerged in Korea during the early part of the twentieth century. The word ‘popular’ has originated from Latin’s ‘populous or people’ (Oxford English Dictionary). However, popular culture in Korean translation, is not suggested as synonymous to people or nationhood. For example, people’s art, such as pansori (musical storytelling) or tal chum (mask dance), are traditional art forms that were presented prior to the twentieth century in Korea. The literal translation of popular culture is taejung munhwa (public or mass culture) that is connoted, ‘public’ imposed by state or market, rather than “popular” or “entertainment”. As Michelle Cho notes, the word “popular” is more aptly translated into inki (popular) or yuhaeng (trendy), which are associated with the market-driven and star-icon interest of the masses. Thus, when we consider the Korean popular culture, there is no a clear distinction between the mass and the popular. Indeed, media critics agree that the Korean popular culture is located in between the words, taejung (mass), inki (popular), and yuhang (trendy), which always correlate and occur at the same time with the discourse of modernity (Cho 189). In this respect, the major discussions of the Korean popular culture began with the introduction of foreign culture and media technology in the specific situation of Japanese colonization (Kim, Virtual 5). For instance, the motion picture became a form of entertainment and business around 1910. The Korean film industry began primarily by presenting foreign films, not by producing national products (Eungjun Min 26). Korea had no control over the imported films and their exhibition.
The limited correlation between Māori and variance in the estimated choice models suggest that Māori ethnicity has little influence on choice behaviour. Based on this observation there is no significant difference between Māori and non-Māori respondents in this study. This is not a surprising outcome with similar studies looking and cultural valuation in New Zealand, by Awatere (2008) and Lambert et al. (1992), coming to the same conclusion. This study does not reflect a representative sample of the population and cannot be extrapolated in any way. However, these findings support the notion that in a situation where Māori and non- Māori are similarly educated, and integrated into an urban western society, there may be little difference between the values of the two populations. It should be noted that carrying out a similar study on a small rural community in the North Island where strong tribal ties are retained could produce very different results (Panelli & Tipa, 2007).
Culture shock is defined as term that has a sense of confusion, uncertainty or anxiety, which are experienced by people when they pay a visit another country, get accustomed with number of cultures for doing business, studying or living. It is not a term that many of us use often or may even understand. It affects many of us though. This situation is essentially a sensation of unpleasantness that someone can feel when they are suddenly exposed to a new and different culture than what they are used to for a long time and it can have long-lasting effects on how an individual perceives and integrates a new culture. M oreover, cultural shock is the physical and emotional discomfort that occurs in a person who finds himself in a different cultural environment.
To say that Japan is a mono-culture is no exaggeration. With only around 1.7% of the population born outside the country, and most of these folks Korean or Chinese, readily recognizable foreigners are a rarity indeed. 20 400,000 or so non-Asian faces (excluding tourists) are soon lost in a population of 128 million. For a visitor from a country, where in excess of 27% of the population was born elsewhere, 21 this truly is the greatest point of distinction. But let me make an aside here. After much deliberation I do not believe that immigration and the pursuit of a multi-cultural society is a must do for Japan. The Australian experiment is unique. In the absence of an all prevailing pre-existing culture steeped in tradition other cultures have been able to more readily carve a niche for themselves within the fabric of Australian society. Not so easy for a foreign culture trying to integrate into Japan with its complex language, protocols, traditions and nuances, even one with Japanese heritage like the Nikkei Burajiru-jin, as the dekasegi experience illustrates. 22 The solution to Japan’s declining population and associated economic malaise may, alternatively, lie in greater automation and robotics as some suggest. 23 The country needs to have this debate about its future – maybe a smaller, materially poorer yet spiritually and environmentally richer Japan is achievable.
The user interacts with the text in the digital environment indirectly through a computer interface that acts as a key semiotic “code which carries cultural messages in a variety of media” (Manovich, 2001, p. 76). As a ‘participant’ of the cultural communication process, the interface cannot remain ‘neutral’, it affects messages and constructs “its own model of the world, its own logical system, or ideology” (ibid.), i.e. the interface using a technology filter system represents the user indistinguishable for him digital information based on its own logic. It influences the functioning of the text as a cultural object and its perception by the user. The interface has a cognitive “metaphorical logic” (Manovich, 2001, p. 80), which it uses to create representations, simulate the human perception of information or to replace some of the human cognitive patterns by processing incoming signals from outside. Such a replacement simplifies the processing of information which is redundant, repetitive, or inaccessible to humans by conducting a selection of incoming signals and forming habitual behavioral patterns. It enables to process large amounts of information and identify its hidden structures. However, formed patterns can be used both to organize human interaction with the text and other cultural objects (from reading to writing), and to achieve specific goals against his will, because the interface is always teleological (Rodionova, 2019, p. 95).
According toCooper (2012, pp.1)“Both latent and active failures are introduced by organizational or managerial factors (e.g.top-level decision-making), but individuals (e.g. psychological or behavioral precursors) trigger the active failure”. Therefore it is understandable that accidents are not just due toa single failure of defence or human errorof one operator, rather it is an end result of a series of failures in entire system, starting from top most administrators to shop-floor workers. Therefore accidents speak about how individuals in the organization perceived risk and how best they attend to mitigate those risks. Due to the fact that safety professionals are well aware about this situation, in the recent past, most accident investigation reports make use of the term “safety culture” to explain broader spectrum requirements to establish safety in organizations, including training, knowledge, safety organization and so on. Having this background in mind, let us try to understand what is “safety culture” and how can it be measured?
Abstract. Community Outreach Program is an established international service-learning program which has been around for 22 yr. The program offers an inter-discipline activity set in an international atmosphere to connect the academic theories with the actual social life and problems in the less developed rural community in East Java Province, Indonesia. There have been students from 16 university partners from 10 different countries ever participating in the program. Studies from the observations and opinions by the university partners claimed that COP has had an impactful outcomes in students‟ learning in the areas of diversity awareness, citizenship, and values development. The first study in 2009 on students‟ expectations in participating in COP reported that the students were aware that joining COP would expose them in diversity through working along with international friends and the community in the village. In this current study, 90 reflection books of COP 2015 Asian participants from Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, and Indonesia were further studied to test and evaluate how COP as a service-learning program has provided an education setting to educate caring and responsible citizens, who were open to other cultures, and respectful of differences. Students' responses affirmed the positive effects of COP on the acceptance of diversity and sense of civic responsibility.
The quantitative instrument used for this research was a 15 questions survey. Hwang, Ang, and Francesco (2002) created a valid and reliable questionnaire to assess cultural values and classroom behaviours specifically for Chinese students. For this paper a translation of the questionnaire into Chinese was used due to participants’ varying levels of English. The questionnaire used was translated using forward and backward translation by three bilingual experts. Afterwards a pre-test was done using cognitive interviews, hereby following the translation process described by Su and Parham (2002). The questionnaire has five factors. INask, questions are related to feedback seeking behaviour in class. Facegain, consisting of statements related to the importance of gaining face. Faceloss, about the perceived importance of losing face. Outcheck, related to feedback seeking behaviour outside of class with other students. Finally, Outask, related to feedback seeking behaviour outside of class with the teacher.
A simulacrum is an image that has no relation to the real world (Evans, 2009). According to Baudrillard (1999), a simulacrum is not unreal. It is “never exchanged for the real, but exchanged for itself, in an uninterrupted circuit without reference or circumference” (p. 6). The “culture of the simulacrum comes to life in a society where exchange value has been generalized to the point at which the very memory of use value is effaced” (Camille, 2003, p. 48) and cultural imagery becomes commodified. Such valuing allows appropriation to mean improperly taking, abducting, or stealing something for one’s own use (Nelson, 2003; Rogers, 2006). “Appropriation is not passive, objective, or disinterested, but active, subjective, and motivated” (Nelson, 2003, p. 162). Appropriation is a misrepresentation, not a denial. In contemporary art, appropriation, such as “the readymade, collage and montage are presented as the three innovations of the historic avant-gardes….Without appropriation, contemporary art is unimaginable” (Evans, 2009, p. 15). However, “each act of cultural appropriation therefore constructs a simulacrum of a double negation, denying the validity of individual and original production, yet denying equally the relevance of the specific context and function of the work’s own practice” (Graw, 2004, p. 34). It is clear that appropriation in the field of art is different from appropriation in the field of cultural studies. With creative license, appropriation in art is one of the ways to advance the field of art.
We intended to compare data obtained from our Dutch sample to the data of the American study. Therefore, we computed means of mention of four descriptors for the data from both our experiments based on the data obtained during the first 3 trials of each block. Consequently, we compared only those trails containing the same routes used in the American study of Hund et al. (2008). We decided not to compare any mentions of distance. In the study of Hund et al. (2008), “distance in blocks” descriptors were coded. In contrast, we coded mentioning of “distance in number of streets”, as using the equivalent Dutch term of “street blocks” in general is quite uncommon in the Dutch language. Likewise, mention of “distance other” in the American study was defined imprecisely by “included all other distance mentions, such as the end of the street, a long while, etc”. Along these lines, we consider this category of descriptors as not directly comparable between both studies. Unfortunately, we were not able to not use statistical means for the cross-cultural comparison, as the data obtained from the American sample were not available to us.
Keeping in mind these three logical steps, the present analysis tries to cast some light on the cultural industries in the context of both North American and European integration projects as well as the parallel process of global integration under the aegis of the World Trade Organization (WTO). Part one departs from the level of ideas describing the general background of the cultural industries, which is rooted in the mysterious relation between culture and trade as part of the wider ‘trade linkage debate’. Here, the goal is to clarify their mutual relation on the basis of three examples. Part two follows the understanding of the dual nature inherent in the cultural industries as being the key to the fields forming the broader culture and trade debate and outlines the principal normative approaches found in the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the WTO. Based on these norms, part three compares the case law as it was produced first in the European and later in the North American context. The comparison is made to help to evaluate the general impact of the different norms discussed. Finally, the concluding remarks offer some suggestions with regard to the future treatment of the cultural industries in the global context, the foundations of which are currently being laid in the course of negotiations for a new trade liberalisation round, launched at the 4 th WTO Ministerial
The emperors of China always rely on good morality and cultural appeal ra- ther than their mighty force to obtain the wide recognition of the surrounding tribes as well as the peaceful and harmonious environment. Therefore, when the Chinese feudal dynasty is prosperous and strong, it never sends expeditionary forces to invade or attack other nations, or to expend its territory, but sends messengers of civilization to travel all over the world to spread Chinese civiliza- tion and pervade the benevolence of the great kingdom. The traditional values of China—harmony and peacefulness, have even been inherited and carried for- ward by the contemporary Chinese government, the “Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence” put forward by prime minister Zhou; the ‘new security concept’; and the diplomacy of “an amicable, secure and prosperous neighborhood” all have inherited the traditional virtues.
In order to measure the cultural tightness/looseness score from the two countries, the questions conducted by Gelfand et al. (2011) will be used. In total there are six questions that have to be answered using a Likert scale from 1-6 points, with 1 being strongly disagree and 6 being strongly agree. Thus, 1 is linked with characteristics from a loose culture, while a score closer to 6 is characterized with a tighter culture. In her study, the cultural tightness and looseness scores ranges from the lowest and loosest score 1.6 for Ukraine and the tightest score 12.3 for Pakistan. These numbers are clearly different from the numbers used in this paper since the Likert scale only provides numbers between 1 and 6. Nonetheless, it can be assumed that the collective scores from the survey respondents can give an indication whether or not the country has a tendency to perceive their culture to be rather tight or loose. One example of the survey question is “In this country, there are very clear expectations for how people should act in most situations.” Next to this, question number four, which is “People in this country have a great deal of freedom in deciding how they want to behave in most situations”, is a reversed question and will be reversed coded in SPSS. This will reverse the value of the numbers from e.g. 1 → 6, while after coding they both still have the same value “Strongly Disagree.” After recoding this question into a new variable a Cronbach’s Alpha test was conducted on the culture scale. A α coefficient is measured with a number between 0 and 1. The higher the coefficient is the better the alliance between the questions, thus the better it shows that all questions are measuring the same factor. The α coefficient was 0,652 (Appendix 3). Even though this number is below the 0.7, which is considered to be the minimum acceptable for a scale (Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H.,1994), this number is not very far off and can still be considered as an somewhat acceptable covariance for this research.
British-Muslims negotiating their identities in a multicultural society continues to be of academic interest. As a group, these women are often believed to be leading dual and parallel lives as a result of a clash of two conflicting cultures. The research sought to examine the lived experiences of young British-Muslim women in negotiating and constructing their national, cultural, religious and gender identities. Furthermore, the research aimed to investigate whether young British-Muslim women experience a conflict of culture in their everyday lives. The study used interview data collected with 12 young women aged 16-33 years from a variety of backgrounds and current lifestyles. The sample included young women in high school, at university, in employment, and „home-makers‟. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) of the data revealed three main themes of „family‟; „independence‟ and „religion‟, all of which were linked to the core theme of „identity‟ Family and the home environment is particularly influential in shaping the identity of young British-Muslim women, with parents exerting their control by imposing restrictions in an attempt to uphold traditional cultural and religious values. It was reported that Muslim families have undergone change, whereby they are adapting to British society and allowing more freedom for their daughters. This, in turn, gives rise to greater educational opportunities, socialising and freedom of choice, all of which were crucial to the women in the study. These women believed they had adapted to western society and were an integral part of it, and they prioritised their British identity. The women, although acknowledging their British status, still felt connected to their culture, religion, and