Cultural Heritage & Cultural Tourism Education

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Cultural Heritage Tourism in Malaysia: Issues and Challenges

Cultural Heritage Tourism in Malaysia: Issues and Challenges

Preserving the world's cultural heritage for the enrichment and education of present and future generations is crucial. A great deal of tourism relies on places with natural, indigenous and historic significance which tourism products are based. In order to respect the cultural significance of the destination, people involve in tourism industry need to be sensitive to cultural groups who have a special interest in them and they need to directly involve in the planning and promotion of the destination. Cultural Heritage resources will play a significant role in sustainable cultural, social, economic development of communities, so the physical fabric, that has influenced their creation, has also to be maintained. Therefore, the careful planning of cultural-heritage tourism leads to sustainable regional development. It is crucial to find a proper way to settle the issues and challenges arise during managing and promotion of cultural heritage tourism, and once is taken into action it will lead to the heritage tourism development model that will lead to the bright prospects of the overall tourism business in the region.
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Intangible Cultural Heritage and Sustainable Tourism in Córdoba, Spain

Intangible Cultural Heritage and Sustainable Tourism in Córdoba, Spain

Therefore, the results are presented of a study that encompasses the sociodemographic profile of the tourist that visits the city, the variables that influence his satisfaction and the classification of said tourist. Among the principal conclusions it is interesting to highlight the predominant sociodemographic profile of the tourist, specifically a person with university-level education, with a medium-high income and who works for others, who has known the city of Cordoba through recommendations of friends and family, and that has a high degree of loyalty to the destination. On the other hand, three grouped factors have been detected (tourist values, stay and complementary services) that explain the satisfaction with respect to the visit to Cordoba, with the first and the third standing out among them. Furthermore, the multiple correspondence analysis clearly groups the travelers by age, where the younger ones (less than 30 years of age) travel more informally and without overnight stays in the city, going on to the range of 30 to 40 years who travel with the family and preferring the hostels and apartments that they themselves organised and, finally, those over 40 years who, in addition to using tourism intermediaries, stay in hotels of the city.
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Tourism and Cultural Heritage: Higher Education and Entrepreneurship Development in Transition Phase. The Tunisian Experience

Tourism and Cultural Heritage: Higher Education and Entrepreneurship Development in Transition Phase. The Tunisian Experience

In order to increase people awareness and their level of preferences for cultural heritage assets, the country ought to develop an effective public management by going beyond simple legal measures of financial assistance and information, such as by persuasion, education and entrepreneurship development.

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Comparison of Cultural Heritage Tourism Towards Sustainable Development Case study: Special Region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia - Bangkok, Thailand

Comparison of Cultural Heritage Tourism Towards Sustainable Development Case study: Special Region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia - Bangkok, Thailand

The cultural heritage tourism management strategy has traditionally focused on the supply side ie, resources and ignoring the demand side of tourists (Timothy, D. J., & Boyd, 2003). Currently, the trend of global heritage tourism management has moved forward from a product development approach (exhibition and education) to a more visitor-oriented development approach. It is a consumer preference and the quality of personal experience (Apostolakis & Jaffry, 2005). On the one hand, to promote a strong national image to attract tourists and tourism developers, tourism is heavily influenced by the public sector, especially in the provision of basic infrastructure (energy, roads, runways, water supply, etc.). On the other hand, tourism sector usually comprises of many small and medium-sized, privately owned and fragmented businesses that are difficult to coordinate and legislate (Robinson & Picard, 2011).
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Determinants of Medical Tourism Expansion in Iran: Structural Equation Modeling Approach

Determinants of Medical Tourism Expansion in Iran: Structural Equation Modeling Approach

This research is a typical survey study. Hence, the operational dimensions of the research are based on empirical studies and expert opinion (interview method). The questionnaires were used to collect data and examine some dimensions including economy, policy-making, marketing, tourism attraction, and healthcare provisions. They were randomly distributed among three groups in 2017. The respondents included 1. foreign medical tourists visiting Tehran's private hospitals and their companions, 2. the private sector practitioners [doctors and the officials in International Patients Department (IPD) of selected private hospitals, members of the Tourism Committees of Iran and Tehran Chamber of Commerce, and other activists of tourism and medical tourism in private sectors] in medical and tourism sectors, and 3. managers and experts in tourism and medicine at the Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organization and Ministry of Health and Medical Education. Appendix represents the questionnaire designed.
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The Evolving Cultural Heritage Concept: A Theoretical Review of Cultural Heritage in Indonesia

The Evolving Cultural Heritage Concept: A Theoretical Review of Cultural Heritage in Indonesia

Each site demonstrates different values of spirituality and morality; and represents material culture in different ways. However, they reflecttwo aspects in common. The first aspect is an attention to cultural values related to spirituality and morality, which resembles the main reason of heritage conservation. Secondly, the sites have a close attachment to local people because the values are constructed locally. In the plural society of Indonesia, the religious symbols of Borobudur are especiallymeaningfulfor Buddhist community because it delivers spiritual dogmas and principles specific to the religion [34,35]. And so do in the case of Yogyakarta. The philosophy of this city is meaningful for a Javanese person or someone admitting Javanese tradition [15].It means that a wide-range promotion is not the concern of local thought.
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COURSE TITLE Essential Standard: 7.C.1 Understand how cultural values influence relationships between individuals, groups and political entities in modern societies and regions.

COURSE TITLE Essential Standard: 7.C.1 Understand how cultural values influence relationships between individuals, groups and political entities in modern societies and regions.

In this lesson plan, students listen to audio recordings from Vietnam and discuss what life may be like for the children. Students discuss topics including school, cross-cultural similarities, and child labor. Government "kooshball" debate Students will be presented with a situation where they will have to list the pros and cons of an Islamic government and a democratic government. The students will be assigned one side of the argument and will write statements that support their side to be used in a debate. This lesson should follow a study of Islamic government and culture.
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Cultural Heritage and Sustainable Development in Mountainous Areas - Case of Kelmend

Cultural Heritage and Sustainable Development in Mountainous Areas - Case of Kelmend

In the mountanous area of Kelmendi, like generally in Northern Albania, social life has been organized according to the Lekw Dugagjini Canon which has influenced the cultural background of the population. One of the main cultural attributes of it is the concept of hospitality. Hospitality is a habit that exceeds the bounds of tradition, it is deep in the mentality of people. One of the basis of this concept is that "Home is of God and guest" and to meet this tradition to the guests is reserved a warm welcome accompanied with a rich gastronomic menu with traditional dishes and drinks of Kelmend area. A few years ago, this cultural value has served more as a complementing element in the formation of the regional cultural profile, while recently this virtue is being explored as a pull factor to the tourists in order to benefit economically from it. Many guesthouses are organized as familiar businesses with this concept as a focus. They offer, besides accomodation and food a warm communication in English, hounds for hunting companion, hiking guides etc. All the family is involved in serving and helping the tourists. They are served with different gastronomic specialities, with meat and cheese dominating. The tradition of cheese production has been preserved for long and Kelmend cheese is well known in overall Albania.
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Service design for Rural Heritage Tourism

Service design for Rural Heritage Tourism

In Adverting differentiation is everything and most brands spend the majority of their advertising budgets on distinguishing their products through branding, from another companies almost identical offering. Since the advent of mass-production, this differentiation is mostly based on the creation of “emotional selling points”, generated by branding and advertising. “Unique selling points” (where the product is distinctly different from any other product) are hard to come by in today’s overcrowded market. The Cretan cultural heritage can offer many Unique Selling Points, but linking these to emotional selling points should still be seen as desirable, because Emotional Selling Points are extremely effective when communicating with a target audience and further help differentiation. Briassoulis (2006) argues that development should be managed to differentiate the Cretan tourist product and to integrate the economy and tourist sector. She goes on to say that this would thereby provide a ‘long-term safety valves against the uncertainty of external factors as competition form other destinations and unfavourable future socioeconomic developments.’ (Briassoulis 2006, p112)
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Communities of Practice, Identity and Tourism: Evidence on Cultural Heritage Preservation in World Heritage Sites

Communities of Practice, Identity and Tourism: Evidence on Cultural Heritage Preservation in World Heritage Sites

Once   a   month,   on   the   14th   of   lunar   calendar   from   5pm   to   10pm,   Hoi   An   Lantern   Festival  takes  place.  The  whole  ancient  quarter  of  Hoi  An  is  lit  purely  with  the  light  from   the  full  moon  and  traditional  lanterns  hung  in  front  of  shops  and  along  the  streets.  All   modern   technology   or   electrical   equipments   are   abandoned.   All   vehicles   including   motorbikes,  bikes  and  cycles  are  prohibited.  Shops  selling  modern  wares  are  expected   to   be   closed.   Local   people   of   different   ages   are   engaged   in   different   traditional   activities  including  games  ‘bai  choi’  or  chess  by  the  seniors,  shuttlecocking  by  kids,  folk   songs   or   traditional   instruments   performance   by   young   men   and   women.   Local   delicacies   and   toys   (trinkets   or   votive)   are   sold   in   the   street   by   vendors.   Along   Hoai   rivers  are  floating  candle  lit  raft,  purchased  and  sent  to  the  water  by  tourists  with  the   wish  for  luck.  The  event  is  designed  and  monthly  practiced  bringing  back  a  night  of  Hoi   An’s  17th-­‐18th  century  townscape  (UNESCO,  2008,  p.  42;  Di  Giovine,  2009,  p.  212).     The  preservation  of  Hoi  An  in  general  and  the  lantern  festival  in  particular  experienced   a  large  influence  from  both  insiders  and  outsiders.  In  fact,  the  place  was  unknown  until   1998   when   tourism   effectively   re-­‐generated   the   town   materially   and   culturally   after   centuries  of  its’  being  flourished,  stagnated  and  nearly  ‘dying  out’  (Di  Giovine,  2009,  p.   262).  During  the  1980s,  the  ancient  beauty  of  Hoi  An  was  discovered  by  Soviet  visitors,   local   people   and   then   by   a   Polish   historic   preservationist   Kazim.   Preservation   ideas   were  proposed  to  government  officials.  The  town  preservation  work  officially  started  in   1985  with  the  participation  of  central  government  agency,  and  international  experts.   Especially,   the   issuance   of   Lonely   Planet   guidebook   in   1991   brought   big   number   of   visitors   to   the   small   town   led   to   more   systematic   tourism   service   by   the   central   and   local   government   (Di   Giovine,   2009,   p.   221).   Since   1997,   preservation   policies   have   been  reinforced  thanks  to  collaborative  financial  and  technical  efforts  of  Vietnamese   Government  and  international  agencies.    
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British heritage and the legacies of ‘race'

British heritage and the legacies of ‘race'

British heritage is the heritage of a nation of nations, shaped through waves of migration and diaspora, wide-ranging imperial histories and contemporary flows of globalisation. Not that you would necessarily know this from a cursory glance at many of its key sites and symbols. The St George’s Cross, afternoon tea and stately homes have often been used as emblematic of ‘British heritage’: a process in which white (and often upper- or middle-class) Englishness is used to define the past. But, and particularly more recently, a range of initiatives, from exhibitions at Bradford Art Galleries on Sikh art, through the work of Cardiff’s Butetown History and Arts Project, to Darcus Howe’s televisual analysis of the White Tribe and Eddie Izzard’s programme about English immigration, Mongrel Nation, have sought to question what, and who counts as being part of it. Such revisions of British heritage have exposed both the aggressive self-aggrandisement of white Englishness and the complex histories of its flags, tea and houses in the process.
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A Study of Awareness of Cultural Heritage among the Teachers at University Level

A Study of Awareness of Cultural Heritage among the Teachers at University Level

Abstract Cultural Heritage means to inherent and cultivate the cultural disinclinations from one generation to next generation. It is possible by education as well as following the traditional livelihood of ours; it is conducted formal/consciously or informal/unconsciously. One of the traits of education is to hand on the cultural values and behaviour pattern of the society to its young and potential members. By this, means society achieves a basic social conformity and ensures that traditional modes of life are preserved. This has been called the conservative function of education. Handing on tradition is bound at times to be in conflict with a desire to initiate change. When a society is changing slowly, the new elements of its culture can be more easily absorbed. However, the rapid changes in the industrial society in the changing scenario have led to much conflict between old and new habits of life and thought. Here there are two contradictory functions of education which are both necessary and it can be shown that there are conditions of society under which these can be reconciled. [9]Hence in order to emphasize the need to link education and cultural heritage, its inheritance, preservation and cultivation, I decided to have a study of awareness of cultural heritage among the teachers at university level, so that we may have come to know that our teachers, formulating the ‘Destiny of India’ (as stated by Education Commission, 1964-66, ‘Destiny of India is being shaped into their classroom’)are aware about the Indian culture, its heritage or not because teacher are at the core of education structure, policy, values and cultural heritage to inculcate these values among our educands. Heritage awareness is a crucial part of any heritage conservation and management. The creation of awareness is time-consuming and it requires commitment and local support. It is often the most recognizable component of a heritage management. One of the most effective ways to build and maintain respect for community’s heritage is through a selection of activities that raise public awareness and increase appreciation. The success of heritage conservation initiatives depends on the understanding and participation of the local community
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Discourses of cultural heritage in times of crisis:The case of the Parthenon Marbles

Discourses of cultural heritage in times of crisis:The case of the Parthenon Marbles

‘acquired legally’ enacts the discursive normalisation of the act of trading cultural artefacts and deduces the commodification of heritage (embedded in ‘fair price’) to a common sense phenomenon. The second half of the utterance is substantiated on the topos of threat and deploys an imagined scenario of destruction, without however any finger-pointing at its causal agent – probably Greece is insinuated here – and thus the acquisition is justified as an unavoidable necessary evil. The user next aims to abate the exceptionality of the debate by using the fallacy of equation (equating unequal phenomena and events) by constructing an unreal /counterfactual scenario (shifting the case to America and consequently to the whole world). Indeed, 20 occurrences use the same analogy and another 13 include strong anti-American claims, which relate to the context of the Guardian article and Matt Damon and Bill Murray’s comments reacting to the suggestion that being American means being ignorant.
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Strategic Planning of Tourism with an emphasis on Spirituality Based on New Integration of Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Techniques

Strategic Planning of Tourism with an emphasis on Spirituality Based on New Integration of Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Techniques

the world use this attractive activity as a strategic tool for their economic development. In the present era, which is also mentioned as the new age of spirituality, pilgrimage and religious trips have been increasingly considered. Religious tourism has developed dramatically so that religion is one of the main motivations of travel. The literature review shows well that there has been a lot of research in the field of religious tourism, but very little research has been done on tourism based on spirituality. Tourism based on spirituality, in comparison with religious tourism, includes a wide range of motivations and values, and individuality and tolerance play a pivotal role in it. The table below shows some of the dimensions that spiritual tourists pay attention to.
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meSch: Internet of Things and Cultural Heritage

meSch: Internet of Things and Cultural Heritage

The Internet of Things is a concept by which physical objects use embedded digital technology to connect to one another and the Internet in the same way as Web pages. The Internet of Things offers an opportunity for innovation in cultural heritage by taking advantage of the visitors’ physical experience and integrating technology within it instead of creating a parallel and detached digital experience. The physical experience of the heritage can then be enriched with digital content delivered in place in a way that is unique for that particular visitor. The vision we seek in the meSch (Petrelli, Ciolfi, van Dijk, Hornecker, Not, & Schmidt, 2013) project is of a cultural space with smart objects, each with their own digital content embedded therein, which will be revealed if and when conditions are right, e.g. visitors have reached the right time in the storyline, or a group of them is acting in a
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Considerations on Mechanism Designs as Suitable for Cultural Heritage Evaluation

Considerations on Mechanism Designs as Suitable for Cultural Heritage Evaluation

of knowledge and enhancement of quality of life. For example, the History of Robotics with a wide understanding, as indicated for example in (Ceccarelli, 2001), is full of products that have been naturally preserved by users and appreciated in general by a large public so that they are still sources of considerations for history, preservation, but also for further developments and thinking in mankind enhancements. The prototypes in Figure 6 are fundamental achievements in mechanism designs for robots and they have been preserved since the beginning of Robotics as a memory of the efforts in developing them but also to show those achievements to a large public (indeed engineering stu- dents) with a first approach of Cultural Heritage in engineering fields. Those examples are indicative that mainly in techno- logical and engineering achievements the past is not strongly related to the time and valuable past achievements can be rec- ognized in their historical value when they have stimulated changes and improvements in mankind developments, as today we experience with accelerated rapidity. However, the exam- ples in Figure 6 are much more than only pieces of products, since they are the results of knowledge achievements with con- ceptual contents as well.
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New functionalism: rejuvenating historical and cultural heritage through urban revival

New functionalism: rejuvenating historical and cultural heritage through urban revival

On the surface, this paper specifically discusses the relationship between historical and cultural heritage and urban revival, but in essence it involves two topics with universal significance: the historical challenge of the relationship between tradition and modernity on the one hand, and our attitude toward authoritative theories and scholars on the other hand. These days, many scholars of urban history and culture hold the view of “ cultural conservatism ” to express their “ political correctness ” in dealing with the changes of historical and cultural heritage. In this paper, however, we emphasize that the dichotomy of tradition and modernity cannot be used to analyze the relationship between historical and cultural heritage and urban revival, because such a relationship is not simply one of binary opposition but also includes coexistence, connection and other multiple facets. And we should be well aware of our attitude toward authoritative theories and scholars. For a long time, many Chinese scholars have been accustomed to restating classical theories or interpreting the theor- ies of academic masters, yet rarely do they express their own opinions. The theories of many domestic disciplines have been kept unchanged or even stagnated without obvious development or progress. For example, when it comes to such revered fig- ures of anthropology as Malinowski and Fei Xiaotong, quite a few scholars consider them too highly respected to point out their limitations. Based on the theory of “ cul- tural functionalism ” , “ cultural development and utilization ” , “ continuous spectrum ” theory and the “ Wirth-Redfield ” model, the author attempts to put forward a classic and dynamic theory called “ new functionalism ” , suggesting, namely, that historical and cultural heritage is a kind of precious heritage, and that the city is also an import- ant part of urban economy and society. Thus, the historical and cultural heritage sites and practices should have new functions so as to have new values of existence and development in the economic and social transformation that result from urban revival. Considering the foregoing cases, we fully appreciate a comprehensive study on traditional urban culture, and find it especially necessary to transform traditional culture into a living one during urbanization, so that it enters into the cultural DNA and life ways of modern citizens. Moreover, some development space needs to be reserved exclusively for intangible cultural heritage and we should always keep historical and cultural heritage in mind.
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Critical success factor for Community Benefiting through Tourism (CBtT) in cultural heritage tourism

Critical success factor for Community Benefiting through Tourism (CBtT) in cultural heritage tourism

A glance through the literature has described a variety of potential challenges faced by the concept of Community-Based Tourism. To cope with such problems, scholars have proposed a range of alternative frameworks. “The Community Benefit Tourism Initiative” developed by Simpson (2008), for example, is a framework that focuses on the transformation of benefits to a community regardless of size, location, wealth level, participation, involvement, ownership or control (Iorio & Wall, 2012). In this case, if Community-Based Tourism centres on the question of ownership, management and/or control of tourism projects (Blackstock, 2005), this is not the case for a CBTI. In CBTI, to distribute benefits to a community, the tourism initiative need not always involve the community in any rights, tenure or control of the project.
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Narrating Cultural Heritage

Narrating Cultural Heritage

In this article,* I investigate some of the elements and mechanisms involved in the process in which cultural heritage, in the form of narrated local history, emerges. My argumentation is that certain collectively known phenomena achieve such a strong agency of their own that they have the power to force themselves into individuals’ life histories. In analogy with albert Eskeröd’s concept dominant of tradition, I suggest that these elements from local and national history be called dominant units. The interplay between several individual narratives in a local com- munity and the collective elements takes the form of a joint negotiating process, generating agreements and discrepancies, shared ‘truths’ and contested disagree- ments, the acceptance of shared local symbols and the forgetting of less captivating material. The emerging products of such processes are grand narratives in differ- ent degrees of development circulating at different levels and in different cultural arenas in a community.
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Antarctica's cultural heritage

Antarctica's cultural heritage

Museums play a part in deciding what becomes Antarctic heritage, as they choose what to accept or obtain for exhibit. The items they select will need to be in keeping with their existing collections, and be of interest to the public they want to attract to the museum. The actions of expedition members can determine what becomes Antarctic Heritage. At the end of expeditions, equipment is sometimes sold off to help cover costs; equipment and artefacts can also be donated to museums and other institutions. Following the Endurance expedition, Sir Ernest Shackleton gave the James Caird (the boat which he travelled the 800 miles from Elephant Island to South Georgia; Figure 5) to a school friend John Rowett, who was a major sponsor in Shackleton’s final Quest expedition. Rowett donated the lifeboat to Dulwich College (which he had attended with Shackleton) “as an inspiration for [the boys’] future lives” (The James Caird Society and Dulwich College, 2009). The James Caird can be viewed by the public at Dulwich College with prior arrangement.
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