Cultural World Heritage Sites

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Decoding cultural landscapes: guiding principles for the management of interpretation in cultural world heritage sites

Decoding cultural landscapes: guiding principles for the management of interpretation in cultural world heritage sites

22 Madanipour (2007, p. 151) explains „measuring time‟ as “the ability to assign numerical value to what is after all not observable or subject of direct experience. It is a way of conceptualizing a part of nature and bringing it under a form of order, so it can be understood and utilized in new ways ”. Thus, this thesis claims that historic buildings and monuments, representing the built evidences of heritage, work as time-keeping devices as well; exactly as if they are huge clocks that stopped working at certain times in the past, where the time they stopped at marks significant moments in our history that need to be thought of very carefully in our present time. What is so fascinating about cultural heritage sites is that they have the capability, with their built historical evidences, as well as their inherited intangible cultural heritage, to display several past-times instantly in the present time, which gives such places their special sense and spirit, which fulfills for the some that magical fantasy of time traveling.
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Who visits World Heritage? A comparative analysis of three cultural sites

Who visits World Heritage? A comparative analysis of three cultural sites

According to Light and Prentice (1994), “no understanding of modern heritage tourism is complete without a consideration of the people who appropriate – or consume – developed heritage products” (p. 112). As can be seen in the literature presented here, there has been an effort to identify heritage tourists through demographic indicators, but there has been little attention up until this point on those who specifically visit World Heritage sites. The demographic presentation made here has attempted to fill this gap through the analysis of the demographics of various visitors from three varied cultural World Heritage sites. Based on the results of this research, it was determined that World Heritage visitors do have some similarities to the average heritage tourist presented in previous literature (Chandler and Costello, 2002; Huh et. al., 2006: Kerstetter et. al., 2001; Light and Prentice, 1994). This is especially notable in terms of the education levels exhibited by the visitors and which has been previously supported by World Heritage specific literature as well as the more general heritage studies (Huh et al., 2006; Kerstetter et al., 2001; Light and Prentice, 1994; Paulau-Saumell et al., 2012; Remoaldo et al., 2014). However, they also diverged from these pre-established types as there were no overarching trends among the visitors at all three sites in relation to age, residence, and income. This would appear to separate the World Heritage visitor from the average heritage tourist whose identity is based in part on being middle-class and middle aged and perhaps suggests the need to examine more specific factors related to location, level of integration into tourism networks, and even level of awareness of heritage significance.
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Communities of Practice, Identity and Tourism: Evidence on Cultural Heritage Preservation in World Heritage Sites

Communities of Practice, Identity and Tourism: Evidence on Cultural Heritage Preservation in World Heritage Sites

Even   though   along   the   twentieth   century   the   depopulation   within   the   Pyrenees   has   been  an  important  trend  in  this  kind  of  rural  environment,  people  from  the  region  have   preserved   the   tradition   as   an   important   manifestation   of   their   intangible   cultural   heritage.  Celebrations  of  the  summer  solstice  fire  festivals  in  the  Pyrenees  “result  from   the   symbiosis   between   nature   and   culture   to   promote   values   such   as   solidarity,   hospitality,   intergenerational   transmission   and   strengthening   the   sense   of   belonging,   identity  and  continuity  of  inter  Pyrenean  communities”  (El  Periòdic  d’Andorra,  2016).   Although   each   fire   festival   has   some   unique   characteristics   in   each   location,   all   fire   festivals’  communities  within  the  whole  Pyrenees  share  this  common  celebration.  This   is  particularly  of  importance  in  the  region  of  Alta  Ribagorça,  where  up  to  ten  locations   celebrate   the   event.   It   is   a   cross-­‐regional   intangible   heritage,   when   recognised   by   UNESCO   elevated   to   a   Pyrenees   landmark,   with   the   subsequent   tourism   impact.   Fire   festivals   of   summer   solstice   “have   become   into   a   hallmark   in   the   towns   in   the   Pyrenees.  The  intense  feelings  of  belonging  to  the  territory  and  history  of  depository   Pyrenean   communities   of   these   rituals.   The   fire   means   in   these   locations   a   major   dimension,   heritage   conveyor   and   life   communicator”   (Gobierno   de   Aragón,   2015).   “Beyond  idiomatic  or  administrative  territory  to  which  they  belong,  every  fire  festival   communities   and   all   members   have   a   strong   sense   of   belonging   to   a   big   fallaire   Pyrenean  family”.  Also,  there  is  a  strong  bond  that  has  allowed  such  inter-­‐communities   undertook   a   joint   project,   ended   with   the   UNESCO   Heritage   Site   Declaration,   which   recognized   an   ancestral   tradition   of   up   to   63   towns   in   the   Catalan   and   Aragon’s   Pyrenees,  also  Andorra  country,  and  southern  France  areas.    
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New Skills in a Changing World: Strategic Alliances at World Heritage Sites

New Skills in a Changing World: Strategic Alliances at World Heritage Sites

The   main   role   of   education   is   to   develop   and   disseminate   these   new   ways   of   understanding  and  seeing  heritage.  Because  understanding  the  nature  and  physiology   of  heritage  sites  is  of  capital  importance  for  the  development  of  adequate  conservation   and   management   strategies.   How   heritage   is   understood   and   managed   is,   of   course,   very   much   determined   by   the   socio-­‐cultural   characteristics   of   a   particular   time.   The   way   we   understand   heritage   nowadays   is   very   much   different   than   how   it   was   perceived  40  years  ago,  when  the  World  Heritage  Convention  came  into  being.  Sites   are   no   longer   perceived   as   static   and   isolated,   but   as   dynamic,   integrated   in   larger   territorial   development   plans.   They   are   no   longer   valued   only   as   objects,   but   as   landscapes  and  expressions  of  living  cultures.  The  built  fabric  is  no  longer  the  basis  of   conservation  and  management  processes,  but  rather  the  broader  context,  and  places   are   perceived   as   outcomes   of   complex   and   intertwining   natural,   cultural   and   socio-­‐ economic  forces.  Culture  and  Nature  are  no  longer  understood  as  opposing  concepts,   but   are   inseparable   in   conservation   and   management   planning.   Because   of   these   aspects,  the  general  heritage  discourse  focuses  no  longer  exclusively  on  conservation   and   protection,   but   rather   on   economic,   social   and   cultural   development,   and   the   management  of  heritage  sites  can  no  longer  be  conducted  by  conservation  experts,  but   requires   a   new   kind   of   multidisciplinary   knowledge,   the   participation   of   local   communities  and  the  establishment  of  partnerships.  
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'Value in Change': What do World Heritage Nominations Bring to Chinese World Heritage Sites?

'Value in Change': What do World Heritage Nominations Bring to Chinese World Heritage Sites?

Since the 1990s, heritage inscriptions in Asia have begun to reflect the fact that nature and culture are indivisible, thus international debates since 1992 have enlarged their understanding of heritage with the introduction of the concept of cultural landscape (Taylor 2009, 2012; Russell 2012). As mentioned in Chapter 2, the definition of cultural landscape from UNESCO stresses that nominated sites should "represent the ‘combined works of nature and of man’, with three criteria to evaluate the cultural landscape sites (II.A 47 Operational Guidelines 2011). However, as Taylor (2009) observed, the definition of culture landscape has been confused within the Southeast and East Asia context. One of the reasons, as Winter and Daly (2012) point out, is that the English term translates in Asian languages with some semantic ambiguity and confusion. Obviously, the majority of interviewees at West Lake did not make sense of the term cultural landscape. Since the late 2000s, Chinese scholars have extensively discussed and disseminated the discourse of ‘cultural landscape’ (see Zhou et al. 2006; Shan 2009b, 2010b; Han 2010; Wu 2011; Xi and Zhang 2014). Those scholars believe that the concept of cultural landscape has some synergy with the Chinese traditional value of harmony between culture and nature, and provided a useful tool both theoretically and practically to fill the gap between nature and culture in China (Han 2010). Wu (2011) suggested that the Western concept of cultural landscape provides an opportunity for the Chinese government to enlarge China’s stable of World Heritage sites. Indeed, in the last six years, the Chinese government has successful nominated three cultural landscape properties on the World Heritage list. Ironically, the majority of locals and tourists did not yet understand the meaning of cultural landscape. The final question in this chapter is that ‘do you think it is important that this site is on the World Heritage List?’
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Research on the Mechanism and Evolving Path of Community Empowerment in Cultural Heritage Sites

Research on the Mechanism and Evolving Path of Community Empowerment in Cultural Heritage Sites

To summarize, the main reasons of the large differences between China's community tourism and foreign communities are the different development systems, management models as well as different levels of community participation and capabilities. [22-25] Therefore, the main recommendations in terms of policy are as follows: (1) The government’s guiding role should receive its highest power level. To bridge the gap between the communities and achieve balanced development of each region, community participation should be used as the basis, while the passive transfer of power as the way guidance. Currently, the biggest attention should be paid to the “power to” empowerment role, to improve the community's power system and to give a corresponding free development space, thereby ensuring the effectiveness of empowerment. (2) Furthermore, attention should be paid to community participation and community self-development. Western practice shows, that community self-enforcement is an important empowerment-leading factor. Nowadays, comparing with the Western World, the self-enrichment of Chinese communities is on the early development stage and it has obvious imbalance. Consequently, it is necessary to encourage community participation, actively promote the self-development of the community, improve community's ability to participate as well as promote the community self-enhancement. (3) In terms of spatial differentiation, there are significant differences between the marginal, core and transition areas. The imbalance of regional empowerment limits the development of community empowerment. So, it is necessary to implement accurate identification and certain management of community empowerment by applying effective scientific procedures to different regional environments and different
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A disaster risk assessment model for the conservation of cultural heritage sites in Melaka

A disaster risk assessment model for the conservation of cultural heritage sites in Melaka

268 A. (2012). Documentation in World Heritage Conservation: Towards Managing and Mitigating Change – The Case Studies of Petra and the Silk Roads. Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, 2(2), 130–152. Wamsler, C., & Brink, E. (2016). The Urban Domino Effect: A Conceptualization of Cities’ Interconnectedness of Risk. International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, 7(2), 80–113.

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manuals Managing Tourism at World Heritage Sites: World Heritage a Practical Manual for World Heritage Site Managers By Arthur Pedersen

manuals Managing Tourism at World Heritage Sites: World Heritage a Practical Manual for World Heritage Site Managers By Arthur Pedersen

to participate in a specific activity such as bird-watching, wildlife viewing, photography or archaeological, historical and cultural tours. Also in this category are adventure travel firms offering activities such as back- packing/trekking, white water rafting, kayaking, canoe- ing, rock climbing and sport fishing. Other speciality firms organise field research trips for scientists. These firms attract groups of paying volunteers who sign up to work as field assistants on projects such as archaeological digs and wildlife monitoring programmes. In addition, this market includes organisations and universities with special interest travel programmes. For example, the World-wide Fund for Nature and many museums organise tours for their members. These tours generally help to raise funds for a particular cause or project. These groups generally sub-contract to other tour operators to handle the travel arrangements. Speciality tour operators commonly use host-country ground operators for in-country logistics. These national firms, based in the country in which the tour is operating, provide all services (transportation, hotel accommodations, guides, etc.) from arrival to departure. Some speciality firms in North America and Europe handle ground operations in a foreign country for themselves, but they tend to be exceptions to the rule. Managers should be aware that many speciality companies are small and go in and out of business rapidly.
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Tracing change in World Cultural Heritage : the recognition of intangible heritage

Tracing change in World Cultural Heritage : the recognition of intangible heritage

1984 meeting on a future program concerning the non-physical heritage is specifically important as it introduced an anthropological in contrast to a folkloristic approach. This approach focuses on processes, on social and cultural relations in societies rather than on objects or products. It found full implementation in the 1993 Living Human Treasures program, which aims at protecting knowledge and skills by addressing human beings as tradition-bearers themselves. In its context, the idea of tangible heritage in terms of architecture or place in general was abandoned. In the late 1990s, with the concept of cultural space the idea was reintroduced and the relationship between people and place emphasized. The recognition of processes instead of objects finally reached its climax in the early twenty- first century with the development of the concept of Intangible Cultural Heritage. While the 2003 Convention aims to safeguard intangible heritage expressions as an independent heritage category, its underlying theoretical conception reflects a re-theorization of cultural heritage. The Intangible Cultural Heritage is created and transmitted by human beings and may exist in relation to place. It is grounded in the local context. This understanding has also found its way into the ICOMOS discourse. First traces can be found in the late 1980s with the ideas of sacred sites and the non-built environment as well as the mention of the term intangible; a
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World Heritage Sites through the Eyes of New Tourists – Who Cares about World Heritage Brand in Budapest?

World Heritage Sites through the Eyes of New Tourists – Who Cares about World Heritage Brand in Budapest?

As   a   centre   for   receiving   and   disseminating   cultural   influences,   Budapest   is   an   outstanding   example   of   urban   development   in   Central   Europe,   characterised   by   periods  of  devastation  and  revitalisation.  Budapest  has  retained  the  separate  structural   characteristics  of  the  former  cities  of  Pest,  Buda  and  Óbuda.  One  example  of  it  is  the   Buda  Castle  Quarter  with  its  medieval  and  characteristically  Baroque  style,  which  are   distinct  from  the  uniquely  homogeneous  architecture  of  Pest  (with  its  historicising  and   art   nouveau   styles)   which   is   characterised   by   outstanding   public   buildings   and   fitted   into  the  ringed-­‐radial  city  structure.  All  this  is  organized  into  a  unity  arising  from  the   varied  morphological  characteristics  of  the  landscape  and  the  Danube,  the  two  banks   of  which  are  linked  by  a  number  of  bridges.  The  urban  architectural  ensemble  of  the   Andrássy  Avenue  (“The  Avenue”)  and  its  surroundings  (Heroes’  Square,  the  City  Park,   historic   inner   city   districts   and   public   buildings)   are   high-­‐quality   architectural   and   artistic   realisations   of   principles   of   urbanism   reflecting   tendencies,   which   became   widespread  in  the  second  part  of  the  19th  century.  The  scenic  view  of  the  Banks  of  the   Danube  as  part  of  the  historic  urban  landscape  is  a  unique  example  of  the  harmonious   interaction  between  human  society  and  a  natural  environment  characterised  by  varied   morphological  conditions.  Gellért  Hill  with  the  Citadel  and  the  Buda  Hills  partly  covered   with  forests,  the  broad  Danube  with  its  islands  and  Pest’s  flat  terrain  rising  with  a  slight   gradient  (UNESCO,  2016).  Figure  1  shows  the  map  of  the  Budapest  World  Heritage  Site   delimitation.    
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RISK MANAGEMENT AT HERITAGE SITES A CASE STUDY OF THE PETRA WORLD HERITAGE SITE

RISK MANAGEMENT AT HERITAGE SITES A CASE STUDY OF THE PETRA WORLD HERITAGE SITE

Risk management methods have been studied and used in other disciplines for many years, mainly as reactive measure to disasters. Based on these studies, risk management approaches for museums have been developed, based on assessing and reducing the risk to collections and artifacts as preventive measure. The present proposal for a risk management methodology in Petra is based on this approach for museums, but has been enhanced and adapted for Petra and other heritage sites. The risk assessment part of the methodology was applied and tested in the pilot area based on visual inspection. Mitigation strategies were suggested for each identified risk. As this is a developing field, this methodology has provided a preliminary under- standing of its impact in identifying disturbances and threats. We feel it offers an appropriate platform for evaluating risks on archaeological sites. However it requires further development. This should include testing and monitoring change at different times of the year, testing it in a larger and more comprehensive area, as well as testing it as a whole, in order to identify its practical strengths and limitations. This effort would benefit not only the site managers at the PAP but also other national and international stakeholders concerned with the management of cultural and cultural landscape sites.
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Enhancing the valorisation of UNESCO World Heritage Sites: a Pigouvian Approach

Enhancing the valorisation of UNESCO World Heritage Sites: a Pigouvian Approach

Paradoxically, the success of this international initiative is facing a global challenge, made of three main issues. A first issue is that of quality heterogeneity among the World Heritage Sites (WHS). Quality refers here not to the cultural outstanding value, which is a necessary condition for a site to be enlisted, but to the level of conservation and valorisation. The degree of such heterogeneity is large and almost out of control by UNESCO headquarters. From the political economy perspective, the power of control by UNESCO is soft and the enforcement is very poor. Against the trend of quality degradation of the enlisted sites, UNESCO can use only two instruments: a) the delisting action (applied up to now only to Dresden in Germany and the Arabian Oryx Sanctuary in Oman); b) the List of the Sites in Danger (currently 31 properties), which is a general warning. A second issue focuses on the impact of World Heritage List (WHL) on local development, especially through strategies of regional valorisation of sites. Does the setting up of the inscription mobilize the local stakeholders for backing and implementing new activities and partnerships ? Does the WHL brand have a positive effect on the tourism industry (Prud’homme, 2008; Arezki et al., 2009)? From the political economy perspective, this issue asks for proposals for new strategies of regional valorisation of sites in order to enhance their value and attract more financial resources for conservation and valorisation.
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Selling Concept: Strategy for Improving the Marketability of Nigerian World Heritage Sites

Selling Concept: Strategy for Improving the Marketability of Nigerian World Heritage Sites

World Heritage Sites are places of significant, historic and cultural value throughout the World. They are carefully selected for preservation by the World Heritage Committee. The World body which is an inter-governmental organization is responsible for cataloguing and protecting World Heritage Sites, and operates under the direction of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites represents areas that are particularly ingenious and deserve to be taken into consideration in the search for solutions to today’s challenges (Eborieme, 2008: 22-27). Collectively, the rich diversity of African heritage contributes a unique wealth to World Heritage (Adedayo, 2004: 61). The study of these heritage sites makes it possible to better understand today’s world and to better prepare for the future, (Adediran, 2008: 49-58). Communities are therefore encouraged to preserve and valorize this heritage that represents the core of their common identity.
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Harmonious Tourism Environment and Tourists Perception: An Empirical Study of Mountain Type World Cultural Heritage Sites in China

Harmonious Tourism Environment and Tourists Perception: An Empirical Study of Mountain Type World Cultural Heritage Sites in China

In all of the world heritages in China, the 8 mountain- type world cultural heritages are elites, because they rep- resent the Chinese cultural spirits and nation’s identity, as well as are the most famous tourist destinations, so the construction of harmonious tourism environment in “8 mountains” is very essential. In view of the very high positive coefficient of the entire perception of harmoni- ous tourism environment to tourists’ loyalty, we can con- clude that harmonious tourism environment construction plays an essential role in enhancing the destination’s competitiveness. Tourists now are satisfied with the na- tural ecosystem, which also most greatly affects the en- tire perception of harmonious tourism environment, thus it is necessary to maintain the harmony in natural eco- system. Tourists’ satisfaction on cultural ecosystem is re- latively high, but the coefficient of cultural ecosystem to entire perception of harmonious tourism environment is relatively small, which indicates the defects exist in cul- tural tourism products and the low attention from tourists. Cultural heritages have very broad and deep cultural con- notation, so it seems crucial for tourism developers to take more actions to diversify cultural tourism products and activities, broaden and deepen their cultural connota- tion, improve tourism demonstration and interpretation, as well as enhance cultural heritage education to tourists. The lowest satisfaction occurs in social relation system, shows the great flaw in the relationships among stake- holders in tourism developing process. Because research also shows the significant effect of social relation system to the perception of tourism environment, so it is very necessary and important to reform the management con- stitution, especially the interest distribution mechanism, protect local residents’ legal rights and profits and en- hance their participation intention in tourism develop- ment, eliminate the conflicts among stakeholders, finally construct a harmonious mechanism among residents, tourists and developers. There are still some drawbacks in this research, for instance, the samples inclined to se- lect more young people, the quantity of questionnaires are not enough to make a comparative analysis among “8 mountains” etc, and some improvements are needed in future study.
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Japanese tourists' motivation for visiting cultural and heritage sites in the UK

Japanese tourists' motivation for visiting cultural and heritage sites in the UK

According to Jimura (2007), however, a certain proportion of Japanese tourists no longer stick with visiting such famous and culturally approved sites and attractions, and this phenomenon is remarkable amongst young generations. In other words, these people want to visit the sites and attractions that are important for them, even if such sites and attractions are not well-known and do not have cultural significance. For instance, some Japanese people are eager to visit the small towns along the discontinued railway lines (haisen); however, these places are not popular as tourist destinations amongst general Japanese tourists (Jimura 2007). Others try to find a “hid- den gems” for themselves. A typical example of this is the quest for a small hot-spring in a mountainous area which has not been touched or discovered by tourists. For the above- mentioned reasons, it could be said that a gradual shift from collectivism to individualism can be observed in the motivations, behaviours and activities of Japanese tourists (Jimura 2007). In recent years, the whole of world has been experienced globalisation and the development of technologies such as the Internet, and overseas travels have become more and more accessible in every sense. This study tries to explore the latest profile of Japanese people as tourists to for- eign countries, focusing on the UK as their destination (Questions 1, 6 & 8 in the questionnaire). 2.2 British culture and Japanese people
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Crowdsourcing for 3D cultural heritage for George Town UNESCO World Heritage Site

Crowdsourcing for 3D cultural heritage for George Town UNESCO World Heritage Site

many developing countries hosting UNESCO World Heritage Sites need to consider. The setting up of a new national committee of ICOMOS to address the use of ‘Big Data’ and ‘Digital Technologies’ in culture and cultural heritage is a further testament of the importance of using digital technologies for the preservation and communication of heritage. These together with the recent Victoria & Albert Museum’s ReACH Initiative (Reproduction of Art and Cultural Heritage), which has reviewed and redrafted Henry Cole’s 1867 charter on the Reproduction of Art with a technical policy focusing on 3D facsimiles may suggest the global trend and technological challenges in this area. The book launch [8] and ReACH conference at UNESCO, at the Paris headquarters on 22 June 2018 with the accompanying speeches [9] addressing the member states are providing a way forward for the barriers the ReACH Initiative is trying to address.
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Perceived image of Chinese tourists on Malacca world heritage sites

Perceived image of Chinese tourists on Malacca world heritage sites

World Heritage Sites destination consists of 33 cultural sites, 10 natural sites and 4 mixed sites of mainly mountains destinations (World Heritage Centre, 2014). With the rise of personal incomes and living standards, the outbound tourism market is leaps and bounds. Chinese people are eager to go sightseeing overseas which creates an immense market for some nearby countries. The popular outbound destinations include USA, Russia, France, Australia, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Maldives (China National Tourism Administrations, 2014).
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Contents and Aims of Management Plans for World Heritage Sites:

Contents and Aims of Management Plans for World Heritage Sites:

The need for performance measurement has been one of the main topics of management sciences in the last years. Generally speaking, performance measurement seems to be necessary when the traditional economic-financial indicators (like earning, ROE, ROI …) give an incomplete set of information about the state of the organisation. This is the traditional case of private corporations and this is the situation which initially permeated the birth of performance measurement systems. But this is not the only case of possible application of the performance management theories. Indeed, they are useful in each case where the economic and financial results are not measurable (or not expressible in a clear and irrefutable way). This is the typical case of not-for- profit organisations and, specifically, of public sector organisations, which are the most common subjects appointed for the management of cultural and natural heritage, in other words the greatest part of World Heritage sites.
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WORLD HERITAGE SITES IN INDIA FROM PAST TO FUTURE

WORLD HERITAGE SITES IN INDIA FROM PAST TO FUTURE

• India is an active member state on the World Heritage from 1977 and has been working in close co-operation with other international agencies like ICOMOS, IUCN and ICCROM (International Centre for the Study of Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property).

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Romanian Rural World Heritage Sites and Tourism Development

Romanian Rural World Heritage Sites and Tourism Development

impacts their quality of life at individual and community levels (Latkova & Vogt, 2012; Jaafar et al., 2015). Nonetheless, the overpriotirisation of tourism in WHS locations, based on central and local authorities tendency to focus on economic gain (Su & Wall, 2014; Poria et al., 2011), can negatively affect or, in extremis, destroy the environmental and cultural integrity of the respective WHSs (Li et al., 2008; Yang et al., 2010; Jimura, 2011; Caust & Vecco, 2017). This situation is further enhanced by emerging countries’ insufficient management skills and resources for effective site management of their WHSs (Caust & Vecco, 2017; Landorf, 2009).
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