How and to what extent the impact of national culture (national mentality) to the culture of a particular firm as a whole and particularly its infocommunicative culture? What will be crucial in the formation of organizational culture: the peculiarities of the microenvironment (type of activity, level of competition, the size of the firm) or the macroenvironment aspects (national mentality, the economic situation, the political regime)? Finally, is it possible to speak of a single national culture in relation to Russia, since different regions of Russia are people of different nationalities, religions, have different source mentality? These issues tend to have no reasonable responses, therefore the search for these answers became the reason for this study.
statistically important to] the rise and fall of the races” (Smith, 2004, p. 363). While eugenics may have entered the home through the organization and classification of the family album, it stayed current and influential by infiltrating the child’s toy chest. Ott (2014) describes how toys and baby books are, “powerful eugenic records that reinforce an aspiration to ‘normalcy’ and provide parents with ways of monitoring their children’s development and physical capabilities” (p. 132). The toy specifically, she argues, “can be read as reinforcing cultural beliefs about the undesirability of diversity in bodily difference” (Ott, 2014, p. 132). We can, therefore, classify the toy, any toy, as a disability material culture object. These toys are rooted in eugenic ideology: eliminate ‘defectiveness’ and ensure control over the evolutionary process.
Therefore, culture includes all the shared ideas, beliefs, values, attitudes, and norms which are transmitted to future generations. Although culture is an abstract concept, its significance for evoking patriotism is important. l or instance, when it is the norm to love your country and everyone holds the idea that the country is worth being devoted to, then culture plays an enormous role in determining citizens’ levels of patriotism.
instrumental players that are internationally known. Modern music is becoming more popular and is practiced widely. Contemporary, pop songs and bands are also enjoying more widespread fame.Several musical instruments, some of them fo indigenous origin, are used in Bangladesh, and major musical instruments used are bamboo flute (banshi), drums (dole), a single stringed instrument named extra, a four stringed instrument called dotara, a pair fo metal bawls used for rhythm effect called mandira. Currently, several musical instruments fo western origin like guitar, drums and saxophone are also used, sometimes alongside the traditional instruments.Tribal dances are very popular among the Bangladeshis. The countryside girls are in the habit of dancing to popular folk music. Their dances require no regulations are such, just a small amount of courage and a big amount of rhythm. Popular songs like Shari and Jari are presented with the accompanying dace fo both male and female performers.Another important aspect of the culture fo Bangladesh is clothing. Bangladeshi woman usually wear Saris marie of the world famous and expensive. Finely embroidered quilted patchwork cloth produced by the village woman. Woman will traditionally wear their hair in a twisted bun, which is called the ―Beni style‖. Hindus will traditionally wear Dhuty for religious purposes. These days most men of Bangladesh wear shirts and pants.Bangladesh has a history. The land, the rivers and the lives of the common people formed a rich bent age with marked differences from neighboring regions. It has evolved over the centuries and encompasses the cultural diversity of several social groups of Bangladesh.
problems, and to set up the first step in mobilizing for change. After assuming the risk existence, it is possible to analyze their causes and consequences, and especially ways to solve them (Martínez el al., 2010). Among the actions to favor this approach stands out the Walka Round with feedback, which leaders conduct visits to the units and interact with the front line professionals, recognizing their difficulties and encouraging them to identify and solve patient security problems presented. This tool has been associated with improvements in evaluations of the patient's safety culture, greater engagement of the workforce, and lesser fatigue among professionals (Sexton et al., 2018). The feedback of the information related to patient safety and error reporting encompasses the perception that reported errors are used against the practitioners and it can demonstrate a punitive culture, lack of effectiveness of the incident reporting system and reduced freedom to talk about mistakes. It is recognized that in order to consolidate a security culture, analysis of problems (Faustino et al., 2018) cannot occur in isolation, but rather to integrate a structured and systematic system of incident analysis and treatment based on a just culture, becoming an opportunity for institutional learning and favoring the reorganization of care practices. In this way, it is important to add value to the local incident reporting system, which is open to discussions about security issues.
charged with the mission of creating a record of the nation’s built history for posterity in case these historic artifacts vanished. Over the years, HABS teams have adopted both analog and digital documentation technologies, including hand surveys, digital
photography, photogrammetry, three-dimensional laser scanners, and computer-aided- drafting to produce measured drawings of historic structures. However, HABS architect Mark Schara stated that while HABS enjoys a rich repertoire of recording methodologies from hand measuring to laser scanning in diversified projects, the organization “focuses on a very basic end-product.” 2 The deliverable is a formulaic two-dimensional plan (section and elevation plotted on Mylar) that should meet the archival standards of the Library of Congress. Therefore, HABS intensive efforts to utilize diverse documentation technologies while focusing on the production of two-dimensional measured drawings makes HABS a unique case study to use to address the issues between drawing, technology, and cultural heritage. Hence, the current study addresses the research question: how has the HABS culture of documentation evolved in regards to drawing and technology, and how this relationship might be transformed in the future?”
Academics have defined culture within different contexts where broadly no accepted definition exists (Hill et al. 2012). Hofstede (1998) distinguished culture through behavioural norms that differentiate and categorise individuals within a social group of similar personalities. From an organisational perspective, Schein (1993: 9) defined culture as “a pattern of basic assumptions…by a given group as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaption and internal integration- that has worked well enough to be considered valuable and therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think and feel in relation to those problems”. Thus, Schein defines culture within a motivational stance that is developed through the history of behavioural norms; utilised as a custom of coping with pressures of the business that ensues competitive advantage. However, these traditional views of culture have been criticised as holding an old-fashioned and unrealistic view of the term (Avison and Myers 1995, Myers and Tan 2002).
In order to fully comprehend the various organisational cultures, typologies are utilised to categorise the organisational cultures into “types” to simplify and build higher-order theoretical categories (Schein, 2010:69-70). Cameron and Quinn (2006) developed a typology with four categories based on two dimensions, namely how stable or flexible the organisation is and how externally or internally focused it is. This typology is the Competing Values Framework (CVF) and it is utilised in research regarding organisational phenomena like culture, values outcomes, core competencies, leadership, decision making, motivation, human resources, quality, and employee selection (Cameron and Quinn, 2006). As previously mentioned, the CVF consists o f two dimensions that reveal organisational tensions. These dimensions were pin-pointed when researching organisations where an observation was made that some organisations were effective when elements of flexibility and adaptability were shown, whereas others were effective in the presence o f stability and control (Cameron et al., 2006: 7-8). The same study demonstrated that some organisations achieved effectiveness if efficient internal processes were sustained whereas others needed the maintenance of competitive external positioning relative to customers and clients (Cameron et al., 2006:8). These differences symbolise the varying ends of two dimensions, each with variant anchors that make up the basics of the Competing Values Framework.
In this systematic and meta-analytical review study, the required data were collected by searching the following keywords: patient safety, patient safety culture, patient safety climate and combined through hospital, “Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture”, measurement, as- sessment, survey and their Persian equivalents in Sco- pus, Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Magiran, and Iranian Scientific Information (SID) databases. Manual journal and web site searching was also used. To increase the confidence of identification of the articles, the reference lists of the selected articles were also searched. Articles published during the period 2000–2013 were searched. The inclusion criteria for the study were: articles published in Persian and English lan- guages, articles about the measurement of PSC in hos- pital and home nurse setting, and articles that measured PSC with HSOPSC questionnaire. Exclusion criteria in- cluded: articles that measured overall safety culture (not PSC), articles that measured PSC in primary healthcare, articles on psychometric properties, articles that did not measure all dimensions of HSOPSC questionnaire, con- ference presentations, case reports, and interventional and qualitative studies. Two reviewers evaluated the ar- ticles according to the checklist of descriptive-analytical studies (SCORB). First, articles with non-relevant titles to the subject of this review were excluded. Then the ab- stract and the full text of the articles were reviewed, re- spectively.
Other methods to isolate OC cells from ascites have utilized Percoll (Amersham Biosciences) density gradients and anti- CD45 immunomagnetic beads to separate red blood cells and leukocytes from individual OC cells and cell clusters (5). Our initial trials to isolate OC cells from ascites utilized a Percoll gradient (50-10%), however, we determined that despite our initial yield of total cells being higher, these cells had a lower plating efficiency and reduced capacity to adapt to growth in culture than if we simply plated the cells as described in this paper. We suggest that this may be due to a 'culture shock' when the cells are switched from the ascitic fluid environment to a defined medium. This problem could probably be circumvented if clarified ascitic fluid were used to supplement the growth medium. Furthermore, we did not find the presence of red blood cells to adversely affect the establishment of primary OC cell cultures. Indeed, we have often received samples of ascites fluid that was extremely bloody making it difficult to easily visualize cells or cell clusters upon initial seeding of the flasks. After 3-4 days, however, the medium was changed to reveal a sub-confluent monolayer of OC cells. Leukocytes are unlikely to adapt to growth conditions required for OC cells. Thus, special procedures to reduce the number of red blood cells or leukocytes can be conducted, however in our experience they are not necessary.
external factors such as supply and demand press the levers of control with transfer pricing acting as the centre of the control system.
The rules approach combines strong input and output control and is feasible when the causal model is clear and the environment is stable. However, being rule-based, this approach does not facilitate responding quickly to external changes. Culture makes possible the quickest response to changes since rules and procedures are internalised at this stage. Indeed, culture as a philosophy gets ingrained in the lives of organisational members at all levels through systems such as recruitment, the physical aspects of organisation such as the design of buildings, beliefs about the use of power and privilege, heroes who personify the values of the organisation, and stories and the rituals dramatising the progress towards goals. All these lead to the internalisation of common goals, the evolution of shared expectations about roles and the behaviour and reduction of perceptual differences among sub-units. Culture transcends the personal supervision implied in input control, by powerfully reinforcing the values and norms across the organisation. This holds good even in new situations because even if the situation is new, the values are the same. In their view, even when culture is not used as a primary approach to control, it can reinforce the approach and address the issues arising out of the adoption of such an approach. For example, Hopwood (1973) points out that if a budget- constrained style is adopted, it could lead to short-term orientation which could, in the process, result in many unpleasant consequences such as the manipulation of accounting data and poor relationships between employees and changing the budget system would not address these concerns. It is against this background that Drucker’s (1964) assertion that control takes place in a human social situation and those who ignore it do so at their own peril is to be viewed.
Culture-specific knowledge is further limited in that it is restricted to one specific culture. Learning what it means to be polite and respectful in one culture and what is expected etiquette, will require relearning all these acquired behaviours when venturing into another culture. Not only is the notion of relearning all new behavioural patterns from scratch daunting, it essentially means starting back over from the very beginning. This is not to say that none of the information learned holds across cultures, but the potential for global applicability is minimal. While this problem might not exist if sojourners or business people are trained to live, work and function in only one particular culture, the profession of healthcare provision makes it very clear that culture specific information offers little value in dealing with a diverse range of patients from multiple national backgrounds. Altshuler et al.  state that during intercultural training for healthcare professionals it is “impossible to orient trainees to all types of patients they are likely to encounter” (p.388). Consequently they conclude that training must avoid stereotypical notions of cultures and, in order to be effective, the mere transmission of culture specific knowledge must be avoided. Not only that, but essentially, culture specific information is often based on either organizational culture or national culture, neither of which are good platforms for studying culture .
systematic evidence consistent with Simon’s conclusion, see Hardie and MacKenzie 2007.)
A fourth indicator of the existence of an evaluation culture would be path-dependent patterns of change. It is hard to imagine it being justifiable to invoke the concept of ‘culture’ when actors approach every new situation entirely afresh, but in the cases of ABSs and CDOs we have found plentiful evidence that this is not the case: that past practices are resources for current evaluation activities. One example is the way in which the government backing of mortgage securitisation and the historic dominance of ‘the American mortgage’ led to evaluation practices that focused on prepayment risk. As noted, those practices continued in the evaluation of mortgage-backed securities that were not government-backed and did not consist just of ‘American mortgages’. Evaluation practices focused on prepayment help us understand why, for example, ‘no income verification’ loans were particularly prized: ‘The capital markets pay a premium’ for them, reported Adelson (2006, p. 14), ‘because such loans display slower prepayments’. Another example of path-dependence is the way in which ABS CDOs were not analysed afresh in the rating agencies as an entirely new class of instrument, but existing CDO practices were applied to them with only relatively minor modifications. Those practices formed a rich and readily available set of resources, in many cases already crystallised in software packages available ‘off the shelf’, making their employment in the evaluation of ABS CDOs the easiest course of action. In a context of heavy workloads, time pressure, and sometimes senior
This study has evaluated the perceptions of school administrators, teachers, students and parents on teacher leaders‘ characteristics, attitudes and behaviours. Following the thematic analysis of the data from the qualitative interviews with participants on teacher leadership, we identified some key concepts that capture the participants when reframing teacher leaders. Findings highlighted that participants‘ perceptions are in the same line with minor differences. That is, school principals and teachers attribute some traits to teacher leaders, such as being knowledgeable and leader, whereas students give more importance to being reliable, fair and egalitarian. On the other hand, parents embrace teachers who are friendly and impressive as teacher leaders. In this present study, teacher leaders are considered as leaders. In a study conducted by Kaya (2016), teacher leaders are referred as ―lighthouse‖ due to the fact that teacher leaders help others to find their ways. Brosky (2011) found that teacher leaders are regarded as influencers and give confidence to others. Cekuc (2008) also obtained the findings such attributes as honest, hardworking, smiling, helpful, sharer, fair and egalitarian. The findings indicated that school administrators regard teacher leaders as connective, open for development, persuader, principled, decisive, polite, free, self-reliant, devoted, respected, loveable and practitioner, while teachers attribute some different traits such as active, democratic, supervisor, organized and risk taker. When these findings are compared, it can be argued that teachers also refer the traits related to teaching as well as other general characteristics of teacher leaders. Students, on the other hand, refer these traits, including enjoyable, listener, tolerant and interested, whereas parents also see teacher leaders are individuals who are ethical, transformative, empathetic, foreseeable, self-sacrificing, balanced, patient and sympathetic. In line with this, Lumpkin, Claxton ve Wilson (2014) highlight that schools need teacher leaders in order for an effective collaboration to achieve school improvement and student achievement. The work of Ado (2016) tells us that teacher leaders contribute to collaborative culture in teaching environments, while the article by Cherkowski ve Schnellert (2017) shows that teacher leaders act in collaboration with colleagues for organizational change and improvement in collective trust. As indicated by Cosenza (2015), teacher leaders are willing to cooperate with colleagues for student learning by sharing knowledge, supporting in difficult times, becoming role model, acting without hesitation and defining mutual objectives.
actions promoting safety, (11) teamwork across hospital units, and (12) teamwork within hospital units. Each subscale con- sists of three or four questions. Each item uses a Likert scale of five-point response options to represent the degree of agreement (1 for strongly disagree to 5 for strongly agree) or frequency (1 for never to 5 for always), and negatively worded items were reversely scored. For each subdimension the proportion of positive responses (percent positive score) was calculated for every participant on the basis of the AHRQ instructions, and it ranged from 0 to 1. The patient safety strength of the hospital is defined as those dimensions with more than 75.0% of respond- ents answering “strongly agree”/“agree” or “always”/“most of the time.” Areas needing improvement were identified as those dimensions for which 50.0% of respondents or fewer did not answer positively. A composite score was calculated for each respondent, relative to each of the 12 safety culture dimensions, and it ranged from 1.0 to 5.0. Higher scores indicate a more posi- tive patient safety culture.
Another important aspect of Arab culture is hospitality. In Arab countries from Morocco to Iraq, visitors are very warmly welcomed. Relatives, friends, and even strangers are always offered coffee or tea and perhaps some bread or sweets, and if they happen to arrive at mealtime, they are urged to stay and eat. Guests cannot refuse these offers without offending their host. This tradition of hospitality dates back thousands of years. To survive in the desert, nomadic tribesman had to depend on one another, so it became a matter of honour to give and receive hospitality. The Quran and the books known as the Hadith have helped preserve this tradition of hospitality by urging people to practice kindness. But the holy books do not say that kindness and hospitality must be given without limit. Guest must know when to leave, and hospitality must be returned. Hospitality can strengthen the bonds between the members of society only when its rules are followed well. (p.98)
With the changes of urban development, the city tends to shape its unique history and culture which contribute to the construction of park landscape, along with the accumulation of historic culture that could build up a cultural city with the identity of history and culture. Taking Xishan Park in Mianyang as an example, the study is to explore the role of the history and landscape on the landscape construction. It is approached by analyzing the combination of relics and the landscape with the view of inheriting the historical culture and highlighting landscape elements and though this article, hoped to provide certain references about theory research and practice operation for City Park at all levels about its landscape cultural characteristics.
to it, which is why it requires a considerable budget and qualified human capital with experience, not only in the process of research but also in publication of articles and patent registration. Unfortunately, even the resources do not turn out to be enough. Alliances with foreign universities, private companies, and the State are required. Despite this situation, activities have been developed at the state university related to training projects with financing below 50,000, competitive funds with internal and external financing, participation in fairs, the formation of 50 research groups, grants for pre and post-grade research, among others, which once again motivated the synergy between teachers, students and graduates in the formation of multidisciplinary teams. Of course, not only the confirmation of them and the economic resources is enough, but it is required constancy, perseverance, proactivity, teamwork, synergy and avoiding procrastination so as not to fail in the process. The research culture in the university is still in the beginning phase, progress is observed, but more effort is still needed from the university community. It should be noted that not all (teachers and students) investigate, consider it complicated or difficult, lack the practice of critical thinking, lack significant skills, lack of motivation, assertive communication, and at the same time require investment in specialized laboratories, as well as the recognition and support of the authorities from turn. However, it is worrying that teachers do not assume responsibility for the investigative task; they consider it an activity that absorbs time and money; there is no recognition by the authority. They insist on the fact that additional training is required to investigate, of course, this situation is worrying, because if the teacher as the main actor does not possess the investigative competences, then there the response of the lack of scientific production. It should be noted that research activities are monitored by the
Using the ‘subvertising’ method, culture jamming for the BLF is most effective when used on billboards. The members of the BLF reason that the billboard, among all the forms of media that disseminate advertisements, is the most inescapable, as well as the most accessible to physically alter. They believe billboards “are the only form of advertising the consumer can improve. You can't do it with radio or television ads or magazines” (http:// www.billboardliberation.com/indepth.html). They also assert that billboards are the most unavoidable form of public advertising, stating that “you can switch off/smash/shoot/hack or in other ways avoid Television, Computers and Radio. You are not compelled to buy magazines or subscribe to newspapers” (http://www.billboardliberation.com/manifesto .html). While they mention that other public advertising such as posters cannot always be avoided, it is the Billboard that is so ubiquitous and entirely inescapable. The issue they take with billboards is not that they exist, in fact Napier states, “I really have nothing against billboards...I don’t want to cut billboards down. It’s just that I’m kind of tired of being communicated to constantly by advertisers who want me to buy their product” (cited in Whalen, 2004: 2). They avow that “to Advertise is to Exist. To Exist is to Advertise. Our ultimate goal is nothing short of a personal and singular Billboard for each citizen” (http://www.billboard liberation.com/manifesto.html). Their purpose is not to eliminate billboards, but instead to “improve” them by taking control of the messages.