Culture and Education of Australian Indigenous

Top PDF Culture and Education of Australian Indigenous:

Liberal forms of governing Australian Indigenous peoples

Liberal forms of governing Australian Indigenous peoples

They are also eager to better educate themselves…Aboriginal people are not the only victims and not the only perpetrators of sexual abuse…Much of the violence and sexual abuse occurring in Territory communities is a reflection of past, current and continuing social problems which have developed over many decades…The combined effects of poor health, alcohol and drug abuse, unemployment, gambling, pornography, poor education and housing, and a general loss of identity and control have contributed to violence and to sexual abuse in many forms…Existing government programs to help Aboriginal people break the cycle of poverty and violence need to work better. There is not enough coordination and communication between government departments and agencies, and this is causing a breakdown in services and poor crisis intervention. Improvements in health and social services are desperately needed…Programs need to have enough funds and resources and be a long-term commitment…Our appointment and terms of reference arose out of allegations of sexual abuse of Aboriginal children. Everything we have learned since convinces us that these are just symptoms of a breakdown of Aboriginal culture and society. There is, in our view, little point in an exercise of band- aiding individual and specific problems as each one achieves an appropriate degree of media and political hype. It has not worked in the past and will not work in the future...What is required is a determined, coordinated effort to break the cycle and provide the necessary strength, power and appropriate support and services to local communities, so they can lead themselves out of the malaise: in a word, empowerment!’ Wild and Anderson (2007), op. cit., p.12 (emphasis in original).
Show more

33 Read more

Denial and Loss: Removal of Indigenous Australian Children from their Families and Culture

Denial and Loss: Removal of Indigenous Australian Children from their Families and Culture

The plaintiffs argued in Cubillo that their removal was beyond the power conferred by the Aboriginal Ordinance. When she was a child, Mrs Cubillo was removed from her family along with 16 other Aboriginal children living at the Phillip Creek Native Settlement, which was operated by the Aborigines Inland Mission. From there, she was sent to the Retta Dixon Home in Darwin where she remained until she was 18. Mr Gunner was removed from his mother when he was seven years old. His mother apparently put a thumb print on a consent form, consenting to his removal for the purposes of education. He was placed in St Mary’s Church of England Hostel in Alice Springs. When Mr Gunner was 14 years old, he left St Mary’s to work at Angas Downs Station. Mrs Cubillo and Mr Gunner commenced separate proceedings that claimed damages for wrongful imprisonment and deprivation of liberty, negligence, breach of statutory duty and breach of fiduciary duty. Mrs Cubillo and Mr Gunner consented to orders that their matters be heard together.
Show more

18 Read more

Indigenous Australian social-health theory

Indigenous Australian social-health theory

Holding Knowledge ____________________________________________________ 260 Significant points of this knowledge seeking journey ___________________________ 260 Confidence in Knowledge ___________________________________________________ 263 Taking up Obligations and Responsibility of Knowledge _____________________________ 264 Core Findings of this research are: ____________________________________________ 264 Recommendations _____________________________________________________ 265 Future Studies Recommendations _______________________________________________ 265 Future Studies 1: Linking practice to theory. __________________________________ 265 Future Studies 2: Research explaining non-Indigenous culture ____________________ 265 Future Studies Recommendation 3. _________________________________________ 266 Future Education Recommendations _____________________________________________ 267 Future Education 1: Acceptance by the Western academy. _______________________ 267 Future Education 2: Need to address Racism __________________________________ 267 Future Education 3: Responsibility of knowledge. ______________________________ 268 Future Education 4: Social Work and Social Science curriculum __________________ 268 Recommendation for Researchers _______________________________________________ 268 Indigenous Methodologies in Research. ______________________________________ 268 Decolonisation Recommendation. __________________________________________ 269 Conclusion to Part 3 __________________________________________________________ 269 Expert panel comments _______________________________________________________ 269 Snakes, Emus and Oodgeroo’s Paperbark _________________________________________ 271 Personal Reflection ________________________________________________________ 271 References ____________________________________________________________ 272
Show more

12 Read more

An investigation into the impact of traditional Indigenous games (TIG) on primary school students and their teachers.

An investigation into the impact of traditional Indigenous games (TIG) on primary school students and their teachers.

previously voiced their dislike of physical activity and resultant disregard for HPE in school. The change in students’ attitudes towards physical activity may be explained by identifying the stark contrasts that exist between sport and TIG. For example, all students were invited to take part, with no restrictions placed on their participation. The timing of the games was flexible, along with the boundaries used within the games. There was no external rule enforcement, no umpires, since there were few rules and these were straight forward to allow participants to self-regulate their behaviour in each game. The games were task orientated, so that the emphasis was on completing a task successfully, whilst improving one’s own skills, as opposed to outperforming other students within the group. The marked change in attitude of these pre-service teachers after their involvement with TIG led the researcher to wonder whether or not TIG might have a similar impact on school children. The popularity of TIG spread through the education district as these pre-service teachers began facilitating the games learned at University within schools whilst they were on practical placement. Classroom teachers within the schools made several comments relating to how much both they and their students enjoyed playing TIG. When reflecting on these initial observations and discussions, the researcher identified a need within the local teaching community for strategies and resources designed to increase physical activity with children in school. By playing TIG, students directly experienced Indigenous perspectives in games and physical activity, hence the researcher speculated that facilitating TIG might also help teachers to integrate and develop further opportunities to embed the histories, culture and traditions of Australia’s Indigenous peoples. In doing so, TIG would assist teachers to cater for the cross-curricular priorities (Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA), 2013) and enhance their students’ learning outcomes.
Show more

229 Read more

True Tracks: Indigenous cultural and intellectual property principles for putting self-determination into practice

True Tracks: Indigenous cultural and intellectual property principles for putting self-determination into practice

The gaps in Australian law across IP – copyright, designs, trade marks, patents, PBRs and confidential information; consumer, native title, heritage and environment are outlined in Table A1 in Appendix A, together with the most notable related issues. In summary, there is a lack of any specific measures that can enable Indigenous people to control their ICIP and prevent inappropriate use. Intellectual property laws like copyright, focus on material form, oral and performance based culture is not protected. IP laws render a lot of ICIP in the public domain, that is, not meeting the requirements of copyright. With patents, novelty and invention preferences scientific discovery. This does not fit with Indigenous knowledge systems which are holistic. Plant breeders’ rights protect new plants or varieties of an existing plant that can demonstrate distinctness, uniformity and stability. The legacy of Indigenous horticulture through generations of nurturing a species is not recognised. Designs are about protecting industrial designs and not the iconography that comes from country. Trade marks focus on protecting brands and have some ability to enable Indigenous businesses to protect the use of cultural material such as words and logos, in trade. Confidential information only protects information that is secret whereas a lot of ICIP has been researched and published, and therefore will need to meet this requirement. IP laws do not recognise the communal rights of Indigenous people easily. Even if IP is available for Indigenous people, the costs can be prohibitive – for example, high costs of patenting, and with copyright, expensive litigation to stop infringement.
Show more

428 Read more

Teachers’ Professional Practice, Policy Enactment, And Indigenous Education In Ontario: A Case Study

Teachers’ Professional Practice, Policy Enactment, And Indigenous Education In Ontario: A Case Study

As we move further away in time from the release date of the Framework, a marked decrease in detailed and specific language around the development of programming and resources is visible. This shift, when scrutinized against the increasing concern for data collection and management, reveals a troubling move away from substantive action and change and towards reification of the “gap” as something external to the structures and systems of formal education in Ontario. Taken together this lack of activity calls into serious question the place of Indigenous education as the priority the OME has claimed it to be. The trends noted in activity, namely the absence of a 2012 progress report, the lack of Toolkit updating and no Circle of Light conferences since 2011, position 2011 as a benchmark year where concern with reaching the Framework goals seems to have decreased. But we may also consider that this decrease in activity may well be evidence that the OME was happy with the ways activities related to the Framework were playing out and that the intention was for the Framework to operate as a decentralized policy – taken up and adapted by school boards and school in locally specific and relevant ways. The data presented in my research, however, note the troubling presence of increasingly ambiguous language that takes the place of specific references to resources and programming. This language is accompanied by a shift to data, achievement, and standards. A transition is made clear in the nature of the policy from a combined exhortative and imperative policy to one focussed on the aims of accountability assessed through standardized measures and primarily focussed on the
Show more

261 Read more

Who do I think I am and where do I want to be? A study of Indian international VET students in Australia

Who do I think I am and where do I want to be? A study of Indian international VET students in Australia

experiences and adaptation events. Six Indian international students undertaking a Diploma in Salon Management at a Brisbane vocational education and training (VET) college are involved in this research on identity change during acculturation. While sojourner discursive practices and identity development form the study’s theoretical foundations, international students’ crossing political borders and social boundaries also contribute to the research theoretical framework. Issues of student security and wellness during acculturation and adaptation into Australian socio- cultural environments are also investigated.
Show more

18 Read more

Identity Learning,culture shock and border crossing into effective teaching in indigenous science education

Identity Learning,culture shock and border crossing into effective teaching in indigenous science education

Heyward and Petersen discuss changes in the sojourner’s identity as part of the learning process. Heyward (2002) suggests at monocultural levels 1 and 2 that cultural identity is firstly unformed then characterised by stereotypic comparisons with other cultures, similar to the ‘we-and-they’ notion of Pillsbury and Shields (1999). Heyward’s model continues with culture shock affecting people during the monocultural level 3, particularly causing them to re-examine their identities. If the sojourner passes this level, Heyward (2002) suggests they become aware of multiple cultural identities at the crosscultural level and consciously shift between them at the intercultural level. On the other hand, Petersen (1995) considers that at the reintegration stage, “The rejection of host culture patterns becomes the foundation for a new identity based on cognitive and emotional experiences with the new culture” (p.134). Pillsbury and Shields (1999) also consider that what they called ‘precipitating events’ could lead to the creation of either more flexible or more rigid boundaries, in much the same way as described above in Geijsel and Meijers’ model. Each of the models discussed suggest that a positive response leads to identity learning whereas the consequence of a negative response is for the individual’s identity to remain static.
Show more

16 Read more

Improving Indigenous community governance through strengthening Indigenous and government organisational capacity

Improving Indigenous community governance through strengthening Indigenous and government organisational capacity

Leadership capacity strengthening is a long- term process. Indigenous organisations provide important social, economic and cultural services to their communities. Research through the Indigenous Community Governance Project (ICGP 2010) documented highly competent Indigenous organisations that balance their cultural imperatives and practice within the requirements of government funding programs and incorporation (Hunt et al. 2008). There are also Indigenous organisations that struggle or fail (Dodson & Smith 2003). Issues include low levels of staff literacy and numeracy, and a risk that training programs under the guise of capacity building are used as a substitute for sound education from primary through to tertiary levels (Tsey 1997). Other challenges include lateral violence as in gossip and jealousy, under-resourcing and an inability to meet the needs of clients. Recent studies recognise a link between a need to strengthen leadership capacity and the need to heal past trauma (Phillips 2010; Scougall 2008) as well as attitudinal and behavioural change, rebuilding confidence and self-belief and the transfer of knowledge and skills (Scougall 2008).
Show more

15 Read more

Smoking prevalence trends in Indigenous Australians, 1994-2004: a typical rather than an exceptional epidemic

Smoking prevalence trends in Indigenous Australians, 1994-2004: a typical rather than an exceptional epidemic

women aged 18 and over fell by 5% (29 to 24%) and 2% (23 to 21%) from 1995 to 2004 [16]. Almost all (98%) of the non-Indigenous population live in non-remote regions [4]. Male and female Indigenous smoking preva- lences in non-remote Australia fell by 5.5% and 1.9% in parallel with these total Australian smoking prevalences, albeit from a much higher initial prevalence in 1994. Accelerations and decelerations in the decline in Austral- ian smoking prevalence has been noted to be associated with the level of tobacco control advocacy, legislative activity, taxation (and so the price of cigarettes), and national expenditure on social marketing and other tobacco control activities--with most of 1990s being a period of low tobacco control activity and slower falls in smoking prevalence [16,23,24]. It is not possible with only three surveys to make similar claims about the asso- ciation between the rates of decline in Indigenous smok- ing prevalences, in either remote or non-remote regions, and the level of total and specifically targeted Indigenous tobacco control activity.
Show more

7 Read more

Indigenous or Exotic? Trees in Australian Cinema

Indigenous or Exotic? Trees in Australian Cinema

The association of the second baobab with love is reinforced later on after Drover and Sarah have spent their first night together: in ecstasy, the camera shoots off over the landscape in search of tumbling water, but on its way there it zooms past the second baobab. In connection with this link to love, one might wonder to what extent the mention of “Wrong-side Business” and a tree with evil spirits in it should be taken as a tasteless white subversion of an indigenous belief or just treated as a harmless joke. It rather depends on whether one can just take “Wrong-side Business” as a general euphemism for making love. If not, one may be in more sensitive territory, since early in Xavier Herbert’s novel Poor Fellow My Country (with which Hergenhan and Conor affirm Australia has links), Jeremy Delacy explains that “To Aborigines, love’s always a matter of law-breaking. You only fall in love with someone Wahji or Wrong-side to you” (24) and that the mangan, or native plum, is “supposed to have the power to attract and spellbind lovers, so that they may be crept up on and killed” (24).
Show more

12 Read more

Commemorative Events and National Identity: Commemorating Death and Disaster in Australia

Commemorative Events and National Identity: Commemorating Death and Disaster in Australia

of the Japanese bombing raids on Darwin (Frew, 2013) whereby Commander Mitsuo Fuchida, the Japanese leader of the air raids on both Darwin and Pearl Harbor (which occurred 10 weeks prior), is quoted as saying of Darwin, “It seemed hardly wor- thy of us. If ever a sledgehammer was used to crack an egg it was then” (“The Day War,” 2012). How- ever, as suggested by the Prime Minister and the Governor-General at the 2012 commemorative ser- vice, the bombing of Darwin currently has a lower level of national consciousness in Australia com- pared to Gallipoli, which annually receives thou- sands of Australians attending the commemorative events staged there on ANZAC Day (Lockstone- Binney, Hall, & Atay, 2013). One of the reasons for this lower level of contemporary acknowledg- ment of the bombing of Darwin was that the “awk- ward memory” of Darwin was difficult to integrate into a national narrative (Brooks, 2013, p. 61) and is reinforced by Australian children generally not learning about the bombing in the school curricu- lum. Indeed, at the time of the bombing of Darwin, there was an effort by the Australian government and the associated wartime censorship to downplay the event to protect national morale with only 17 causalities being reported rather than the hundreds who died (“Darwin Bombing,” 2012). However, the continued suppression of information in post- war years has served to diminish public memory of the event, and as a result the episode was largely unknown in Australia’s history until fairly recently (Brooks, 2013).
Show more

16 Read more

Indigenous Culture and Symbolic Violence

Indigenous Culture and Symbolic Violence

working class culture and the culture of the socially dominant but, rather, a factor in an ongoing relationalism over time in which the attitudes of the participants were instrumental in affecting their own life-chances. It was only gradually that Bourdieu managed to communicate multi- dimensionality outside a dualistic framework. One of the achievements of La distinction (Bourdieu, 1979, 1986a) is that it tries to represent the function of taste in an immanent process of participatory position-taking which is captured statically but in which future trajectories are shown to be latent. As social attitudes changed, Bourdieu knew that the concept of habitus had first functioned in a context in which the influence of the family in producing inter-generational attitude change had still been potent. It was assumed that individuals inherited prior family values and lived their lives by adjusting their personal aspirations in relation to this inheritance. The position-taking which was at first perceived dualistically because, socially, it still was dualistic gradually shifted in Bourdieu’s thought towards a more thoroughly relational view of the world in which individuals inter-act in their own terms, like the monads or entelechies of Leibniz.
Show more

14 Read more

The need for a culturally tailored gatekeeper training intervention program in preventing suicide among Indigenous peoples: a systematic review

The need for a culturally tailored gatekeeper training intervention program in preventing suicide among Indigenous peoples: a systematic review

The five gatekeeper training studies were conducted within Indigenous communities in Australia (n = 2), Canada (n = 1) and the USA (n = 2), within the past 16 years. Four were uncontrolled pre- and post-training studies and the fifth was an RCT. A pre- and post-training study from Australia evaluated a community-based gate- keeper program targeting Indigenous youth in regional New South Wales [20] to reduce youth suicide through increased ability to identify at risk individuals, and refer to professional help (Table 2). These participants were followed up 2 years later [21] to identify long term effects of the intervention training provided. A second Australian study investigated Indigenous suicide prevention pro- grams delivered in Western Australia by Indigenous Psychological Services using gatekeeper training skills [22] for mental health service providers to identify at risk indi- viduals and prevent suicide. Two studies implemented a school or college intervention in the USA [23, 24] and provided increased awareness and acceptance for suicide prevention training programs. The sole RCT investigated a controlled gatekeeper training evaluation of Applied Suicide Intervention Skills Training (ASIST) [25] in a Canadian First Nations community [26]. Four of the five studies used workshops to train their gatekeepers, and one (from the USA) was curriculum-based within an educational setting. Only one study [24] aimed to increase
Show more

7 Read more

Are Australian prisons meeting the needs of Indigenous offenders?

Are Australian prisons meeting the needs of Indigenous offenders?

for risk of self-harm. For participants reporting previous issues with reading and writing, over 60% noted im- provement in this area. As such, basic education pro- grams conducted within custodial settings appear to be useful for some Indigenous prisoners denoting a mean- ingful daytime activity. Money problems, paying bills and access to a telephone were also issues alleviated through incarceration. Of note, participants previously at risk for sex and/or arson offences appeared satisfied with the help they were receiving in custody for these problems. These specific participants however were a minority within the overall sample and thus caution is required when generalising such findings. A final area of need for some participants that was noticeably unmet was threatening behaviour and controlling one’s temper (Safety to others). For more than 60% of participants who identified this as a problem, help being received was either considered to be unavailable or ineffective.
Show more

9 Read more

Screening indigenous microalgae strains for outdoor production of secondary carotenoids and fatty acids

Screening indigenous microalgae strains for outdoor production of secondary carotenoids and fatty acids

From all the studied species, Chlorococcum sp. is the most interesting one given its higher growth rates and final concentrations of both carotenoids and high quality fatty acids. Its high proportion of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated relative to the saturated fatty acids, some reported as having high market values (e.g. γ-Linolenic acid, Koller et al., 2014), indicates this taxon as a source of healthy food fats (Harwati et al., 2012). This species was seen to grow well in the vertical tubular-type photobioreactors used in this study. This is in agreement to Zhang et al. (1997) that have also shown that Chlorococcum sp. grows well in tubular photobioreactors, and that it is a good candidate for mass production in outdoor culture systems due to its tolerance in terms of temperature and pH. These authors demonstrated that 30 °C was the optimal growth temperature and that growth was negatively affected with higher values.
Show more

6 Read more

Symphonies of the bush: indigenous encounters in Australian symphonies

Symphonies of the bush: indigenous encounters in Australian symphonies

James Penberthy (1917-1999) is best known for his extensive series of ballets on Aboriginal themes, especially during the late 1940s and 1950s, and his opera Dalgerie (1958). Unlike his contemporaries, Penberthy seems to have been aware of issues of alienation between white and Indigenous Australians. Nevertheless, there are examples of his appropriation of Aboriginal music in his ballet scores, and also in his largely neglected, but extensive series of symphonies 20 . Four of his nine numbered symphonies were composed between 1950 and 1960. Generally speaking, these are relatively short works of about 20 minutes‟ duration. Symphony No.2 (1953) is a counterpart of Douglas‟s Namatjira, but on a much smaller scale. Penberthy writes in the score:
Show more

5 Read more

Do spirits resist to exist or exist to resist?

Do spirits resist to exist or exist to resist?

For instance, the Nazism’s propaganda movie, Triumph des Willens (Riefenstahl, 1935) is, through the mimesis of mimesis, seeking to dominate using the “rebellion of suppressed nature against domination” (Taussig, 1993, p.68). Howbeit, a curative mimesis is mimicking resistance and its forms of oppression in the name of resistance itself, as in The Nation Erupts (Poole, 1992) - or even in La Hora de los Hornos (Getino and Solanas, 1968). In these cinematographic examples lies a mimetic power defined by Gaines (1999) as political mimesis, which connects the audience’s body with the bodies at the screen and, transferring violent mirroring effects, propels the audience to act accordingly. Beyond cinematographic realms, political mimesis is a reflecting image that effects the body to produce affection – a non-conscious experience of intensity that prepares the body for action in given circumstances (Shouse, 2005). Affection, however, might be destructive, as well as curative. For instance, the imagetic usage of ‘uncontacted’ indigenous peoples is a mimetic labor in which the threat of extinction and the excitement of ‘exoticism’ and ‘authenticity’ might affect the receiver of such images. Employing the mimetic faculty in a romanticized way to perpetuate the resistance of the Yanomami towards globalized societies, Ramos exemplifies their success in “exploiting their exoticism”, when the Yanomami became an international symbol for attracting global attention and the Amazon protection (2000, p.180). Yet, Conklin (1997) reminds us of how such ‘authentic’ images might fall into an essentialist trap that denies agency and history to indigenous peoples and open to accusations of ‘acculturation’ - that allow the imposition of development projects. But, when considering globalized technologies and their products 17 , “exogenous elements are culturally indigenized” and there shouldn’t be any concern or discomfort regarding inauthenticity (Sahlins, 1999, p. xi). The documentary Martírio (Carelli et al, 2017) demonstrates how the Guarani-Kaiowa, considered by agribusiness lobby as acculturated and inauthentic, are suffering with the denial of their originary rights and the imposition of a death politics, enabled by and in order to perpetuate neoliberal projects. Therefore, representation issues may also rise in the case of Piripkura (Terra et al, 2017), documentary that stars (probably unwillingly) two ‘isolated’ men, Pakyî and Tamandua, wanting to light their torch with FUNAI’s aid; or, regarding the Javary Valley, the to-be released ‘impact film & campaign’ that will ‘tell the universal story of our human tribe’: Tribes on the Edge (Cousteau, estimated for 2019) 18 , and also Survival International’s campaign 19 for the protection of ‘uncontacted’ indigenous peoples.
Show more

52 Read more

Delay in commencement of palliative care service episodes provided to Indigenous and non-Indigenous patients: cross-sectional analysis of an Australian multi-jurisdictional dataset

Delay in commencement of palliative care service episodes provided to Indigenous and non-Indigenous patients: cross-sectional analysis of an Australian multi-jurisdictional dataset

PCOC has compiled a large, detailed, high-quality multi-jurisdictional dataset, facilitating richly contextua- lised palliative care research. However, data shortcom- ings may have compromised the validity of the findings. We made every effort to circumvent spurious precision of estimates resulting from failure to account for re- peated measures in the same individual, and used mul- tiple imputation to reduce potential bias and diminution of power arising from missing data [25] including Indi- genous identifiers. Missing or incorrect ascertainment of a patient’ s identification as Indigenous is known to hinder health research on Indigenous populations in developed countries [26] Misclassification of reported values across other variables may also have resulted in residual con- founding and biased estimates. The inability to track pa- tients cared for across more than one service is likely to have resulted in some double/multiple counting. Some in- dices measured once at entry to care by a service may be misleading, for example, reported residence may not re- flect accommodation at episode start, and SEIFA scores are an ecological rather than an individual/household-le- vel measure of socio-economic disadvantage.
Show more

11 Read more

Poor food and nutrient intake among Indigenous and non-Indigenous rural Australian children

Poor food and nutrient intake among Indigenous and non-Indigenous rural Australian children

Highest ranked food categories and food items contri- buting to energy and selected nutrients The total weight of each food category (for example ‘ breads ’ ) and item (for example ‘ white bread ’ ), and their total consti- tuent micro- and macro-nutrients were calculated by Indigenous status. The ‘ take-away food ’ category does not include the items of sugary drinks, hot chips, or chicken as these have their own separate categories. The take-away foods included mostly pizza and burgers, as well as spring rolls/dim sims and quiche. Mixed food items were each allocated a proportion, which was then included in the relevant recall food group calculations for weight and frequency. Each food group category was then ranked according to its percent contribution to total energy, fat, saturated fat, sugar, sodium and fibre. Linear regression, adjusted for clustering of children within schools, was conducted to compare the mean percent contribution of energy dense nutrient poor (EDNP) foods to energy by Indigenous status and gen- der. Daily per capita weight and weight per eating occa- sion of each food category were calculated. Food items were ranked according to their contribution by weight to the food categories. The per capita and per eating occasion weight of all food categories (and the weight of the highest ranked food item within) contributing to the above nutrients were then reported by Indigenous sta- tus. The percent contribution of EDNP food categories to energy were reported by Indigenous status within gender.
Show more

14 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...