Published results on the growth interactions of non-nitrogen fixing mixed plantations species, and their impact on the regeneration of woody plants are scant. This paper addresses the growth in- teractions of pure and mixed plantations of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Cupressus lusitanica and their impact on the regeneration of woody plants in relation with light. Data on the regenerated woody plants, individual characteristics of the plantation species and light reaching under the ca- nopies were collected using sample plots (n = 4) with a size of 20 m × 20 m for each plantation type. The result showed that, E. camaldulensis was suppressing the growth of C. lusitanica while its growth was favored when it was mixed with C. lusitanica (p < 0.05). There were no significant dif- ferences between the pure and mixed plantations in their diversity and density of undergrowth woody plants (p > 0.05). Density of plantation trees were found not having a significant relation- ship with diversity of species (p = 0.801). There was a significant but not direct relationship be- tween light reached in the understory of the canopies and diversity of species in the plantations (p = 0.027). Overall, the result indicated that both the pure and the mixed plantations were favoring the recruitment of woody plants.
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Many of monoterpenes produced in plants contribute to defenses against herbivores, insects and microorganisms. Among those compounds, β -thujaplicin formed in Cupressaceae plants has a unique conjugated seven-membered ring and some useful biological activities, e.g. fungicide, repellent, insecticide and so on. The biosynthesis pathway of β - thujaplicin has not yet been revealed; we have been trying to uncover it using Cupressus lusitanica cultured cells as a model. In our previous study, terpinolene was identified as a potential β -thujaplicin intermediate at the branching point to terpenoids. In this article, terpinolene metabolism in C. lusitanica cultured cells was investigated, and it was shown that the microsomal fraction from cells oxidized terpinolene into the hydroxylated compound, 5-isopropylidene-2-met- hylcyclohex-2-enol (IME). Then, IME was further oxidized by microsomal fraction to the epoxidized compound, 1,6- epoxy-4(8)-p-menthen-2-ol (EMO). These were the only two products detected from the microsomal reactions, respect- tively. Moreover, microsomal reactions with monoterpenes other than terpinolene produced nothing detectable. These results show that the enzymes of these reactions had strict substrate specificity and regio-selectivity. Experiments on kinetics and with specific inhibitors confirmed that these reactions were caused by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, respectively. These results support our hypothesis that terpinolene is a putative intermediate of β -thujaplicin biosynthe- sis and show that IME and EMO are also putative intermediates.
The time course changes of various initial medium pH levels were investigated. The pH levels of the medium at day 0 were adjusted to 3.5, 4.5, 5.5, 6.5, and 7.5 but were changed to 3.7, 4.8, 5.4, 6.4, and 7.2, respectively, after auto- claving (121°C, 20 min) for sterilization. Regardless of the different initial pH values, all samples showed a pH of about 4 on day 3, which was the first sampling time (Fig. 9). This indicated that C. lusitanica cells have a buffering capac- ity and can change their extracellular pH from a range of 3.5–7.5 to the suitable pH region around 4.0. Such a trend was also observed during anthocyanin production with strawberry cell suspension cultures. 25
Therefore, our group has established an experimental system using cultured cells obtained from Cupressus lusi- tanica (Mexican cypress) . The elicitor-treated C. lu- sitanica cell cultures produce many types of olefine and oxygenated monoterpenes with a significant amount of b-thujaplicin [14, 15]. In this cell line, a 13 C-glucose feeding experiment demonstrated that b-thujaplicin was biosynthesized via an ordinary six-membered ring inter- mediate, i.e., a menthane-type skeleton produced by ter- pene synthase and followed by ring expansion to a unique conjugated seven-membered ring, tropolone . Assays of terpinolene and terpinolene synthase suggested that terpinolene is the first olefin monoterpene intermediate in b-thujaplicin production .
The reduction of blood cells observed in the treated animals could be ascribed to oil toxicity linked to bone marrow failure  or liver and spleen affection . Rats that received the oil at high doses exhibited de- creases in serum total proteins concentration and total protein concentration of the liver on the other studied organs, suggesting tissue injury . The drop in organ and blood protein levels could cause metabolic and phy- siological variations, susceptible to provoke disequilibria and behavioural problems observed in the rats. The study of possible toxic effects of C. lusitanica leaf essen- tial oil is herein being reported for the first time.
For the period 2003-2011, the results in Table 4.4 and Figure 4.6, shows the extent of changes that occurred in the major forest types, there were negative and positive changes. Compared to the Landsat image of 1986, Cupressus lusitanica, Bare land and rocky and water bodies classes increased in area while Mixed Podocarpus latifolius, Juniperus-Nuxia-Podocarpus factus, Tree ferns Cyathea manniana and Bamboo, Acacia abyssica and Scrabby grassland classes decreased in size. Figure 4.1 below shows these changes. The biggest change was that for Cupressus lusitanica (Planted) at 610.09 pixels which translate to 1,830.27 Ha (610.09*30m 2 /1000km 2 *100Ha) of forest land, this can be attributed forest
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Our data showed that earthquake induced landslides have significantly disturbed fine root biomass and increased fine root mortality in surface layer of forest soil. Fine root mortality rate varied with forest type in our study. Fine root mortality rate in 0 - 10 cm soil layer was 68.4% in Cupressus funebris which was higher than that of 37.4% in Cryptomeria fortunei. It is probably that Cupressus funebris fine root is more sensitive to earthquake induced disturbs.
Airborne pollen data were collected using three volumetric Hirst-type spore traps placed in Mornag (36°39N; 10°16E), Menzel M’hiri (35°38N; 10°41E) and Chaal (34°34N; 10°19E) during olive flowering season. The highest pollen index was recorded in the north (Mornag, 6487.1) corresponding mainly to 18 different pollen types emitted by anemophilous species with an important presence of Cupressus pollen type having the highest contribution. Lower pollen amounts were recorded in Menzel M’hiri (5983.8) and Chaal (925.3). Olea eurpoeae was the most presented
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is one of the world's cash crops particularly in Cameroon. However, in Cameroon, yield declines are caused by the attack of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. In this study, four essential oil extracts including Cupressus sempervirens, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Azadirachta indica and Capsicum annuum leaves were evaluated for their supression ability on this pathogen, under in vitro and in vivo conditions. In vitro tests of the antifungal activity of essential oils at different concentrations showed inhibition effects on the growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in different rates. The essential oils of C. sempervirens and C. ambrosioides were the most effective at the concentration of 20 μL/mL whereas A. indica was also effective only at the concentration of 100 μL/mL. The most in vitro effective essential oils (C. sempervirens, C. ambrosioides and A. indica oil) were then included in an in vivo assay to evaluate their suppression activities on the pathogen growth on tomato seedlings. The esseantial oils were applied to tomato seedlings as two groups; i) preventively; ii) curatively. The preventively treated plants showed an influence of the essential oils on the slowing of the development of disease with a rate of reduced desease leaves and the stem growth, in comparison to the control plants. In the curatively treated group of plants, there was almost an ineffective action of essential oils on both stem growth and disease progression. Consequently, the essential oil obtained from C. ambrosioides was most effective in vivo at a low concentration (20 μL/mL) against F. oxysporum. f. sp. lycopersici.
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Our data show that plastid DNA lineage sorting is nearly complete between recognized morphological units of Asian Cupressus (Fig. 2). Furthermore, across all popu- lations and species examined, a strong signal for phylo- geographic structure is present: N ST (0.962) was significantly larger than G ST (0.791, P < 0.05) (Table 1), demonstrating that gene-flow is very low between these broadly allopatric species (Fig. 1). According to prelimi- nary calibrations, C. funebris diverged from the other lin- eage/species around 26 million years ago (Mya), while the two major east-west divergences between C. duclouxiana and C. gigantea, and between C. chengiana and the C. torulosa/C. austrotibetica/C. cashmeriana lineage, were dated to around 10 Mya and 13 Mya, respectively. Although these estimates of dates of origin should be treated with caution, they correspond well with geologi- cal evidence that the QTP was extensively uplifted from the early Miocene to the Pliocene [30-34]. It is likely that these extensive uplifts created fragmentation and isola- tion of habitats, which promoted repeated allopatric spe- ciation of Cupressus in the QTP and adjacent regions. The formation of high mountains separated by deep val- leys will have reduced gene flow between Cupressus pop- ulations that were diverging into different species in different valleys and hastened the fixation of locally spe- Table 1: Estimates of average genetic diversity within populations (H S ), total gene diversity (H T ), interpopulation
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The genus Cupressus is one of several genera within the family Cupressaceae that has the common name cypress. It is considered a polyphyletic group. Based on genetic and morphological analysis, the Cupressus genus is found in the Cupressoideae subfamily . As currently treated, these cypresses are native to scattered localities in mainly warm temperate regions in the Northern Hemisphere, in- cluding western North America, Central America, north- west Africa, the Middle East, the Himalayas, southern China and northern Vietnam . Cupressus tonkinensis Silba., is an evergreen, medium-sized tree, up to 15 - 25 cm in height. Bark is grey brown with longitudinal fis- sures. Leaves are scaly, closely inserted on twigs. Cones are unisexual, grouped on a stalk. Male cone is subglo- bular. This is an endangered species in Vietnam, only found in a narrow area of the Central Region . Little is known about the chemical constituents and biological po- tential of this plant. Leaves and stems of C. tonkinensis produce monoterpene-rich oils whose composition is α-pinene (23.1%), sabinene (21.0%) and terpinen-4-ol (14.4%) in the leaf while, α-pinene (42.5%), myrcene
The “Cypress” plants belong to the family Cupressa- ceae and are grown in many subtropical areas for commercial purposes, such as ornamentation, and as a source of wood-building material [9, 10]. Cupressus macrocarpa is an evergreen tree up to 23-m tall with horizontal branches . Leaf EO from this plant is used against rheumatism, whooping cough, and styptic prob- lems . Several authors [11, 13–17] have described the EOs of C. macrocarpa. Zavarin et al.  focused on monoterpenes found in oil needles, while Cool , focused on the sesquiterpene compounds. A larger amount of monoterpenes, as compared to sesquiter- penes or diterpenes, was detected in the EOs of the branchlets of C. macrocarpa . The major compounds identified in volatile oil from the cone of C. macrocarpa Hartwig from Nilgiris, India were terpinel-4-ol, dinopol, α-pinene, and β-pinene . Recently Fahed et al.  reported that the EOs of C. macrocarpa has strong activity against specific dermal fungi.
Significant numbers of individuals of A. lusitanica were found with B. bifurcata (5 individuals), whereas only one individual was found on S. muticum. It can be suggested that the complexity of the algal habitat was not an important factor affecting the abundance of A. lusitanica. Previous studies showed that the structural complexity of algae was not a consistent predictor of the number of individuals and species of amphipods (Russo 1990; Schreider et al. 2003; Engelen et al. 2013). Con- versely, Taylor and Cole (1994) and Wernberg et al. (2004) reported a higher abundance of small crustaceans in more structurally complex algal habitats. The number of indi- viduals found associated with intertidal algal samples in the present investigation corroborates results obtained by Bellan-Santini and Marques (1986) on the Portuguese coast, where the lower number of specimens ranging from 2 to 5 individuals, was reported from intertidal habitats and the higher number (up to 28 individuals) was
Abstract: In this study, lignins were extracted from three different plant species including poplar (populus nigra), cypress (Cupressus sempervirens), and bagasse (Gramineae Saccharum officinarum L.) by dioxane method and ionic liquid method and their molecular weight distributions (GPC) and their structural features (¹³C NMR) were compared to conclude which of lignins (DL or IL) is more unchanged and similar to the original lignin. The results indicate that there is considerable differences between dioxane lignins and ionic liquid lignins of three different species regarding average molecular weights (M¯ n ). Meanwhile, ¹³C NMR spectroscopy, showed that dominant structural units of the three kind of lignins are phenyl
Maize is cultivated worldwide and used as food and for fuel production. It is usually attacked and destroyed during storage by Sitophilus zeamais. With inaccessibility to synthetic pesticides, farmers are left with the choice of using locally available plant based pesticides. For this reason, we tested the insecticidal potentials of essential oils (EOs) of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Cupressus sempervirens and their binary combinations against S. zeamais on stored maize. Mortality, progeny inhibition, repellence and damage were tested. Pesticide characteristics of both essential oils were dose-dependent, 200 μL/kg of all the combinations caused at least 80% mortality within 14 days of storage while the 50:50 combination completely inhibited progeny production. Moreover, 8 μL of all the EO were repellent to the weevils. The 50:50 binary combination was the most active in all the tests carried out. Pesticidal interactions between the oils in combination were mostly additive and synergistic. There was also a good control of insect population increase and grain damage after six months of storage. Therefore both EOs can be recommended for the control of S. zeamais.
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Herbal medicines are potential sources for the development of new antiviral drugs, since they can be selected on the basis of their ethnic medicinal use, for example, against infection. These plants produce a variety of chemical constituents with the potential to inhibit viral replication and compounds from natural sources to control viral infection. In this study, three extracts of Azhadirachta indica and Quercus lusitanica were examined for their antiviral activity against dengue 1 & 3 in comparison with Ribavirin was preceded by cytotoxic studies to determine the maximum nontoxic dose (MNTD) for in vitro antiviral assay. The Physio-chemical characteristic studies of three plant extracts were tabulated in Table 2. The MNTD of three extracts of Azhadirachta indica and Quercus lusitanica is shown in Table 3. The cytotoxicity of the three extracts of Azhadirachta indicia against Dengue 1 & 3 were evaluated, showing that the extracts were not toxic to Vero cells from 500µg/ml onwards where as the MNTD of Quercus lusitanica were estimated as aqueous (125µg/ml), aqueous-ethanolic (250µg/ml) and ethanolic (125µg/ml) showed toxic free in Vero cell line. In order to screen the anti-dengue properties of lyophilized aqueous, aqueous- ethanolic and ethanolic extracts of Azhadirachta indica and Quercus lusitanica, in vitro antiviral assay was conducted using the MNTD of each plant extracts against TCID 50 of dengue 1 & 3. Vero cells grown in the tissue culture flask with MEM supplemented with 10% FBS would form a monolayer sheet of cells. The morphology of Vero cells was clearly visualized using an inverted
Cupressus macrocarpa (Hartweg. ex Gordon) as a medicinal plant belongs to the family Cupressaceae and commonly known as Monterey Cypress (Cool, 2005; Thukral et al., 2014). It is widely distributed throughout the tropical and temperate regions around the world i.e., Mexico, North America Asia, and North Africa (El-Ghorab et al., 2007). C. macrocarpa was used traditionally for decades for the treatment of various ailments, e.g., styptic problem, eliminates fluid retention, whooping cough and rheumatism (Thukral et al., 2014). C.
The aim of present study was to investigate antibacterial activity of Cupressus torulosa leaf extract. The dried material was extracted by using 3 different solvents namely methanol, hexane and ethyl actetate. Plant extracts were subjected to phytochemical screening which showed the presence of Alkaloid, Glycoside, tannins, carbohydrate and amino acids. In test for antibacterial activity against four microorganisms (Streptococcus pyogens, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Escherechia coli, Staphylococcus aureus), methanol extracts showed highest antibacterial activity whereas hexane extracts showed less activity. This activity was assessed by measuring the diameter of ZOI of four concentrations used. ZOI was larger in 200ug/ml and least in 25ug/ml concentration of extracts. The largest zone of inhibition (15mm) was obtained with S.pyogens in methanol extract. When hexane extract was used, largest ZOI was 10mm against acinetobacter calcoaceticus. When ethyl acetate extracts was used, largest ZOI was 12mm against staphylococcus aureus. Among four pathogenic bacteria used all were found susceptible (ZOI<10) to plant extracts at different concentrations in methanol extracts. In ethyl acetate extracts, S.aureus and E. coli were found less susceptible whereas in hexane extracts, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus was found less susceptible.
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The housefly, M. domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) is cosmopolitan; it generally breeds in decaying organic matter and feeds in manure, garbage and food left out by humans . The housefly is an important medical insect pest that causes irritation, spoils food and acts as a vector for more than 100 human and animal pathogenic organisms such as entomopathogenic bacteria, enterovirus and protozoa cysts . Adult houseflies have been shown to transmit pathogens from their sponging mouthparts, through vomitus on the sticky parts of the feet and through the intestinal tract, thereby contaminating food and propagating disease . Control of housefly largely relies on chemical insecticides. Unfortunately, houseflies have developed resistance to most of the synthetic insecticides . In addition, synthetic insecticides have an adverse effect on the environment, health and threat of persistence the bio- magnifications through the food chain [5, 6]. Recently, the application of botanical products has drawn much attention as effective alternatives to the synthetic pesticides; these plant products are reported to be more effective, less expensive, biodegradable and safe for mankind and environment than synthetic counterparts . Therefore, alternatives to conventional insecticides are required to be developed from the active ingredients of plant origin, and these compounds may serve as insecticides, antifeedants, repellents as well as attractants [8, 9]. Cupressus sempervirens is a medicinal plant has antiseptic, aromatherapeutic, astringent, balsamic or anti- inflammatory, antispasmodic, astringent, antiseptic, deodorant and diuretic activities. Several monoterpenes, diterpenes, polyphenols, flavonoids, flavonoid glycoside and bioflavonoids have been isolated from this plant .
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