from curative to preventive is being discernible. It is estimated that there will be a huge increase in need of publichealth professionals day by day. This would require human resources from diverse disciplines, fields and backgrounds. However, the enrolment of them in the publichealth education will ultimately decide whether they can be successfully integrated into the communityhealth arena or not. Objective: To appraise the conceptual differences and similarities between publichealth related contents of syllabus of Ayurvedic graduation (B.A.M.S.) with syllabi of M.B.B.S., M.P.H. and M.D. (Social and Preventive Medicine). Methodology: A review based study was conducted during February 1 st February- 15 th March 2010. To appraise the conceptual differences and similarities, comparison of contents of syllabus of Swasthavarita subject of B.A.M.S. curriculum was done with syllabi of communitymedicine of M.B.B.S. as well as of entire syllabus of M.P.H. and M.D. (Social and Preventive Medicine). Standard syllabus of B.A.M.S. and M.B.B.S. degrees was taken from official website of Central Council of Indian Medicine (C.C.I.M), New Delhi and Medical Council of India (M.C.I.), New Delhi, respectively. Master in PublicHealth (M.P.H.) and M.D. (Social and Preventive Medicine) syllabi from official website of PGIMER, Chandigarh were considered as standards syllabi for study. The syllabi were divided in to the sub-categories and conceptual comparison was done. Frequencies and percentages were used to draw inferences. Conclusions: Conceptual similarities were found in the majority of the topics of the B.A.M.S. syllabus with the syllabi of communitymedicine of M.B.B.S.; M.P.H. P.G.I.M.E.R., Chandigarh and M.D. CommunityMedicine. Some topics like health financing, health planning, monitoring management and administration, knowledge of modern technology etc. were found lacking in B.A.M.S. syllabus.
The CHS centers combine basic primary care and publichealth services. All centers are expected to provide the fol- lowing six services: prevention; health education and promo- tion; birth control; outpatient evaluation and management of common illnesses; case management of chronic disease; and physical rehabilitation . Many centers have smaller, affili- ated clinical facilities (usually translated into English as “sta- tions”). In 2006, the Chinese central government mandated that all CHS centers must include TCM services . More recently, the State Council established updated national goals for the CHS centers. One goal was that more than 95% of the CHS centers and 70% of the stations provide TCM services by the end of 2015. In addition, 20% of the staff must be TCM practitioners in 95% of the CHS centers. Further, at least 70% of the stations must have at least 1 TCM practitioner. The doc- ument also mandated that all provinces and cities must offer a standardized TCM curriculum for general practitioners .
An example of our use of creative problem solving occurred as we began implementing the HOLA intervention (Rhodes, Daniel, et al., 2013; Tanner et al., 2014). While our previous studies included substantial proportions of transgender persons (Rhodes, Hergenrather, et al., 2010; Rhodes, McCoy, et al., 2012), we realized that our the HOLA intervention did not acknowledge and address the concerns and contexts of transgender persons in the same way it did for gay, bisexual, and other MSM. For instance, the “H” in our HOLA stood for “hombres” (men) (Rhodes, Daniel, et al., 2013), and yet, some participants who met inclusion criteria did not self- identify as men. When we realized our error, we quickly but thoughtfully revised the intervention curriculum. We no longer defined and gave meaning to the letters within the acronym HOLA in the intervention title, and we removed the meaning of the acronym HOLA from logos, t-shirts, caps, and all printed materials. We also revised all facilitator language to include “transgender persons,” rather than only “gay, bisexual, and other MSM” in Spanish. We updated information to include rates of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among transgender persons, revised role- plays to include transgender scenarios, and ensured that all visuals included images of transgender women. We also successfully developed and implemented a transgender photovoice project to better understand their needs, priorities, and assets (Rhodes, Alonzo, Mann, Sun, et al., 2015).
The Faculty Education Committee (FEC) established a small working group, with representation from both Australia and New Zealand, and this group worked with the FEC to refine and modify the competencies and produce a set of Australasian Competencies for PublicHealthMedicine. This process involved consideration of the UK Faculty of PublicHealth Learning Outcomes and material developed by the US PublicHealth Leadership Society. In addition, a reference group of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Fellows and trainees advised on the development of a set of competencies for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health, to complement the competencies developed in respect of Maori health. Drafts of the Australasian Competencies for PublicHealthMedicine were distributed to all Fellows and trainees for comment and the final version was shaped by responses to this consultation.
The goal and responsibility of graduate institutions of publichealth is to educate and train the publichealth workforce to address the challenges of Health for All in the 21st century and meet the Millennium Development Goals. Over the past 50 years, the Braun School of PublicHealth and CommunityMedicine in Jerusalem, Israel—through its international training activities including the International Master of PublicHealth (IMPH) program, PhD training, and short-term training workshops in Israel and abroad—has built a network of publichealth scholars in low-, transition- and high-income countries who benefit from academic expertise in Israel and transfer that expertise towards development efforts in their home communities. Given the number of IMPH graduates, the countries they come from, and the work they do upon their return, the IMPH has had real and sustainable impact on publichealth globally and in developing countries in particular.
As we come up to this year’s graduation in a few weeks, we also welcome this year’s class as our newest alumni! Our 40 year anniversary is marked by the experiences and successes of the over 750 alumni who call the Braun School ‘home’ and the broader community, ‘family’. Congratulations to all!!
A fortnight ago, I presented part of my MPH master’s thesis at the 16th World Conference on Tobacco or Health held in Abu Dhabi from 16th – 21st March, 2015. The conference whose theme was “Tobacco and Non-Communicable Diseases” highlighted the fact that tobacco use is the most alarming risk factor for diseases causing millions of deaths every year and contributes to the enormous burden of NCDs all over the world. I have considered working with some organ- izations and individuals at different levels of tobacco control in Kenya; I am currently in touch with key persons and organizations to see what can be done to make future generations free from tobacco use.
Contra Costa’s Monument Community Partnership (MCP) offers a different kind of example of how a local health department can participate in a community initiated and directed effort. The MCP and CCHS were funded by The California Endowment’s (TCE) Partnership for the Public’s Health Initiative in 2000. While TCE funding has ended, MCP continues to thrive and grow. Health department staff offer their skills and expertise to help MCP develop organizationally. By being present at Partnership meetings, staff is able to identify ways CCHS can contribute to and further the community’s health agenda. CCHS has, for example, provided neighborhood-level data to illuminate community demographics and trends, helped train and staff a resident-led Photovoice Project, provided outreach volunteers with training in the county’s computerized resource network, and is currently working with MCP on neighborhood safety issues.
4. E NTRY REQUIREMENTS TO THE T RAINING P ROGRAMME
Entry into the Training Programme is by means of a selection interview following a call for applications 1 .
The minimum requirement is a medical qualification recognised and registered by the Medical Council of Malta. Registered doctors will have completed a pre- registration period supported by Foundation Achievement of Competence Document (FACD) 2 or equivalent. Unless in possession of, or already reading for a recognised Master of Science in PublicHealth, candidates must formally declare on the Declaration Form (Annex 1) that they are willing to undertake this academic course at the earliest opportunity; and that they intend to pursue the necessary training as outlined in this framework document, leading to Specialist Registration in PublicHealthMedicine within the stipulated time period 3 .
While multiple medical schools that have instituted in- person publichealth curricula [6–8], to our knowledge flipped classroom models with community-specific topics have not been reported. The flipped classroom model al- lows students to interact with digital modules on their own time, which would allow for integration of publichealthcurriculum into the clinical year when psychosocial determinants of health are most relevant to the learner . In this way, students could review a module on a pub- lic health theme as they encounter real-life patients af- fected by that topic. Although a virtual publichealthcurriculum would be useful to students across their med- ical school tenure, integration into the third year of med- ical school engenders recognition of the importance of publichealth topics across multiple medical specialties. In addition, an online-based curriculum provides the oppor- tunity for teaching relevant publichealth topics catered to students at multiple rotation sites with differing patient populations. Given the support for flipped classroom de- sign in teaching biomedical concepts in medical school, there appears to be an opportunity to expand this model to population health topics .
The examiners were: Dr Kala Naidoo (convenor); Prof Eric Buch; Prof David Buso; Prof Brendan Girdler-Brown; Prof Noddy Jinabhai; Dr Stephen Knight; Prof Shan Naidoo; Prof Helen Schneider; Dr Virginia Zweigenthal. There were two candidates and both were successful. We congratulate and welcome our two new fellows, Drs Leegale Adonis (Wits) and Ingrid Weber (Pretoria). Dr Weber is, to our knowledge, the first PublicHealthMedicine registrar from the University of Pretoria to be admitted by our College as a fellow by examination. May she be the first of many more.
Trustworthiness of qualitative research (Shenton, 2004) relates to credibility, dependability, confirmability and transferability. Credibility was assured by application of an appropriate data collection method (group interviews) from an appropriately-constituted sample of individuals who had insight into the topic under question. Although the sample was relatively small, as is often the case with qualitative studies, it was a convenience sample drawn from the 28/31 cohort members (81%) who had expressed interest in the study; all had been employed in a UK National Health Service hospital prior to commencing the course and the only inclusion criterion was limited to having undertaken the course for at least 6 months (all of the cohort completed and qualified as SCPHNs). All participants gave informed consent on both occasions. Dependability was assured firstly by ensuring that the group meetings were held off-site and facilitated by an experienced researcher who was independent of the course team. Group rules were agreed to ensure that all could express opinion openly without reprisal. Secondly, all discussions were audiotaped and transcribed by individuals who were independent of the course team. Both transcribers were experienced at this process. The data analysis process followed the recognised framework of Colaizzi (1978). For confirmability it was unfortunately not possible to return transcript analyses to
Tracing pathogen phylogenies can be very useful. Influ- enza phylogenies suggest which strains are likely to spread in future epidemics (Bush et al. 1999; Ghedin et al. 2005; Smith 2006), information vital to decisions about vaccine design. The current H5N1 avian influenza pandemic appears to have originated via reassortment between avian influenza strains circulating in eastern Asia (Li et al. 2004). Publichealth now uses such methods routinely to trace the source of contaminated foods. These phylogenetic methods have a remarkable reach, back even into prehis- tory. For instance, the complete genome sequence of the severely pathogenic Shigella flexneri reveals that it is phy- logenetically indistinguishable from the Escherichia coli that lives normally in the human gut (Wei et al. 2003). The difference seems to be in a few virulence factors that result in substantially different ecological niches for the two organisms.
The course aims to provide the academic preparation for managers in health care and publichealth and those that aspire to such a career. This includes managers in the broad range of health care organisations from central agencies, health insurers, non- government organisations and the various health provider organisations. It involves structured learning in the key management disciplines including policy, organisational theory, financial management, human resources management, economics and marketing, with an emphasis on health care organisations and specific health-focused domains such as epidemiology, biostatistics and managing the patient care process. The course adopts an adult learning approach, encouraging self-directed learning, independent research and enquiry, reflection from practice, and peer learning with guidance from experienced academics in their respective fields.
With escalating healthcare costs, persistent growth in the ranks of the uninsured, increasing emphasis on healthcare quality and outcomes, epidemics of chronic diseases, ever-widening health disparities, and out- breaks of new emerging infectious diseases, there is growing awareness that greater collaboration between the two professions is not an option, but a pressing mandate. Moreover, because of these shared chal- lenges, opportunities for partnership today are even more auspicious. Nonetheless, underestimating the cul- tural and institutional barriers separating medicine and publichealth discounts the enormous labor ahead to bridge these historic gaps. But, in the wake of the threats posed by terrorism, there is an even greater societal imperative, because an optimal preparation for, and response to, terrorist actions must include close coordination between medical practice and pub- lic health. Medical professionals play an essential role in surveillance of publichealth diseases. For example, who can predict what greater tragedy may have emerged from the anthrax events if an alert South Florida physician had not notified his local health department? In order to highlight the importance of strengthening this partnership, this paper reviews the 10-year history of the MPHI, discusses some of the current MPHI activities in three bellwether states (Texas, Florida, and California), as well as internation-
The government of South Korea and its medical personnel must make a way by which health professionals who have escaped from the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) can play a positive and practical role in unification and south-north medical unification while south-north authority talks on DPRK publichealth and medicine manpower development are not going smoothly. Medical personnel escaped from the DPRK have to be recruited for the interviewer of the national examination, to improve the accuracy of national examination interviews. For those medical professionals who have escaped from the DPRK with 6 years' medical college education, but failed the interview on the national examination, we propose here a course of 3–6 months for them to have a right to apply the Korean Medical Licensing Examinations (KMLE). We also propose that medical professionals who have escaped from the DPRK who have graduated from a 6-year medical college in the DPRK and who are medical doctors over the fifth grade or with more than 6 years of experience can be qualified as unification medical doctors and be exempted from the KMLE, getting the right to go directly into an internship and residency. They should be permitted to work in manpower development projects for the health professions. They should also be given opportunities such as to become psychiatrists who treat the mental illness of persons escaped from the DPRK and people from North Korea after unification. Medical students in South Korea should earn college credits on the topic of medical unification and not only students, but all South Korean medical personnel, should prepare for north-south medical unification with an open mind. A way for each medical college to participate in DPRK manpower development for the health professions through a memorandum of understanding between the medical colleges of the south and north.
Promoting health and wellbeing, and providing preventive health programs is core business of Council – as per the functions outlined in the Local Government Act 1999. The SA PublicHealth Act 2011 also includes ( S.37 ‘Functions of Councils’) that Local Government must .. “provide, or support the provision of, educational information about publichealth and to provide or support activities within its area to preserve, protect or promote publichealth” …. “ and to take action to preserve, protect and promote publichealth within its area”. The PublicHealth Act 2011, and the State PublicHealth Plan 2013 emphasise this element as a key Theme for future public and environmental health planning and programs across all levels of government. Council’s own City Plan and related strategic planning documents also strongly support the need for Council to plan effectively in this area, and develop strategically targeted and outcome-focused policies, projects, and partnerships (See Appendix A ). This need is reinforced by the concerning recent health statistics for the Council area. As outlined in Section 7, the health profile of Council’s community demonstrates very clearly an immediate need to actively address the health issues caused (or exacerbated) by poor nutrition and lack of physical activity. There has been a significant increase in illnesses linked to these factors including diabetes, heart disease, obesity, and a range of illnesses that are predicted to effectively reduce the lifespan of the next generation. The cost to our community ( and the impact on Council’s services) due to a lack of locally relevant and targeted preventive health programs will also significantly increase over time, if appropriate action is not taken in partnership with the State and Commonwealth governments – and an informed community.
Design and implementation of rapid high-throughput methods will be essential to maximize the benefit of sequencing for certain conditions in the neonatal population. Longitudinal follow-up of parents will allow the study of parental decision-making, measure parental preferences in real-world settings, and assess test-related stress or anxiety. Medical outcomes of the children who undergo sequencing will need to be monitored over many years. Ultimately, these data will aid in the development of best clinical practices and provide guidance on the implementation of sequencing in newborns. Although genomic sequencing will expand our ability to diagnose conditions and offer personalized treatments, health care providers and publichealth entities must be good stewards of this technology, ensuring careful attention to ethical standards and evidence-based outcomes in making recommendations about its use.
The interaction among prescription drugs, medicine and the law is an intricate one, involving patients, doctors, government officials and drug representatives with ties to advocacy and professional organizations, and regulatory. Recent events, such as increasing rates of prescription drug abuse and overdose deaths and physician prosecutions, have intensified the conflict. This project, a series of news articles, examines the relationship between policy, pain and prescription drugs with perspectives from the fields of law enforcement, publichealth and medicine. It serves as a remedy to medical journalism that has largely been unwilling or unable to tease out the nuances of this complex relationship The project considers the ways that health and law