The SET program consisted of intensive and maintenance phases. The intensive phase was fully supervised by physio- therapists and nurses who conducted 16 sessions (2 sessions per week for 8 weeks). Each session included upper and lower limb cycle ergometer exercise training. Patients were trained on both stationary arm and leg ergometers. A brief warm up period of 10–15 minutes was performed before each training session. Instructions on correct stretching techniques and supervision of the patients throughout the entire training period were given. Exercise training during the first 2 weeks included arm and leg cycling trained for 30–40 minutes per session at mild intensity (30%–35% of heart rate reserve [HRR]) 18 and was evaluated weekly.
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We evaluated models to fit individual patterns of per- ceived leg exertion as a function of exercise intensity expressed as proportion of Wmax. Four models were stud- ied, a power model based on the Borg scale, a linear model with a delay, and extension of these two models when introducing a delay in the power model, and a delay model with a linear and a quadratic term. Our main findings were that models incorporating both delay and curvature had the smallest error term (RMSE) and were flexible enough to fit varying individual trajectories. Patterns in the indi- vidual trajectories can be illustrated by using functional clusters which identified linear and quadratic patterns, distinguished by the rate of rise in perceived leg exertion and the size of the delay as work became progressively harder.
We embedded measurement and control functions into a single wearable unit to personal customizing machine- based exercise. Moreover, we introduced the Internet tech- nology to support the personal customization process without time and place constraints. A wearable unit capa- ble of outputting control signals provides the appropriate exercise levels, based on exercise programs and measured biosignals. Users wearing this unit can take advantage of various exercise programs using a variety of exercise machines. A prototype of the wearable unit measured heart rate and EMG signals and wirelessly transmitted the control commands. By applying this unit to an Internet- based exercise system, we were able to personally custom- ize cycle ergometer exercise. The design of our wearable unit is a progressive step towards establishing a conven- ient and continuously supported wellness environment. In the future, we will be able to apply these units to out- door exercises and rehabilitation.
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The molecular mechanism to explain higher [sIgA] has not been completely elucidated. One hypothesis is that lower [sIgA] after the strenuous exercise is a consequence of greater sympathetic activity, which may reduce saliva flow rate and negatively affects sIgA secretion and [sIgA] , . Yet, SFR remained unaltered and it is not clear how much of an influence the sIgA secretion response played in increasing [sIgA] following the GXT in the current study. As such, these variables may not fully explain the higher [sIgA] in our study. Basic research performed in rodents, have demonstrated that the sympathetic activation increases [sIgA] concentration [37-39]. Some suggest that sympathetic activity increases the transcytosis of polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) on the epithelial cells that finished in a higher salivary [sIgA] . Others indicate that the sympathetic activity stimulates pIgR and secretory component levels in the salivary glands . Recent work demonstrated that norepinephrine activates α and β receptors on the submandibular glands to increase the secretion of
A kayak ergometer (Dansprint PRO, Dansprint Asp, Hvidovre, Denmark) used during the exercise capacity testing, was equipped with external force sensors at- tached to the wires connecting both left and right side of the paddle driving the flywheel of the kayak ergom- eter. Individual footrests for the left and right foot were built to enable measurements of pushing and pulling forces. Individual adjustments of the footrests were pos- sible in accordance with the original footrest design. Foot straps were used to maintain the position of the foot during kayaking. The force sensors were manufac- tured for this specific application. The sensors attached to the wires are based on small and light steel rings fit- ted with strain gauges, while the foot-rest sensors, also based on strain gauges, were integrated in the foot-rests. The strain gauges are coupled in full a Wheatstone bridge, to make the force sensors insensitive to factors such as temperature and resistance in the sensor wires. The sensors were calibrated by applying known linear forces in the same range as the measured forces. Data sig- nals, to assess forces at the paddle and the feet, from the force sensors were collected through electric cables with LabWeiw 8.0 via the data acquisition system DAQPad- 6015 and SC-2345 from National Instruments (Austin, Texas, USA) and data signals, to assess power, from the kayak ergometer were collected with the Dansprint Ana- lyser 1.09 (Dansprint Asp, Hvidovre, Denmark).
The procedure of the exercise was then explained to the subjects. They were told that they were not under any obligation to complete the study and if they experienced symptoms such as: shortness of breath; fatigue or discom- fort, during the exercise the test would be terminated. All subjects had a demonstration on the bicycle ergometer for familiarization and were given oral instructions with respect to exercise testing. They were requested to avoid nones- sential physical work and strenuous exercise on the day before the testing. Furthermore, they were requested not to smoke, or drink alcohol, or coffee on the day of the exercise test. Subsequently, all the subjects were introduced to the modified Borg scale for rating perceived physical exertion. In the scale 0 represents no exertion; 5 represents moderate exertion and 10 represents extreme exertion.
Lisbon. Inclusion criteria include: age > 18 years; male and female participants who had an established history of the following conditions or procedures: angiographic- ally documented CAD in at least one major epicardial vessel; those that had clinical evidence of CAD in the form of previous MI; or coronary revascularization (cor- onary artery bypass grafting [CABG] or percutaneous coronary intervention); or angina pectoris. Exclusion cri- teria will be participants who have heart failure, had heart transplants with either cardiac resynchronization therapy or implantable defibrillators, and inability to comply with guidelines for participation in exercise test- ing and training  as well as significant limiting and/ or unstable co-morbidities that would prevent full par- ticipation such as other diagnosed cardiovascular dis- ease, arthritis, and/or metabolic disorders. Patients will be excluded from the study if a new cardiac event de- velops (myocardial infarction, coronary stent insertion, coronary angioplasty, or CABG surgery), hospitalization or any physical limitation that would prevent from exer- cising. Relative and absolute contraindications for exercise testing will be assessed before each measurement round followed by strict compliance with the indications for ter- mination of exercise testing . Compliance with the ET and adherence will be determined by the number of train- ing sessions attended and successfully completed in ac- cordance with the exercise protocol. It is common among CR studies to establish a minimum training attendance of at least 75%, set upon the minimum attendance rate to
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an effect on the amount of adipose tissue that affects adipocytic secretions  and along with reducing fat percent decreases levels of inflammation . Given the importance and potential role of sports exercises in reducing weight and complications of overweight, improving cardiovascular  and oxidative stress reduction  are used today to improve the physical condition of obese and diabetic patients, instead of using chemical drugs- regular exercise, including endurance exercises along with the use of medicinal herbs extracts. One of the medicinal plants is urtica with the scientific name urticadioica, which has been introduced in Iranian traditional medicine as an adjunct to the treatment of diabetes . In European countries, urticais mostly used to reduce inflammation , blood pressure, and the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis . Nowadays, exercise on cycle-ergometer is considered as a new exercise among the people of the community. However, the effect of this new exercise on the concentration of adipokinechemerin and the relationship between this type of exercise and the mechanism of this hormone along with the use of urtica extract are not clear due to lack of research history. Several studies have been conducted on the effects of various types of sports activities on chemerin levels and the results have not been consistent due to differences in the type of subjects, intensity, type and volume of exercise. Zolfaghari et al.  and Askari et al.  reported no significant changes in chemerin levels of their subjects, but Jafari et al.  and Sadeghipour et al.  reported a significant decrease in chemerin levels in their studies. Therefore, considering the contradictions in the results of the effect of exercise on chemerin levels and the gap of studies in of the effect of training on cycle-ergometer along with the use of urtica extract on the plasma levels of chemerin, conducting this study seems necessary.
was demonstrated. We hypothesize that IMT shortens inspira- tory time. This allows more time for exhalation and relaxation and may reduce dynamic hyperinflation, facilitating lung emptying. This study showed that increased muscle capacity led to improvements in breathing patterns, with a significant decrease of the fraction breathing frequency (bf) to minute ventilation (Ve) and an increase of mean inspiratory flow both during incremental and constant load exercises. This pattern of breathing, in conjunction with greater respiratory muscle strength and endurance, seems to be the most important reason for the observed reduction in breathlessness during both kinds of exercise tests.
zero)’. During fast cyclical contractions such as pedalling, the effect of activation-deactivation dynamics becomes more influential on the amount of positive and negative work produced by a muscle. The short cycle duration accompanying high cadences starts to become problematic due to the physiological time requirements for the rise and decline of muscle active state and the delay between neural excitation and muscle force response (i.e. electromechanical delay; EMD) (Neptune & Kautz, 2001; van Soest & Casius, 2000). Factors attributed to causing the latency have been suggested to include: the time course of action potential propagation along the sarcolemma into the transverse tubules (i.e. axonal conduction velocity), the processes of excitation-contraction coupling and the time required to stretch the series elastic component of muscle (i.e. force transmission) (Muraoka et al., 2004; Norman & Komi, 1979). However, the contribution of each of these factors to overall EMD is undetermined. EMD has been documented between 30 and 100 ms in duration from onset of muscle active state to peak muscle force (Cavanagh & Komi, 1979; Corser, 1974; Inman et al., 1952; Winters & Stark, 1988) but approximately 90 ms in most of the leg muscles during cycling (Van Ingen Schenau et al., 1995; Vos et al., 1991). It has been suggested that EMD remains relatively constant regardless of movement complexity (Cavanagh & Komi, 1979), cadence (Li & Baum, 2004) and duration for which the movement is performed (Van Ingen Schenau et al., 1992). The functional role of the muscles involved does not appear to affect EMD, with no substantial differences in time reported between mono-articular (93 ± 30 ms) and bi-articular (95 ± 35 ms) muscles (Van Ingen Schenau et al., 1995). As such a blanket EMD of 100 ms has been used in cycling studies when shifting the EMG signal by a given time period or a given portion of the pedal cycle to enable associations to be made between muscle activation and crank torque patterns (Samozino et al., 2007). Using EMG analyses several authors have reported that peak muscle activation occurs earlier in the pedal cycle with increasing cadence, and have suggested that it is a strategy by the CNS to compensate for EMD, in an attempt to maintain a high level of pedal force occurring at the most effective section of the pedal cycle (Neptune et al., 1997; Samozino et al., 2007; Sarre & Lepers, 2007).
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significant increase in multiple muscle strength outcomes in older adults (i.e., leg strength (18 %), leg power (12 %), upper leg muscle mass (7 %), and total leg muscle mass (7 %), all p < 0.05). Similarly, Lovell et al.  observed a significant 18 % (p < 0.05) increase in leg strength and a 13.5 % (p < 0.05) increase in peak power after 16 weeks of CET in older patients. A 12-week exercise program (cycling 3–4 times/week, 20–45 min/session at 60–80 % of HRR) led to an 11 % improvement in quadriceps muscle volume, a 23 % increase in knee extensor power and a 31 % increase in knee extensor peak isometric force, as well as a 12 % increase in normalized power and a 20 % increase in normalized force (all, p < 0.05) . Nine months of CET three times per week (∼35 min per session) increased the strength of the knee extensor by 10 % (p < 0.05), with no significant change in the strength of the other muscles . Conversely, Perini et al.  did not report any significant change in quadriceps isometric strength or endurance after 8 weeks of CET. Likewise, Denison et al. reported no sig- nificant change between training and control groups in maximum grip strength after 12 weeks of CET at 50–70 of HR max . Finally, Malbut et al.  observed no effect of CET
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In the present study, 10 participants answered a questionnaire related to the intake of fluids and food during exercise and sports as well as oral health behavior Figure 2. According to the results of the questionnaire, all participants consumed fluids during sports and exercise. Most of them said they drank mineral water or a sports drink. The next most common fluid was tea (green tea and barley tea). Approximately 30% partici- pants who said that they had only tea and/or mineral water during sports and exercise did not consider the fluid intake as food intake but as consumption for quenching their thirst. Half of the participants answered that during exercise, they eat food often or occasionally, and that they liked jelly-type nutritional supplements (for ex- ample, Wider In Jerry, from Morinaga & Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). Thus, our study results indicate that 70% participants used sports drinks, jelly-type nutritional sup- plements, chocolate, and/or rice balls as the preferred method of food intake during sports and exercise.
dysfunction and impaired vasodilatory capacity of the periph- eral vasculature may be the mechanisms. The prevalence of EBPR in this study during treadmill and cycle ergometry was similar at 20% and 19.1%, respectively, but lower than previously observed. This may be the result of improved BP control from the use of more effective antihypertensive medications either singly or in combinations, and improved awareness of the dangers of HBP now. In this study, most of the patients were on diuretics, calcium channel blockers, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Hypotension during or after exercise is usually seen in subjects with myocardial ischemia, cardiomyopathy, cardiac arrhythmias, vasovagal reactions, left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, hypovolemia, and prolonged vigorous exercise. 13 None of our
Matsumoto et al.  and Moritani et al.  have proposed an incremental cycle ergometer test utilizing fatigue curves to identify the maximal power output at which an individ- ual can maintain without evidence of fatigue, called the electromyographic fatigue threshold (EMG FT ). The EMG FT test is an adaptation to deVries original monopoloar phys- ical working capacity at the fatigue threshold (PWC FT ) test , using a bipolar supramaximal protocol, which involves determining the rate of rise in electrical activity from the vastus lateralis during four, 60 second work bouts on a cycle ergometer, with varying power outputs. The four power outputs are then plotted as a function of four EMG slope coefficients, with the y-intercept defined as the electromyographic fatigue threshold (EMG FT ). Matsumoto et al described the EMG FT as the highest
over method. Namely, subjects participated in both con- ditions: L-ornithine hydrochloride supplementation and placebo (indigestible dextrin aqueous solution). Due to the cross-over design, all subjects participated in both conditions with a week wash-out period between con- ditions. Moreover, the test condition order was counter balanced to eliminate order effect. In addition, subjects were instructed to refrain from intensive exercise for two days prior to the experiment and fast overnight before the experiment to avoid a nutritional imbalance created by eating and drinking. Subjects were also instructed not to consume beverages or food containing caffeine during the experimental period.
The indoor cycle ergometer allows for competitive and recreational cyclists to train with precisely controlled and monitored pedaling. With the wide availability of increasingly economical and sophisticated devices, indoor cycle ergometers are becoming a more popular training method for cyclists at all levels. In some instances the cycle ergometer can enable the cyclist to record their speed, power output, and spinning efficiency while relaying the information to a computer. In addition, the computer can simulate a virtual course through which the cyclist can pedal or simulate an event. As an example, if the cyclist pedals uphill in the virtual world the cycle ergometer applies a load to the roller and the effect of pedaling uphill is simulated. However, while pedaling indoors the cyclist body position is not the same as while pedaling outdoors. This can be contributed to outdoor conditions involving roots, rocks, and more importantly
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Under the guidance of a physical therapist, group I will perform cycle ergometer exercises on a vertical, stationary cycle ergometer, Dyamond line, Uniforce Fit- ness, Dy, model EB 497E (firstname.lastname@example.org. br) (Figure 2) and conventional exercises and group II will perform conventional exercises alone. Ergometer resistance will be minimal (30 W) because the aim is not to perform cardiac exercise. The duration of erg- ometer cycling will be increased gradually, starting with 10 minutes in the first 2 sessions and increasing to 20 minutes for the remainder, and its aims are to im- prove coordination, proprioception, ROM, and muscle strength. For this reason, changes are not made during performance of the exercise; frequency is maintained at
Anthropometric measures were taken according to the procedures recommended by the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (Norton et al., 2000). Body height and body mass were measured to the nearest 0.5 cm and 0.1 kg, respectively. Testing of the force-velocity relationship was performed through the 6-s maximal cycling sprint test (Logan, Fornasiero, Abernethy, & Lynch, 2000; Mendez-Villanueva, Bishop, & Hamer, 2007) on a Monark 834E leg cycle ergometer (Monark, Varberg, Sweden). Several studies confirmed high test-retest reliability of this (r = 0.98; Wilson, Newton, Murphy, & Humphries, 1993) and similar sprint cycling tests (Dotan & Bar-Or, 1983; r = 0.89–0.96; Evans & Quinney, 1981; Patton, Murphy, & Frederick, 1985), while Mendez-Villanueva et al. (2007) found low within-subject variations when the 6-s maximal cycling sprint test was preceded by a familiarization session (CV < 2%). One potential advantage of the selected cycling test could also be that it was non-specific for each group of participants. Finally, when compared with other standard tests, such as Margaria, vertical jumps, isokinetic testing, the selected 6-s maximal cycling sprint test allows a simple and accurate manipulation of external loading. The maximal 6-s cycling sprints were performed with three different loads: 7, 9, and 11% of body weight (BW). Prior to the test, subjects performed a standardized warm-up procedure comprising 5-min of cycling. A self-selected cadence against 2% of BW frictional load was applied to the flywheel, followed by 3-min of easy stretching of the musculature of the lower extremities. Finally, a specific warm-up protocol consisting of two bouts of 3-s maximal acceleration separated by 3-min rest were applied. Following a 5-min recovery period, the subjects performed three 6-s sprints against different loads in a random sequence. They were instructed to perform an “all out” effort from the very beginning of the test until instructed to stop. The seat height was adjusted to each participant’s satisfaction, and toe clips with straps were used to prevent the feet from slipping off the pedals. The start position on the cycle ergometer was strictly standardized: the subject was seated on the saddle during the sprint and initiated the exercise with his preferred leg, the crank was located at 45° forward. Strong verbal encouragement was provided during each trial. The rest period among consecutive sprints was 4-min. Fatigue was never an issue.
For the kinetic variables, Elliott et al. (2002) concluded that the force curves are similar for on-water rowing and the Rowperfect ® ergometer. Kleshnev (2008) observed that rowers applied a greater force on the handle while rowing on ergometers compared to rowing on a single scull boat. Researchers observed a faster increase in handle force and leg speed in the boat and on dynamic ergometers compared to stationary ergometers, and attributed these increases to the different magnitude of inertial force needed at the beginning of the drive (Kleshnev, 2008). Overall, on-water rowing technique is considered more multidimensional than ergometer rowing technique because it involves balance, movement dynamics, efficiency and maintenance of the boat speed during the recovery phase (de Campos Mello et al., 2009; Mäestu et al., 2005). Ergometers may be detrimental to on-water rowing technique since the motion of the stroke is not exactly the same for both conditions (Lamb, 1989; Mäestu et al., 2005).
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The study sample for Aim 1 included two focus groups. The first group comprised four experienced astronauts (2 female) and three astronaut personal trainers (1 fe- male). Participants reviewed the prototype design of the male and female SG partners and provided feedback on facial features and expressions, somatotype, voice, and verbal interactions. They also provided feedback on the features of the game, including the variety of exercise terrain, workout summary (average RPM, distance trav- eled, etc.), and the virtual trainer who provided game in- structions. Based on feedback from the first focus group, a second focus group of four highly active male and fe- male athletes/exercisers, over 35 years of age, reviewed a second version of the SG partner (more muscular, more expressive) and game (more varied terrain) that had been developed to further refine the appearance of the SG partners, exergame interface, and the nature and quality of interactions between participants and their SG partners (e.g., detail of introductions, greetings). After conducting focus groups, the game was pilot tested on a convenience sample of six highly active kinesiology stu- dents (2 female) at the university. They rode a stationary cycle on a simulated bike path for 30 min. for 6 days within 2 weeks to test game mechanics and protocol.
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