The main considerations in modern engine development are fuel efficiency and compliance with progressively stringent emission directives. Within the pervading global competition there is also a requirement to address customer demands for maintaining adequate output power. These often contradictory attributes have led to the downsizing concept and higher output power-to-weight ratio engines. Additionally, there is a growing trend towards the use of emerging technologies such as variable valve actuation and cylinder deactivation (CDA) [1–3]. There is also progres- sively an interest in the concept of stop-start in congested urban environments. The adoption of these technologies is primarily based on the direct reduction of brake specific fuel consumption. However, there are also indirect reper- cussions such as thermal and frictional losses, as well as poor noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) refinement issues with generally light weight and poorly damped power train structures, subjected to engine power torque fluctuations . With the application of CDA a greater degree of engine torque fluctuations would result , which is likely to lead to further deterioration in NVH refinement.
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Cylinder deactivation is one of the promising fuel efficiency strategies that offers lower fuel consumptions and exhaust emissions by allowing the multi-cylinder gasoline engine running with smaller engine displacements at part load operation. Cylinder deactivation technology has been developed by several vehicles manufacturers and extended to as large as 6.5l V12 engine and as low as e3.5l V6 engine. Only few manufacturers has developed a 1.4 liter inline, 4-cylinder engine which is Volkswagen TSI Polo BlueGT. This is because the effectiveness of the cylinder deactivation concept depends on the power to weight ratio, engine balancing, and other factors. However, in this study an effective cylinder deactivation system is implemented for smaller engine displacement. The aims of this study are to investigate the potential of cylinder deactivation strategy for small SI engine with 1.3 liter in improving the fuel economy and emission at part load. The skip fire cycle method was applied to cylinder deactivation strategy using a relay-based system which was built to enable the manual control of ignition and injection for each cylinder. The effectiveness of the skip fire cycle method is measured at steady state for fuel consumption, emissions and vibration. To verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the skip fire cycle, a manual CDA was developed and set up to a research vehicle. The measurements show the improvements of fuel consumptions and exhaust emissions at the expense of the engine power loss and vibration. The results show the CDA strategy could be successfully implemented to small displacement engine with an improvement of the fuel consumption and emission.
CDA, which is also known as cylinder deactivation, is ap- plied in SI engines by shutting off all valves and cutting off the fuel supply to deactivated cylinders for all cycles simul- taneously as shown in Fig. 1. The aim is to reduce the stroke volume, instead of decreasing the mixture charge, by control- ling the intake valve. Additionally, these deactivated cylin- ders act as an “air spring”, which performs compression and expansion cycles periodically. Hence, CDA also is consid- ered an effective method to significantly reduce pumping losses at part load conditions.
Cylinder Deactivation System, CDS has prominently evolved throughout the years in automotive advancement. As stated before, it has been around since the 19 th century. The application of the systems varies depending on how the manufacturers intend on making it work in an internal combustion engine. However, the most significant similarities between all of them are that it depends on the speed of the moving vehicle. Hence, it is important to study existing similar CDS counterparts as well any other fuel-efficient assist system that have been applied to modern vehicles so that the modelling of vehicle longitudinal model can take place.
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However the cylinder deactivation can be embraced in a few distinctive systems. In this project, instead of variable valve timing technology, another approach is adopted by completely close the intake port to prevent the oxygen entering the chamber. This method will affect important criteria regarding λ sensor that trace the oxygen content. The sensor will then send the information to ECU. If the port is not closed, excess oxygen detected by ECU hence more fuel is injected to the port.
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The form of cylinder deactivation considered here shuts off gas exchange by leaving intake and exhaust valves closed  , effectively sealing the cylinder, and disables fuel injection electronically. The trapped gas in the cylinder is compressed and expanded every engine revolution. The compression and expansion processes adjust within a small number of cycles to establish repeating closed pressure-volume figures. The cylinders are not perfectly sealed due to piston blow-by and leakage passed valves. Gas transfer occurs out of the cylinder when cylinder pressure is high and into the cylinder when pressure is low. This gas exchange represents a small fraction of the cylinder mass and does not noticeably distort the compression and expansion processes which can be treated as polytropic processes with different values of the polytropic index. The work required to motor the deactivated cylinder represents a performance penalty which should be accounted for in weighing the benefits and disadvantages of deactivation, although Leone et al  reported the work penalty is small, representing a penalty of around 0.02 bar IMEP.
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This chapter will give focus on the development of the technology of the cylinder deactivation system and will further explore the problems encountered regarding this system. This chapter as well, it will give focus on technologies that lead to a reducing fuel consumption, improved performance of the vehicle and carbon dioxide emissions as well. To better understand this system, a few small headings will explain about some of the systems and components that are closely related to the cylinder deactivation system.
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First, we start with the result in . They showed that any CPA secure PKE scheme in the RO model can be (redundancy-freely) transformed to an IND-SIM secure PKE scheme in the RO model via conversion REwH1 . The IND-SIM security is a very weak property that an adversary cannot distinguish between encryptions of chosen messages under chosen randomness and the output of a simulator. 2 We show that any IND-SIM secure  PKE scheme in the RO model is also CDA secure in the WRO model (Theorem 4). The combination of our theorem and the previous result implies that a CDA secure PKE scheme in the WRO model can be obtained from any CPA secure PKE scheme in the RO model. 3
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a single test display was presented on each trial, always at fixation. It might be argued that presenting only a single test display increased the need to integrate the items from the two memory displays relative to studies where test displays appeared sequentially (e.g., Ikkai et al., 2010). For example, it is possible that the encoding and retention of M1 and M2 memory items on different-side trials may have required not only shifts of spatial attention, but perhaps also a mental shift of the represented location of M1 items towards the opposite side. In addition, the fact that test display items always appeared at fixation may have led participants to mentally shift memorized items towards the centre, in preparation for the memory matching process. Such preparatory mental shifts may have affected performance, and could also have systematically altered CDA components, in particular during the second delay period. However, previous behavioural and ERP studies have shown that task performance and CDA components in change detection tasks remain remarkably unaffected by spatial transformations between memory and test displays. Woodman, Vogel, and Luck (2012) compared blocks where memory and test displays were presented on the same side and blocks where they appeared on opposite sides, and found that task performance was essentially unaffected by horizontal translations between memory and test displays. This was also the case when the relative position of individual objects was changed between memory and test displays, and when test objects appeared on the opposite side and in different positions relative to memory arrays. In a recent CDA study from our lab (Grubert & Eimer, 2015), bilateral memory displays were followed after a delay period by bilateral test displays. In different blocks, participants had to compare memory and test items on the same side or on opposite sides. CDA components of similar size were elicited contralateral to the task- relevant memory items in both types of blocks. Importantly, there was no CDA polarity reversal in blocks where these displays had to be matched to test displays on the other side, indicating that participants did not shift memorized object locations towards the side of the upcoming comparison stimuli. These previous studies demonstrate that memory matching processes operate effectively across horizontal translations between memory and test displays, and do not depend on preparatory mental shifts of the represented locations of working memory items.
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In this study, we demonstrated the use of vapor infiltration of DEZ for the preparation of carbon nanofibers from electrospun CDA nanofibers. Through IR analysis, we found that DEZ vapor infiltration at 150 °C could greatly modify the chemical structure of CDA. DEZ reacts with the hydroxyl and ester side groups of CDA. As a result of the chemical modifications, the DEZ- treated CDA nanofibers did not show melting transitions. We found that the fiber structure was preserved after carbonization for samples with ≥ 10 wt. % Zn incorporated. In addition, vapor infiltration of DEZ allows control on the pore volume distribution of the CDA-derived carbon nanofibers. With ~7 wt. % of Zn incorporated, the mesopore volume increased from ~0.10 to 0.38 cm 3 /g and the micropore volume remained the same (~0.25 cm 3 /g). As the amount of Zn increased further, while the micropore volume increased and leveled off at ~0.56 cm 3 /g, the mesopore volume decreased (< 0.1 cm 3 /g). Through revising the DEZ vapor infiltration process into the ZnO
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Microscopy imaging of mouse growth plates is extensively used in biology to understand the effect of specific molecules on various stages of normal bone development and on bone disease. Until now, such image analysis has been conducted by manual detection. In fact, when existing auto- mated detection techniques were applied, morphological variations across the growth plate and heterogeneity of image background color, including the faint presence of cells (chondrocytes) lo- cated deeper in tissue away from the image’s plane of focus, and lack of cell-specific features, in- terfered with identification of cells. We propose the first method of automated detection and morphometry applicable to images of cells in the growth plate of long bone. Through ad hoc se- quential application of the Retinex method, anisotropic diffusion and thresholding, our new cell detection algorithm (CDA) addresses these challenges on bright-field microscopy images of mouse growth plates. Five parameters, chosen by the user in respect of image characteristics, regulate our CDA. Our results demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed numerical method relative to manual methods. Our CDA confirms previously established results regarding chondrocytes’ num- ber, area, orientation, height and shape of normal growth plates. Our CDA also confirms differenc- es previously found between the genetic mutated mouse Smad1/5 CKO and its control mouse on flu-
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Work with each new preparation began with an evaluation of the stimulus strength needed to activate the muscle fully. The muscle was excited with 0.4 s bursts of tetanic stimuli, and the stimulus intensity was gradually increased from trial to trial until the muscle response reached a maximum. The stimulus intensity used in subsequent measurements was twice the minimum strength required to evoke a maximal muscle response. Next, the relationship between muscle length and tetanic force was characterized so that the subsequent experiments could be made on an appropriate part of the length–tension curve. The muscle was initially set at a length judged visually to be somewhat shorter than the optimal length for production of active force (active force = increase in force above the unstimulated level). The muscle was then stimulated tetanically (0.4 s burst) in a series of trials between each of which the muscle was lengthened by 0.4 mm (approximately 4 %). Trials were continued until active force clearly declined with increasing length. Determinations of an appropriate stimulus intensity and muscle length were followed by experimental trials exploring one or more aspects of deactivation following isovelocity shortening.
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It takes increasing amount of time for the medical personnel as the amount of exchanged CDA document increases because more documents means that data are distributed in different documents. This significantly delays the medical personnel in making decisions. Hence, when all of the CDA documents are integrated into a single document, the medical personnel is empowered to review the patient’s clinical history conveniently in chronological order per clinical section and the follow-up care service can be delivered more effectively. Unfortunately for now, a solution that integrates multiple CDA documents into one does not exist yet to the best of our knowledge and there is a practical limitation for individual hospitals to develop and implement a CDA document integration technology .
therapeutic staff is enabled to survey the patient's clinical history advantageously in sequential request per clinical segment and the take after - up care settlement can be disseminated all the more practically. Appallingly until further notice, an answer that incorporates various CDA records into one doesn't subsist yet to the best of our education and there is a functional limitation for individual doctor's facilities to create and execute a CDA report combination innovation. In this paper, it exhibit (1) a CDA report era framework that causes CDA records on various creating stages and (2) a CDA archive combination framework that incorporates numerous CDA archives scattered in various health care centers for every patient. The advantages of receiving this framework are as per the following. In the first place, the framework is available through an Open application programming interface and designers can propagate dealing with their engineer stages they spend significant time in, for example, Java, .NET, or C/Cþþ. Clinic frameworks can basically prolong their subsisting framework as opposed to perfectly superseding it with a nascent framework. Second, it ends up noticeably superfluous for health care centers to prepare their workforce to cause, incorporate, and see standard-consistent CDA records. The cloud
interoperability. Third, CDA document generation and integration system based on cloud server is more useful over existing services for CDA document if the variety of CDA document increases. As of December 2013, there are 54 different types of CDA documents recognized by US NIST, and the number continues to grow year by year. Among 54 CDA Document Templates, the approach suggested in this paper is being tested for CCD part of CCDA and Korean Standard for CDA Referral and Reply. Ordinarily, when a new type of CDA document format is established, hospitals have to upgrade or purchase proprietary software to accommodate files in that new format. With our API
It takes a huge amount of time for the medical personnel because the amount of exchanged CDA document increases because more documents means that data are distributed in different documents. This definitely delays the medical personnel in making decisions. Therefore, when all the CDA documents are integrated into a single document, the medical personnel is motivated to view the patient’s medical history conveniently in chronological order per clinical section and the corresponding care service can be provided more effectively. Sadly for now, a solution that integrates multiple CDA documents into one do not exist yet to the best of our knowledge and there is a practical limitation for individual hospitals to develop and implement a CDA document integration interface.
We retrospectively reviewed records on 13 patients who were treated with 2-CdA and RTX combination (R-2- CdA) at the Van Elslander Cancer Center during the period of January 2005-January 2013. The study was ap- proved by St. John Hospital & Medical Center’s institu- tional review board. Patient selection was based on medical records showing use of R-2-CdA combination therapy in patients with B-Cell lymphoma. Primary end points of the study were response rate, response duration and survival. Secondary endpoints included toxicity of the regimen. Rituximab was administered intravenously (iv) on day one using standard dose of 375 mg/m 2 and a standard protocol. Patients were premedicated with acet- aminophen (1000 mg orally X1), diphenhydramine (Bena- dryl®) iv at a dose of 25 mg repeated if necessary, and methylprednisolone sodium succinate, USP (Solu-medrol®) iv at a dose of 125 mg repeated if necessary for rituximab- related infusion reaction. Rituximab infusion was initiated at a low rate of 50 mg/m 2 and doubled every thirty mi- nutes, to a maximum rate of 400 mg/m 2 provided there were no adverse reactions and patient’s vital signs were stable. At the completion of rituximab infusion on day 1, a 2-CdA pump was hooked up to a central venous access (MediPort) and 2-CdA was delivered at a dose of 0.1 mg/ kg/day as continuous infusion for 7 consecutive days. The treatment was repeated in 28-day cycles but delayed when necessary to allow for recovery of cell counts or other toxicities. In one patient, however, 2-CdA was delivered subcutaneously due to lack of venous access. In another patient, 2-CdA was delivered daily over 5 days as iv infu- sion over 2 hours according to Nagai et al. . Toxicity was graded according to the US National Cancer Institute using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4.03. In general, toxicity is graded as mild (grade 1), moderate (grade 2), severe (grade 3) or life threatening (grade 4). Death is considered grade 5.
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Generally, as for the effect of the IVDA on engine performance, current studies mainly concentrate on the in-cylinder charge motion and combustion stability, while neglecting the characteristics of the volumetric efficiency and pumping loss under various intake valve operating modes. Moreover, the influence of the EAVT’s energy consumption on engine fuel economy is still unknown. Based on a self-developed EAVT system , this paper therefore presents systematic studies on the engine volumetric efficiency, pumping loss and fuel economy for different intake valve operating modes.
instructions of Trizol reagent (Invitrogen Inc., Carls- bad, CA, USA). RNA was dissolved in ultra-pure water pre-treated by diethylpyrocarbonate (DECP). RNA quality was evaluated by measuring its absorbance at 260 and 280 nm on an ND-1000 ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy (UV/VIS) spectrophotometer (NanoDrop Technologies, Wilmington, DE, USA). Subsequently, the concentration of RNA was adjusted for RT-qPCR. The extracted RNA was reversely transcribed using a two-step method according to the instructions of a rea- gent kit (Fermentas Inc., Hanover, MD, USA). The reac- tion conditions of RT were as follows: 70 °C for 10 min, ice bathed for 2 min, 42 °C for 60 min, and 70 °C for 10 min. The obtained cDNA was stored in a − 80 °C freezer. The TaqMan probe method was used in qPCR, and the reaction system was prepared according to the instructions of a reagent kit (Fermentas Inc., Hanover, MD, USA). The upstream and downstream sequences of CDA primers were 5 ′ -CCG TCT CAG AAG GGT ACA AG-3 ′ and 5 ′ -GAC AAT ATA CGT ACC ATC CGG-3 ′ . The reaction conditions of qPCR were as follows: pre-dena- turation at 95 °C for 30 s, and 40 cycles of denaturation at 95 °C for 10 s, annealing at 60 °C for 20 s, and exten- sion at 70 °C for 10 s. An RT-qPCR instrument (Ameri- can Bio-Rad company, model, is Bio-Rad iQ5) was used to carry out RT-qPCR, while glyceraldehyde-3-phos- phate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, upstream sequence: 5 ′ -ATT CAA CGG CAC AGT CAA GG-3 ′ , downstream sequence: 5 ′ -GCA GAA GGG GCG GAG ATG A-3 ′ ) was used as an internal reference. The relative expression of CDA was calculated using 2 −∆∆Ct , and each experiment
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One of the key features of the cloud includes the flexibility, so we used the clouds for large data storage system. When a patient is recognize at a clinic, a CDA document recording the diagnosis is generated. The CDA document can be shared with other clinics if the patient agrees. The concept of family doctor does not exist in some countries; therefore it is common for a patient to visit a number of different clinics. The interchange of CDA document is triggered in the following cases: when a physician needs to study a patient’s medical history; when referral and response