D-T fusion

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The Role of Combined ICRF and NBI Heating in JET Hybrid Plasmas in Quest for High D-T Fusion Yield

The Role of Combined ICRF and NBI Heating in JET Hybrid Plasmas in Quest for High D-T Fusion Yield

Abstract. Combined ICRF and NBI heating played a key role in achieving the world-record fusion yield in the first deuterium-tritium campaign at the JET tokamak in 1997. The current plans for JET include new experiments with deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas with more ITER-like conditions given the recently installed ITER-like wall (ILW). In the 2015-2016 campaigns, significant efforts have been devoted to the development of high-performance plasma scenarios compatible with ILW in preparation of the forthcoming D-T campaign. Good progress was made in both the inductive (baseline) and the hybrid scenario: a new record JET ILW fusion yield with a significantly extended duration of the high-performance phase was achieved. This paper reports on the progress with the hybrid scenario which is a candidate for ITER long- pulse operation (~1000 s) thanks to its improved normalized confinement, reduced plasma current and higher plasma beta with respect to the ITER reference baseline scenario. The combined NBI+ICRF power in the hybrid scenario was increased to 33 MW and the record fusion yield, averaged over 100 ms, to 2.9x10 16 neutrons/s from the 2014 ILW fusion record of 2.3x10 16 neutrons/s. Impurity control with ICRF
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COMPARISON BETWEEN TWO GAS-COOLED TRU BURNER SUBCRITICAL REACTORS: FUSION-FISSION AND ADS

COMPARISON BETWEEN TWO GAS-COOLED TRU BURNER SUBCRITICAL REACTORS: FUSION-FISSION AND ADS

Over the past decade, the group at Georgia Tech has examined [4, 5] the application of a tokamak D-T fusion neutron source, which is based on the physics and technology of ITER, driving a sub- critical fast transmutation (burner) reactor fueled with transuranics (TRU) from spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The purpose of such a reactor would be to stabilize the accumulation of TRU being discharged from LWRs by fissioning this TRU to significantly reduce the required number of high-level-waste storage repositories. In this research, two types of nuclear reactors have been considered, both driven by essentially the same tokamak neutron source: gas-cooled reactors operating on a burn and bury deep-burn non-reprocessing fuel cycle with TRISO TRU fuel (GCFTR) [1–3] and liquid metal cooled reactors (SABR, FTWR) operating on a reprocessing fuel cycle with TRU metallic fuel.
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Fusion for Energy  Technical Activity Report 2007 2008 Part B

Fusion for Energy Technical Activity Report 2007 2008 Part B

In order to fuse, the atomic nuclei have to be given sufficient energy (i.e. velocity) to overcome their mutual electrostatic repulsion when they collide. This kinetic energy is provided by heating the fuel to very high temperatures (for D-T fusion the maximum efficiency is achieved in the range 100 –150 million degrees). At such temperatures the gaseous fuel is completely ionised, being in the form of a “plasma”. The plasma must not be allowed to come into contact with the walls of the reaction container, since some of the surface layer of the wall would melt and evaporate and the plasma would be immediately polluted and cooled, losing the conditions for fusion reactions to occur.
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Vehicle Image Classification using Image Fusion
          at Pixel Level based on Edge Image

Vehicle Image Classification using Image Fusion at Pixel Level based on Edge Image

Image fusion can use various methods to synthesize image or image array information about a different scene and produce new explanation about that scene. The proposed method obtains clearer edge image and reflect better outline of the vehicles. The proposed method performs fusion based on simple logical filtering for all edge pixel identification. The classification is done based on the coarseness and contrastness of the image by using the distance method. Here the error rate is minimum that is it can classify the correct type of image whether it is low- mortar vehicle or high-mortar vehicle. The proposed method tested on around 500 still images and observed that given input vehicle is classified as exactly of its type.
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Achievement of Laser Fusion with High Energy Efficiency Using a Mixture of D and T Ions

Achievement of Laser Fusion with High Energy Efficiency Using a Mixture of D and T Ions

In previous works [16]-[21], we started a series of studies both experimentally and theoretically to investigate some important aspects of laser produced burning plasma. The studies depend on the analysis of neutron spectra produced by nuclear reactions generated inside the burning plasma. For the best performance of the laser-driven ICF reactors, it is essential to carry out similar studies to measure the DT/DD neutron ratio. This ratio is crucial for controlling the isotope ratio of the fuel to be injected into the reactor. Controlling the D/T fuel ratio, and hence the D/T burning ratio, is a key parameter for determining the output power of fusion energy [2]-[15]. This study is interested in achieving a successful ICF using a mixture of D and T ions with the highest energy effi- ciency. To do this, the cross sections of the D(d,n) 3 He and T(d,n) 4 He reactions are calculated up to 40 MeV which is the predicted maximum acceleration energy of D ions using the laser facility for fast ignition experi- ment (LFEX) at the Institute of Laser Engineering (ILE), Osaka University [22]. Nuclear reactions induced by ions accelerated due to the front side acceleration [17] [18]. The maximum intensity of LFEX is 10 21 W/cm 2 and hence 40 MeV is the maximum energy of D ions as calculated according to the model introduced in Ref. [20]. In addition, the DT/DD neutron yield ratio over the energy range 0.01 ≤ Ed ≤ 40 MeV is calculated for the first time. As well, the fusion power ratio of the two reactions is computed for the same energy range. It is known that besides the channel D(d,n) 3 He, the DD reaction can occur through the other channel D(d,p) 3 H with the same probability i.e., 50% for each channel. The channel D(d,p) 3 H doesn’t give any neutrons so that it has nothing to do with the neutron ratio calculations.
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D T IC. 052 Research Laboratory D A 0 05

D T IC. 052 Research Laboratory D A 0 05

Data Envelopment Analysis as a Tool To Evaluate Efficiency of Army Real Property Management Activities (RPMA) Spending (U).. 12.[r]

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Current Status of Fusion Reactor Structural Materials R&D

Current Status of Fusion Reactor Structural Materials R&D

2002. ‘‘White paper on nuclear energy 2003’’ by Atomic Energy Commission of Japan (AEC) expresses that ‘‘ITER project is a joint international project undertaken with the objective of demonstrating the scientific and technological feasibility of using nuclear fusion energy for peaceful purposes’’ and that ‘‘the Council for Science and Technology Policy drew up a set of conclusions in May 2002 stating that in addition to offering full governmental support for the ITER project, the government ought to select the optimal candidate site (Rokkasho-mura) for the project and engage in talks with other governments with an eye to attracting ITER to Japan’’. Under the governmental policy, JAERI is defined as the responsible research organization for ITER and near-term fusion research. Naka Fusion Establishment is responsible for fusion research with participation from Tokai establishment for fusion materials, from Takasaki establishment for simulation radiation damage research and from Oarai establishment for fusion functional materials as representing activities. Japanese university activities have been very important for more than three decades and now major fusion research programs are under management and coordination of NIFS and International Research Center for Quantum Materials, Tohoku University at Oarai is taking an important role in fission reactor radiation research and IFMIF R&D. The volunteer base activities to support Japanese fusion research are very important, of which Fusion Research Net work, Fusion Forum and Atomic Energy Society of Japan for ‘‘Fusion Engineering’’ and ‘‘Nuclear Materials’’ are the representing activities. Fusion research net work consists of three sub-net works; those are Fusion Science, Fusion Plasma and Fusion Engineering. Figure 3 indicates major partic- ipants to Fusion Engineering Net work where (1) materials and fuel, (2) magnet and electromegnetics, (3) system and safety and (4) ICF engineering are current activities. As is indicated in the figure, more than 40 universities with more
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D-D nuclear fusion processes induced in polyethylene foams by TW Laser-generated plasma

D-D nuclear fusion processes induced in polyethylene foams by TW Laser-generated plasma

duced in the generated plasmas using the Asterix laser PALS facility. In conclusion, the reported results con- firm usefulness the concept of using the plasma produced by sub-nanosecond pulses of TW lasers giving about 600 J pulse energy for generation of MeV protons and neu- trons. In particular, the experiments conducted at PALS demonstrate that in the laser-produced plasma expanding in the forward direction with a broad angular distribution a large number of multi-MeV deuterons suitable for beam- target experiments can be generated. Our experiments in- dicate that the yield of neutrons from the d(d,n) 3 He reac-
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Automatic X-ray Image Segmentation and Clustering for Threat Detection

Automatic X-ray Image Segmentation and Clustering for Threat Detection

The matched keypoints leverage a rigid transformation T between Cl i and I high ' which is estimated by RANSAC during the keypoint matching refinement stage. Estimating T requires at least three matches and in the event RANSAC does not qualify these, then Cl i cannot be sub-clustered and the process terminates for cluster Cl i . If T  { , } r t is estimated, it is applied to I high ' creating the transformed image I high T (Figure 6 (c)). Finally, I high T and Cl i are fused via an intersection scheme (Figure 6 (d)) and the two sub-clusters A , B
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Online Banking ACCOU T ACCESS AGREEME T A D DISCLOSURE STATEME T

Online Banking ACCOU T ACCESS AGREEME T A D DISCLOSURE STATEME T

If advance notice of the change is not required, and disclosure does not jeopardize the security of the account or our electronic fund transfer system, we will notify you of the cha[r]

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A Gate-Way To R&D,L&D,T&D,F&D,M&D And G&D [A Review With The Online Surveys And Online Calculators ]

A Gate-Way To R&D,L&D,T&D,F&D,M&D And G&D [A Review With The Online Surveys And Online Calculators ]

10) The Excellent organizations should have the modern looking equipments. 11) The physical facilities at the excellent organizations should be visually appealing. 12) The Employees at e[r]

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SEO CRO D Data Science. D a t a - D r i ve n I n t e grated D i gital M a r k e t i ng M E D I A K I T

SEO CRO D Data Science. D a t a - D r i ve n I n t e grated D i gital M a r k e t i ng M E D I A K I T

Our Digital PR services integrate traditional PR, outreach, and reputation management services with social media, SEO, and content marketing strategies. All of these elements are highly[r]

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Bulletin of the Economic and Social Consultative Assembly No. 4/1991

Bulletin of the Economic and Social Consultative Assembly No. 4/1991

R&D CONTROLLED THERMONUCLEAR FUSION Proposal for a Council Decision adopting a specific research and technological development programme in the field of controlled thermonuclear fusion 1[r]

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Molecular mechanisms of secretory granule biogenesis in neuroendocrine cells

Molecular mechanisms of secretory granule biogenesis in neuroendocrine cells

cytoskeleton (Peranen, et al, 1996) while others may be involved in the budding of vesicles (Benli, et al, 1996; see Novick and Zerial, 1997, for review). The synaptic vesicle associated protein rab3 has an inhibitory role in synaptic vesicle fusion with the presynaptic membrane (Südhof, 1997), while other rab proteins, for example rab5, stimulate fusion (Bucci, et a l, 1992). It has also been suggested that rab proteins regulate the formation of multimeric protein complexes (Novick and Zerial, 1997) and several recent observations suggest a role for some rabs as upstream regulators of SNARE-interaction (Lian, e t a l , 1994; Lupashin and Waters, 1997; Mayer and Wickner, 1997; Rothman and Sollner, 1997; Sogaard, et al, 1994). In particular, the yeast rabl homologue Yptl has been shown to be required for interaction of the t- SNARE Sed5 with the v-SNARE Bosl by displacing the N-secl homologue Slyl (Lupashin and Waters, 1997). Yptl was also required for association of Bosl and Sec22 and ihQyptl mutant phenotype could be overcome by overexpression of bosl and sec22 (Lian, et a l, 1994). Another rab-like GTPase, Ypt7 was required for docking of yeast vacuoles after priming with Seel 8 and Sec 17 (Mayer and Wickner, 1997). Thus, rab proteins might ensure correct docking by activating specific SNAREs at the right time and at the right place and thereby ensure the fidelity of vesicle targeting.
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A G R E E M E N T B E T W E E N T H E A D M I N I S T R A T I O N OF P R A T T I N S T I T U T E A N D T H E U N I T E D F E D E R A T I O N OF

A G R E E M E N T B E T W E E N T H E A D M I N I S T R A T I O N OF P R A T T I N S T I T U T E A N D T H E U N I T E D F E D E R A T I O N OF

(d) Only if the financial problems of the Institute cannot be resolved by the operation of the provisions of Article 31 and Article 30.13(b) and (c) because of the severity and extent of the Institute’s financial exigency as defined in Article 30.13(e), tenured faculty may be laid off after non-tenured faculty in the following sequence: (1) tenured part-time faculty; then (2) tenured full-time faculty, in accordance with seniority within areas of competence dating from the original date of employment. In every instance of lay-off in the case of financial exigency, the tenured faculty member concerned shall be notified prior to the end of the Spring semester or trimester that during the following academic year he or she will be on a terminal appointment. Such notice shall be given as early as possible. The Institute will make every effort to place laid-off faculty members in other suitable positions and the laid-off faculty member shall be placed on a preferential rehiring list for three years for vacancies in their areas of competence with those having greater seniority having prior claim to a position. Such individuals rehired shall be compensated at a salary no less than that last received at the Institute plus any increases that may have accrued during their absence.
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The Measles Virus Fusion Protein Transmembrane Region Modulates Availability of an Active Glycoprotein Complex and Fusion Efficiency

The Measles Virus Fusion Protein Transmembrane Region Modulates Availability of an Active Glycoprotein Complex and Fusion Efficiency

lower fusion capacity have replication kinetics similar to that of standard MV. This implies that membrane fusion is not a limiting factor in this experimental system. Syncytium forma- tion is limited after experimental infection of monkeys (14, 26, 29), and extensive fusion can be detrimental because it ampli- FIG. 6. Growth characteristics and fusion efficiency of recombinant MV expressing different F protein variants. (A) Multistep growth curves. Vero cells were infected at an MOI of 0.03, and titers of cell-associated and released viruses were measured at the time points indicated. (B) Fluorescence microscopy of representative single syncytia 48 h after infection of Vero cells with the indicated virus strains. All these viruses express the reporter protein green fluorescent protein. (C) Number of nuclei per syncytium 48 h after infection of Vero cells. Averages and standard deviations are indicated.
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Injection Molding T. Gutowski. D. Roylance

Injection Molding T. Gutowski. D. Roylance

Similar to an injection molding machine, but without a mold and continuous production. Thus it has a similar energy consumption profile[r]

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Killing Ribes with 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T.

Killing Ribes with 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T.

Greenhouse work was done at Berkeley, Calif., where the United States Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine uses laboratory and greenhouse facilities main- tai[r]

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Topics in Portuguese syntax: The licensing of T and D

Topics in Portuguese syntax: The licensing of T and D

others, that affixes are generated at D-structure as independent heads and share the same type o f features as free morphemes, the only difference between the two being that affixes are assigned morphological subcategorisation frames in the lexicon and must attach to the right type of head by S-structure. This is a morphological requirement generally known in the literature as Lasnik’s Filter (Pesetsky 1989) or the Stray Affix Filter (Baker 1988). O uhalla’s CPC seems to be a syntactic formulation o f this filter referring solely to clitic words. What is disputable in his formulation of the condition is the claim that Lasnik’s Filter may be satisfied by attachment to an affixal category. There seems to be some agreement in the literature to the contrary, i.e. that affixes must attach to free morphemes.^ Moreover, considering Ouhalla’s account of Romance clitic placement, it does not seem to be the case that clitics attach to affixal categories. Rather, what clitics attach to is the whole verbal complex, i.e. a complex head which can’t be considered to be affixal by nature.
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A Study of the T(d,γ)^5He Reaction

A Study of the T(d,γ)^5He Reaction

Moreover, before and after each series of runs with deuterons, the Tp,y 4He reaction was examined at E~ab = 4 MeV and elab = 90° for three reasons: 1 to obtain a normalization for the Td[r]

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