Hodnoty LER klesají od října do prosince. Koncem vegetačního období jsou ovlivněny zejména teplo- tou, vláhovým stresem a krátící se dobou slunečního svitu. Efekt intenzity světla je vcelku indiferent- ní. Hodnoty LER se od září postupně snižují. Festulolium a Dactylis glomerata L. patří k druhům schop- ným růst při nízkých teplotách. Na přelomu září a října je vyšší LER u Dactylis glomerata L. V průběhu podzimu se LER Dactylis glomerata L. a Festulolium vyrovnává, resp. je vyšší u Festulolium než u Dactylis glomerata L. Naopak listy Festulolium odumírají pomaleji a v průběhu celého podzimu mají nižší LSR než Dactylis glomerata L. Jednosečný porost využívaný počátkem června má sice koncem vegetačního období vyšší LER, ale zároveň je zde přítomný vyšší podíl senescentního materiálu. Naopak dvou- sečný porost využívaný také koncem července vykazuje menší množství senescentního materiálu. Dactylis glomerata L. a Festulolium mohou být vhodnými druhy pro prodloužení pastevního období. S ohledem na podíl senescentního materiálu koncem vegetačního období je v létě výhodnější inten- zivnější využívání.
Establishing a core collection that represents the genetic diversity of the entire collection with a minimum loss of its original diversity and minimal redundancies is an important problem for gene bank curators and crop breed- ers. In this paper, we assess the representativeness of the original genetic diversity in core collections consisting of one-tenth of the entire collection obtained according to 23 sampling strategies. The study was performed using the Polish orchardgrass Dactylis glomerata L. germplasm collection as a model. The representativeness of the core collections was validated by the difference of means (MD%) and difference of mean squared Euclidean distance (d‒D%) for the studied traits in the core subsets and the entire collection. In this way, we compared the efficiency of a simple random and 22 (20 cluster-based and 2 direct cluster-based) stratified sampling strategies. Each cluster-based stratified sampling strategy is a combination of 2 clusterings, 5 allocations and 2 methods of sampling in a group. We used the accession genotypic predicted values for 8 quantitative traits tested in field trials. A sampling strategy is considered more effective for establishing core collections if the means of the traits in a core are maintained at the same level as the means in the entire collection (i.e., the mean of MD% in the simulated samples is close to zero) and, simultaneously, when the overall variation in a core collection is greater than in the entire collection (i.e., the mean of d‒D% in the simulated samples is greater than that obtained for the simple random sampling strategy). Both cluster analyses (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean UPGMA and Ward) were similarly useful in constructing those sampling strategies capable of establishing representative core collections. Among the allocation methods that are relatively most useful for construct- ing efficient samplings were proportional and D2 (including variation). Within the Ward clusters, the random sampling was better than the cluster-based sampling, but not within the UPGMA clusters.
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New Zealand’s dryland regions are defined as areas that receive less than 800 mm of rainfall annually, and in summer experience potential evapotranspiration (PET) in excess of rainfall (Brown and Green, 2003). PET values in the dry eastern parts of New Zealand such as Canterbury may be 300-500 mm over the growth season (Salinger, 2003). Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is the most commonly sown grass in New Zealand. It is usually sown as a mix with white clover (Trifolium repens L.) as this provides a productive and nutritional pasture for livestock grazing. Ryegrass/white clover pastures, however, are not well adapted to long periods of moisture stress (Brown and Green, 2003). Cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.) is frequently sown in dryland areas of New Zealand as it is both drought tolerant and able to establish and grow under medium to low soil fertility (Smith et al., 1998). Subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) is recommended to be sown in pasture mixes with cocksfoot. It is a winter-active clover which compliments cocksfoot which is summer-active (Brown et al., 2006).
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Studied grasses. Assuming that the appropri- ate choice of plants, based on their durability and stability in the natural environment, is a prerequi- site for successful remediation of soil polluted with petroleum-based products, this research focused attention on plants having a well-developed bundle root system. Thus, 7 grass species were used in our experiment. They included 3 species of lawn grasses: Lolium perenne L. (Lp) cv. Bajka, Poa pratensis L. (Pr) cv. Sójka, and Festuca rubra (Fr) cv. Dark, as well as 4 species of fodder grasses: Lolium × hybridum Hausskn (Lh) cv. Gala, Festuca arundinacea (Fa) cv. Rahela, Phleum pratense L. (Pp) cv. Kaba and Dactylis glomerata L. (Dg) cv. Bepro.
Species stand composition was partly influenced by the composition of sown mixture. Total leaf area (% of dominance = D) in 1976 was 95%. Grasses with the leaf area 55% dominated in the stand and 49% of it covered cultural grasses and 6% uncultural ones. The highest dominance was present at Dactylis glomerata L. (20%) and Poa pratensis L. (20%). The same leaf area was ob- served at Festuca rubra L. and Anthoxanthum odora- tum L. (6%). Arrhenatherum elatius Presl. showed 3% D. Only single occurrence (+) was proved at Festuca praten- sis Huds., Trisetum flavescens P. Beauv., Holcus lanatus L., Agropyron repens (L.) Desv., Agrostis stolonifera L. and Phleum pratense L. The area of leguminose leaves was 25% dominance. Trifolium repens L. (15%) and Trifolium pratense L. in 5% dominance were the most frequent spe-
the end of the growing season, grasslands become a forage source for wildlife (Kamler et al. 2007). Therefore, the species to be used should be cold resistant and able to grow at low temperatures (Wheeler 1968). Festuca arundinacea Schreb. be- longs among species that were tested to fulfil the requirements as shown by Taylor and Templeton (1976) referring to USA continental locations and by Opitz von Boberfeld and Wolf (2002) in German continental locations. It is a tolerant, long green species with the pronounced erectophile growth (Stählin and Tirtapradja 1974); its greater use is however limited by the poor intake of the fresh forage by herbivores (Opitz von Boberfeld and Wolf 2002). Interspecific hybrids of Festulolium ssp. combine the persistence of Festuca sp. genus with the high forage quality of Lolium sp. genus (Casler et al. 2002). The festucoid hybrids can be better adapted for use at the end of the growing season than the loloid hybrids (Opitz von Boberfeld and Banzhaf 2006). Besides the above-mentioned species, the use of Dactylis glomerata L. at the end of the growing season was shown by Prigge et al. (1999). Holúbek et al. (2007) found that the quality of Dactylis glomerata sharply decreased if the harvest date of the first cut was exceeded. In addition, they stated that harvest date in the following cuts was prolonged thanks to the spe- cies’ winter character. Moreover, Arrhenatherum elatius (L.) P. Beauv is a representative of drought- resistant species (Dostálek and Frantík 2008). It finds a particular use in meadow stands. If not given a chance to shed seeds, its resistance against low temperatures is limited. Due to this, intense grazing of this drought-resistant specie can be suppressed (Holúbek et al. 2007).
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Nigella sativa (N. sativa) L. (Ranunculaceae) is an annual flowering plant, which is native to South and Southwest Asia and is cultivated and used in different parts of the world, such as the Mediterranean countries, southern Europe, and North Africa. Traditionally, it is used as a natural remedy for a number of illnesses that include diarrhea, indigestion, dyspepsia, sour belching, obesity and dyspnoea. In addition, it has been reported that the seeds with bee honey have protective effects on hepatotoxicity and on the oxidative stress and carcinogenesis.
Hymenopteraбагийн Ichneumonidae болон Braconidae-ийн овгийн шонхор зөгийг судлан зүйлийн бүрэлдэхүүнийг гаргах нь бидэнд нэн шаардлагатай байна /2 ба 4/.Цаашид эдгээр зүйлүүдийн популяцийг хадгалах, нөөцлөх /12/ хамгаалах, хэрэглэх чиглэлээр олон ажил хийх шаардлагатай байна. Ангилал зүйн хувьд: Паразит шавьж-Cotesia glomerata L нь Сарьсан далавчтны (Hymenoptera) баг Браконид (Braconidae) шонхор зөгийн овогт хамрагдах бөгөөд Сармаг манжингийн цагаан эрвээхэйн (Pieris rapae L) хүрэнцэрт шимэгчлэн амьдардаг нэг эзэн дээр 20 гаруй өндөг гаргаж, үр төлөө бойжуулан авдаг шавьж юм /1/.
Finally, we can observe that the phytoplankton taxa that have the greatest proliferation are those that can be included in the category of nanoplankton with a high reproduction rate, such as the cyanophytes of the genus Synechococcus sp. or any of the identified nanoplanktonic organisms (see supplementary data). Apart from these groups, we can highlight the diatoms Cyclotella glomerata, Cylindrotheca closterium or Nitzchia longissima. Cyclotella glomerata is characterized by being a freshwater species  and appears, surely, from surface waters draining over the Mar Menor; Cylindrotheca closterium is a species typical of marine environments  and Nitzchia longissima can be found in hypersaline environments . With the data from these species we can see that, although the Mar Menor receives considerable amounts of fresh water, its waters maintain a salinity that is specific to or superior to that of a marine ecosystem.
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Loguercio and Federico  and Vitaglione et al.  reported that there are increasing evidences that free radicals and reactive oxygen species play a crucial role in the various steps that initiate and regulate the progression of many diseases like liver diseases which is independently of the agent in its origin. In case of bioactivation, our results showed that the liver tissues and red blood cells of male mice were exposed to the damaging effects of the BaP formed toxic substance. Therefore, protective mechanisms relevant to these organs are of particular interest and one of the main objectives in present investigation. Possible application of plant antimutagens is in dietary prevention of cancer and other mutation related diseases  , which makes the study of plant antimutagens an important research field. The present study found that Ficus glomerata extract has the ability to reduce the oxidative damage induced by BaP, where Ficus glomerata extract reduced the expression alterations in the liver cancer related genes and declined the rate of DNA damage. In agreement with our findings, Irfan et al.  studied on hepatoprotective activity of Ficus glomerata extract on paracetamol and CCl 4 treated albino rats.
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in Tabs. VII and VIII. Lolium perenne which is rather a pasture species produces the most shoots which are more delicate, thus a denser cover. Dactylis glomerata and Festuca pratensis belong rather to the meadow type, with fewer and thicker shoots, particularly in the ﬁrst mowing. Statistical evaluation of species divergence in this case appears to be ineﬀ ective. It is more important to assess the response and formation of shoots in each species to the eﬀ ect of drought. From the presented data concerning the meadow utilization of covers (Tab. VII) it follows that the largest reduction in the number of stems due to drought occurred in Dactylis glomerata (−34.7%), in Lolium perenne by −23.7% and in Festuca pratensis by −20.5%. However, in terms of statistical evaluation, these diﬀ erences are not signiﬁcant. From the perspective of the impact of the year (Tab. III) on diﬀ erences in shoot formation in meadow utilization, signiﬁcant diﬀ erences were ascertained in the species Festuca pratensis, especially between the 1 st and 2 nd year in both the normal
completion of a two-host life cycle of M. sydneyi, and finally, N. australiensis and S. glomerata are only two hosts in the three-or-more host life cycle of M. sydneyi. If scenario three is correct it is unlikely that any benefit(s) of continued research towards developing a laboratory model of infection would outweigh the cost of doing so. However, if scenarios one or two prove correct then the development of an experimental model is facilitated by the outcome of this project. The first phase of future studies, as an extension to the current investigation, would involve the growth of a parasite-free culture of N. australiensis to allow in vivo confirmation of infection by the introduction of mature spores of M. sydneyi in controlled experiments. This would parallel experiments reported by Audemard et al. (2002) from flat oysters in France. The next phase would then involve the infection of parasite-free oysters with parasitic stages derived from M. sydneyi-infected polychaetes. It is this phase of laboratory model development that has so far been unsuccessful in the attempted experimental infections of O. edulis from infected copepods in France (Audemard et al., 2002; Carrasco et al., 2007, 2008) and has led them to hypothesise that a third host, or period of maturation, is required in the life cycle of M. refringens.
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The fruits of Ficus glomerata Roxb. (Moraceae) were collected in the first week of March from fruiting trees in places around Bajpe, Mangalore, Karnataka, India. They were washed, air dried for a week at 35-40˚C, powdered and stored in room temperature in a closed container for further experimental use.
The plant material of Ficus glomerata L. was dried in shade, separated and made to dry powder. It was then passed through the 40 mesh sieve. A weighed quantity (80gm) of the powder was subjected to continuous hot extraction in Soxhlet Apparatus. The extract was evaporated under reduced pressure using rotary evaporator until all the solvent has been removed to give an extract sample. Percentage yield of ethanolic extract of Ficus glomerata L. was found to be 15.5 % w/w.
Soil conditioners with the trade names of UG- max, Eko-Użyźniacz, and Humus Active Papka, applied separately or together with mineral fer- tilisers, were used in the experiment. The active ingredients of those conditioners are presented in Table 2. Those conditioners were applied ev- ery year at the beginning of the growing sea- son at the following doses: Ugmax – 0.6 l∙ha -1 ,
The pattern of PAHs utilisation observed in this study may be associated with the complexity and number of rings contained in the compounds as well as plants’ morphological or physiological properties. Low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs are degraded faster than high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs. Similarly, LMW-PAHs may be adsorbed and transferred faster than HMW-PAHs by plant cells. In addition, HMW-PAHs are extremely water-insoluble and may partition preferentially into the humid fractions of soils rather than the aqueous phases, thus limiting their availability . This might be reason why less than 50% degradation of Indeno (1,2,3 cd) pyrene was achieved in this study. It was apparent that treatment of the soil samples with L. purpureus reduced PAHs more than C. cajan. Variation in plants’ physiology and metabolism could be the major factor involved even though both plants are leguminous. Arvanaghi et al.  suggested that plants’ morphological peculiarities such as waxy properties, specific leaf area, cell wall properties, root elongation, number of nodal root and metabolisms are factors that affect PAHs transfer and degradation in plant tissues.
Banzhaf, 2006). The use of Dactylis glomerata at the end of the growing season was mentioned by Prigge et al. (1999). Jančovič et al. (2003) drew attention to the drop in the quality of Dactylis glomerata after exceeding the time limit for harvest in the first cut but they added that thanks to the per- ennial character, the time limit for the harvest in the next cut was wider. The deteriorated quality is due to the increased content of CF, NDF and ADF. The ADF content increases by approx. 0.2% per day. The highest increase is recorded in spring (0.4%). In autumn, it is around 0.1%. The ADF com- ponents have a relation to digestibility and/or to energy content (Opitz von Boberfeld, 1994). The objective of this paper is to evaluate changes in the content of CF, NDF and ADF at the end of the growing season in Festulolium, Dactylis glomerata and Arrhenatherum elatius forages and to evaluate the zoohygienic quality of the forage of these spe- cies in October, November and December via the ergosterol analysis.
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The aim of this paper is to analyze yield variation of Dactylis glomerata and Festuca pratensis varieties grown on organic and mineral soil. This paper has drawn on two field experiments set up and carried out between 2010 and 2013. The experiment was conducted in two experimental stations: one in the Research Centre for Cultivar Testing in Krzyżewo and the other in the Experimental Stations for Variety Testing in Uhinin. The experiment in Krzyżewo was set up on ploughed soil, with spring barley as a forecrop. In Uhnin the experimental plots were located on peat meadow. The ex- perimental plots were sown with varieties of Dactylis glomerata: Niva, Tukan, Ami- la, Crown Royale and with varieties of Festuca pratensis: Limosa, Pasja, Anturka, Amelka. The full exploitation of Dactylis glomerata varieties was due between 2012 and 2013, whereas for Festuca pratensis it was due between 2011 and 2012. In the experimental plots with the varieties of Dactylis glomerata the grass was harvested six times a year and chemical analysis of the biomass was done taking dry matter only from five cuts. The varieties of Festuca pratensis were harvested four times. Each year in the course of the experiment fresh and dry matter of each cut were weighed. The grass species and their varieties as well as the particular mowing and kind of soil where the grass was grown have an impact on the yield. On mineral soil the yield of Dactylis glomerata was higher than Festuca pratensis. On organic soil the yield of both species was similar. During the two years of experiment the highest yield among Festuca pratensis varieties was noted for Amelka whereas among varieties of Dactylis glomerata the yield was similar and differences were not statistically significant. Keywords: yield, variation, grass, Dactylis glomerata, Festuca pratensis.
Ergosterol is a natural compound with steroidic structure produced mainly by fungi. Due to this, it is considered as a marker of fungal spoilage. In this work, the content of ergosterol was monitored in sam- ples of three forage crops (Festuca arundinacea x Lolium multifl orum, Dactylis glomerata, Arrhenathe- rum elatius) during period October–December 2005 and different term of summer harvesting (June or July). There were adapted and applied liquid chromatographic method with fotometric detection in ultraviolet region for determination of this compound. It was found, that the content of ergosterol stron- gly increased in all december’s samples with small variations between all three forage crops. Samples, where the summer harvest was performed in July had signifi cantly lower content of ergosterol. Obtained results showed that level of monitored compounds was under limits in all samples.