in three small family dairy farms and one commercial dairy farm. In total, 51 dairy cows from the black-white breed were subjected to the study. The season of research was divided into three periods: the period before the hot season, the period of the hot season and the period after the hot season. In each period there were three test days selected that were used for recording the air temperature inside and outside the barns and cow’s dailymilkyield. Unvaried associations between the test day milkyield of cows and independent environmental and cow factors were done using the linear mixed model for repeated measurements. The statistical model showed that the farm management system and the hot season of the year had significant infl uence on dailymilkyield per cow at the level of p<0.001. The test day per periods of the season when milk control was performed and the average test day environmental temperature showed statistically significant influence on dailymilkyield per cow at level p<0.01. The present results revealed that environmental air temperatures contributes to considerable loss in the milk production of dairy cows.
This study demonstrated that there were marked relationships between milk parameters recorded in partial morning and evening milk yields (i. e. milk quantity, F, TP, L and SCC) on the one hand and those of the total dailymilkyield in both groups of dairy cows with asymmetric milking interval (i. e. 11:13 hours and 10:14 hours, respectively). Although there is no doubt that a fully reliable result of prediction of milk parameters of the total dailymilkyield may be obtained only on the base of collection of weighed milk samples originating from individual partial milk yields, it may sometimes be necessary to use an alternative method. Our results indicate that the estimation of milk parameters of the total dailymilkyield on the base of values recorded in partial evening and/or morning milking is possible also in systems with asymmetric milking time intervals. Presented prediction equations may be used in the form of a reference table when converting actual results of e.g. MR analyses by means of a shortened method. It is therefore expected that the obtained results could be used in the methodology of MR in the Czech Republic. This methodology could be also used by ICAR as a base for an oﬃ cial audit of MR results.
side and number of dairy cows lying on their right body side). In case the dairy cows were standing, the numbers of them standing at trough, standing in the corridor, and standing in box were monitored. Afterwards, out of the group of 75 Holstein dairy cows, 23 dairy cows were selected and were observed from the very beginning till the very end of the experiment. In these dairy cows, influence of temperature on dailymilkyield was monitored and evaluated in each week of the observation. Additionally, in terms of the experiment, other selected microclimatic parametres were moniotred, such as: air temperature (°C), relative humidity (%), refrigeration quantity (W.m 2 ), light intensity (lx),
The objective of this study was to determine the genetic parameters represented by heritability for test-day milkyield and the genetic correlation between test-days milkyield and the breeding value for Teleorman Black Head sheep. The genetic parameters of dailymilkyield during the first three lactations of Teleorman Black Head ewes were estimated with the random regression test-day animal model. Data consisted of 631 test-day records of 81 ewes at first lactation, 351 test-day records of 58 ewes at second lactation and 229 test-day records of 33 ewes at third lactation from experimental farm of INCDBNA Balotesti. Lactations were analysed separately. The heritability estimates for test-day milkyield of ewes at first lactation ranged from 0.015 at 200 day in milk to 0.19 at 10 day in milk. For the ewes at second lactation the heritability estimates ranged from 0.016 at 180 th in milk to 0.246 at 10 day in milk. For the ewes at third lactation the heritability estimates for test day milkyield ranged from 0.018 at 180 th in milk to 0.249 at 10 th day in milk. Genetic correlations between individual test days milkyield were high and positive.
The study was carried out on 86 Romanian Spotted cows reared at the dairy farm of the Research and Development Station for Bovine Raising in Arad. Cows calved in January, February and March 2011 and concluded their lactations by the end of February 2012. The morning (a.m.) and evening (p.m.) milkyield was recorded individually, and the dailymilkyield was obtained by summing up the two partial yields. Milk production was recorded using the A4 method, every 28 days, and every milking. The first 11 controls were used for each cow in order to calculate the milk production per normal lactation. The length of the first control period was calculated taking into account the calving date and the date the first control was performed. For each cow and control, the proportion of a.m. and p.m. milkings milkyield was calculated from the dailymilkyield, as well as the ratio between a.m. and p.m. yields.
Automatic milking system (AMS) brings a change in approach to ensure the data reliability in the oﬃ cial milk recording (MR). The AMS is equipped with ﬂ owmeter. AMS so ware provides the dailymilkyield (DMY) and average of the last 7 dailymilk yields (AVG7) for MR. Classic MR uses DMY. AVG7 could be more reliable value. Origin of both records (DMY and AVG7) is from AMS ﬂ owmeter. The aim of paper was to compare the values of milkyield of cows from daily (DMY) and the extended records (AVG7) from AMS for objective assess of lactations to be used in cattle breeding. Study (2013) with 2 AMS herds (DeLaval and Lely Astronaut): herd 1 – Holstein (H) dairy cows; herd 2 – Czech Fleckvieh (CF) dairy cows. There were following milk records: n = 521 DeLaval (H); n = 567 Lely Astronaut (CF); 70 (H) and 68 (CF) dairy cows. MR samples were analyzed on: fat content; crude protein; somatic cell count. Correlations between AVG7 and DMY were: 0.888 (H); 0.898 (CF, both P ≤ 0.001). There were insigniﬁ cant diﬀ erences (P > 0.05; −0.07 ± 3.29 kg for H and 0.28 ± 3.3 kg for CF) between AVG7 and DMY for both robots. The same is valid for diﬀ erences in the production of milk components. According to this comparison experiment the AVG7 of AMS is a suitable equivalent for the DMY regarding oﬃ cial MR for assessment of lactations.
The study investigated the adoption rates of technologies in dairy sector in Bungoma County.This study was anchored on Porter's Value Chain theory. The study adopted cross-sectional research design. Target population consisted of 13 Dairy Cooperative Societies with a total membership of 10,062 livestock farmers, eight (8) Livestock Officers from the eight (8) sub-counties, 13 managers of Dairy Cooperative Societies and other licensed milk vendors. The study used semi- structured questionnaires, key informant interview schedules, focus group discussion and observation schedules to collect primary data. A Pilot study was carried in Kimilili Sub-County and then sets of data analyzed using Cronbach alpha method which yielded an alpha value of 0.824. Validity of research instruments was tested using content, construct and face validity. The data obtained was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The study found out that the adoption rates of dairy technologies like Artificial Insemination (AI), internet and e-dairy, silage making techniques, dailymilkyield recording devices, milk conductivity indicators, automatic temperature recording devices and lactometers, hay making techniques, bloodless castration and hot iron dehorning among farmers in Bungoma County was low. Among the factors that negatively affected their adoption included years of experience, gender, age, farm size, cost of veterinary services, and type of dairy breeds. The study recommended designing of policies and programs like farm advisory programs that will enhance dairy production, thus transforming dairy value chain for food security and sustainable development in Bungoma County. These findings will be vital to the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development and other policy makers in enforcing measures for achieving food security in Bungoma County, Kenya and Africa as a whole.
production. When the environmental temperature is above the body temperature, the cows countenance the risk of heat stress and milk production can be decreased by as much as 50% (Ben Salem and Bouraoui, 2009). The comfortable environmental temperature for dairy cattle ranges between 5 to 25 0 C which is also known as the thermal comfort zone (McDowell, 1976). The objective of this study was to monitor the trend of dailymilkyield as function of ambient temperature and relative humidity during the months of summer season (July- October) at BAU Dairy farm and to analyze the composition of summer milk produced by Holstein Friesian crossbred dairy cows.
Evaluation of eﬀ ect of chosen factor (stage of lactation, parity, litter size and month of kidding) on dailymilkyield, basic composition (contents of total solids, fat, total protein, casein and lactose) and somatic cell count of organic goat milk was carried out on an organic farm in Olešenka during the year 2011. Thirtytwo goats of Brown short-haired breed were involved in the experiment, while 15 goats were on the ﬁ rst lactation (PA1), 10 goats on the second (PA2) and 7 goats on the third lactation (PA3). With regard to litter size, 15 goats gave birth to singles and 17 to twins, while the kidding occurred in January (n = 5), February (n = 13) and March (n = 8). The weaning was carried out at the age of kids from 45 to 50 days, a er that all goats began to be machine milked twice a day. During the lactation, the daily feed ration of goats consisted of permanent pasture (ad libitum), meadow hay (ad libitum), organic oat (0.5 kg/head), organic feed mixture for milking goats (VK DRCMAN/CZE, 0.5kg/head) and organic mineral lick (ad libitum). The milk records and samplings for each goat were carried out seven times in the period from April to October. The milk analysis were carried out using standard methods. The stage of lactation had a signiﬁ cant eﬀ ect on all monitored parameters except somatic cell count (SCC) and the parity had a signiﬁ cant eﬀ ect on all monitored parameters. On the other hand, systematic factors of litter size and month of kidding had a signiﬁ cant eﬀ ect only on dailymilkyield (DMY) and SCC. With regard to the particular basic components of milk, the milk fat was the most variable component; on the other hand, the lactose content was during lactation very well-balanced. SCCs were relatively low, except the 260 th day of lactation, which indicates good health status of mammary
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of liquid Biopolym FZT quality components in cow milk. During the reporting period was Biopolym, administered to dairy cows of Czech Pied breed in the selected milking robots equipped and furnished keeping herringbone parlor near Czech Budejovice. It found a slight increase in the average dailymilkyield. The mean dailymilkyield on the robot, which is dosed at Biopolym were 25.5 lt. On the other robot, which served as a control, the mean value of dailymilkyield 23.5 lt. Because the components of milk a slight increase in fat levels in milk, while the impairment of protein. The barn equipped parlor, on the contrary to reduce fat content and increase protein content. Analyses were conducted rumen contents of fistuled dairy cows after dosage of Biopolym.
dam’s parity had significant effect on all production traits considered (P<0.001). Dailymilkyield and annual milkyield differed with respect to year of calving (P<0.05) whereas Season of calving had significant effect on lactation length (P<0.05), dailymilkyield and annual milkyield (P<0.01). Heritability estimates for LL, DMY, AMY and LYD were found to be 0.11±0.11, 0.18±0.14, 0.23±0.15 and 0.19±0.14 respectively. The genetic correlations between the productive traits were all positive ranging from 0.23±0.15 between LL and DMY and 0.84±0.17 between LYD and DMY. The phenotypic correlation ranged from 0.14 between LL and AMY and 0.95 between AMY and DMY. In general, correlations were large and positive indicating that selecting one trait will positively affect the other trait. However, more records on productive traits of half sibs should be included in the analysis in order to minimize standard errors and increase the reliability of the genetic parameters estimated.
The aim of this study was to identify the effect of ambient temperature and season of the year on conception difficulties in Holstein cattle. The experiment was conducted on the School farm in Žabčice. Data were collected from July 2016 to January 2017. Experimental population counted 263 breeding Holstein cows, which were inseminated during the observation period. Results of this study confirmed the effect of temperature and season on conception rates in dairy cows. In winter season, successful conception was recorded in 56.36 % of cows in average ambient temperature 1.48 °C, in summer season the conception rate was only 40.43 % in average daily temperature 18.96 °C. A more detailed analysis revealed the highest conception rates in the dairy cows in January (88.24 %) and February (91.67 %). On the contrary, the worst results were recorded in September (22.73 %) and October (28.57 %). Evaluation of conception rate according to ambient temperature intervals showed best results for the temperatures below 5 °C. A part of the study was also evaluation of an association between dailymilkyield and conception rate. This hypothesis cannot be conclusively confirmed, because milkyield was mostly similar in both groups (pregnant and non‑pregnant) on the days of insemination.
using standard methods. The parity (PA) had no signiﬁ cant eﬀ ect on all monitored indicators of milk, with the exception of somatic cell count (SCC). On the other hand, the stage of lactation (SL) had a signiﬁ cant eﬀ ect on dailymilkyield (DMY), contents of total solids (TS), total protein (TP) and lactose (L). Furthermore, the SL had a signiﬁ cant eﬀ ect on total bacteria count (TBC), psychrotrophic bacteria count (PBC), total coliform count (TCC) and SCC. The evaluation of the interaction of the PA x SL was also an integral part of this study. The above mentioned factor had a signiﬁ cant eﬀ ect on DMY, TS and TP contents and PBC. Under study, the milk protein was the most variable component of the milk. SCC as well as bacteria counts were very-well balanced on both lactations and relatively very low during the lactation period. Signiﬁ cant and positive correlations were found among the SL and contents of TS and TP. Furthermore, signiﬁ cant and positive correlation was observed between the PA and SCC, but on the other hand, signiﬁ cant however negative correlation was found between the SL and SCC.
study (Table 6) were similar for the health and fertility traits (allowing for the difference in how lifespan and survival traits are derived) to those currently implemented in UK genetic evaluations, with the exception of milk production values which were higher in this study. The higher than previously reported  economic values for milk production traits was due to an increase in the average price of milk from 17 pence per liter in previous calculations  to 25 pence per liter and the use of the most recent published phenotypic and genetic parameters for the UK . Although assumptions are used to model a cow over its lifetime to derive economic values (along with actual national records), Pryce et al.  showed that economic values derived using the current modelling approach are generally robust to these assumptions. Ultimately, the best assumptions available have to be used to complement actual records in order to calculate economic values.
Mastitis represents the inflammation of mammary gland as a whole, with its parts for production, accumulation and secretion of milk (Boboš, 2005). Symptoms of inflammation may have subclinical form (subclinical mastitis) and clinical form (clinical mastitis). Subclinical mastitis may be discovered by laboratory check up only (CMT), or on the basis of lower milk production of the individual quarters. Subclinical mastitis may develop into clinical one, and may be treated spontaneously also. In this phase exists small inflammation of mammary gland, milk and mammary quarters appear normally. Frequency of subclinical mastitis is 2 to 20 times larger than that of clinical mastitis. With clinical mastitis, secretion of milk is abnormal, in lumps and flaked. Clots are agglomeration of tissue residues, leukocytes and proteins. These clots block the milk channels and prevent the disposal of liquids from alveoli, and in such way the tympany of the udder appears. Udder may be red, hard, hot and painful.
Data of milk recording provides the basis to control herd management and genetic improvement of cows. Breeding values are predicted for 305-day yields in order to select heifers for replacement. Knowing the genetic relationship between lactation curve traits, each animal breeder would be able to select cows based on performance records of the lactation course (Tozer and Huffaker, 1999).
The success of Indian dairy industry is much dependent on productivity and efficient reproduction performance of Murrah buffaloes. .It is a established fact that first lactation yield is a good indicator of lifetime performance but still there is further need to study the relationship between first, later lactations and lifetime performance traits for overall better evaluation of genetic worth of the female individual’s own performance and for ranking of sires. Economic return from dairy animals depends on lifetime performance. The prediction of expected correlated response to selection based on early performance and development of selection schemes for genetic improvement in lifetime traits are likely to be more beneficial. The impact of any selection programme depends upon degree of accuracy of selection and genetic correlation between early and lifetime performance traits. Keeping in view, the above facts available through the literature on this species of live