Dalits in India

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DALITS IN INDIA: DISCRIMINATION AND DEVELOPMENT

DALITS IN INDIA: DISCRIMINATION AND DEVELOPMENT

Various retaliation and revolts have happened in history for upliftment of Dalits which are well discussed by S.M Michael(2007) who emphasized on main Dalit movements and leaders from past of India. Major movements were Mahar movement in 1948, Jyotirao Phule in Poona founded the first Non-Brahmin organization „Satyashodak Samaj‟ in 1883, Buddhist conversion movement started by Dr B.R Ambedkar in 1956, who is known as father of Dalits in India, Formation of Dalit panthers in 1970 and latest examples is Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) formed in Uttar Pradesh. It has its roots deep in history, and even today it governs life of not even the Dalits but also other general. the castes were first listed systematically in 1931 census of India, the term „Schedule Caste‟ was applied to those castes for the first time in the government of India act of 1935.The division of castes constitutes one of the most fundamental features of India‟s social structure. In Hindu society, caste divisions play a part in both actual social interactions and in the ideal scheme of values. Members of different castes are expected to behave differently and to have different values and ideals (Deshpande S, 2010).
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Relevance of Internet media: A study of Dalits in India

Relevance of Internet media: A study of Dalits in India

Abstract- Web has colossal energy to convey social balance to the population ignored in the public. Dalits involve more than millions. In any case, their socio- political and monetary issues saw by the prevailing press are small in numbers. Accordingly, there is a requirement for the informed Dalit populace to locate an option media through which they can express and react with outside world. In this situation, web has turned out to be a line for enlightened Dalits. This paper examine in insight about how web stage, for example, Dalit sites, web-based social networking, web journals are an option for media to raised the different issues of Dalits in India. The calculated exchange on the issues has obviously exemplified the despicable situation of the scope of Dalit issues by the predominant press.
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SOCIAL EXCLUSION: IMPACT ON DALITS IN INDIA

SOCIAL EXCLUSION: IMPACT ON DALITS IN INDIA

From the foregoing discussion it may concluded that the concept of social exclusion is a process of blocking the development of the marginalized communities and disintegrating people into mainstream of development, with a series of institutionalized social systems. The most affected population is dalits who lag in all spheres of developmental activities. The impact of exclusion has made the Dalits as vulnerable community since from the Vedic time and dependable on the others so called upper communities. In the contemporary scenario due to the impact of exclusion in Dalits they are subjected to social , economically and politically exclusion.
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Constitutional safeguards for dalits in india

Constitutional safeguards for dalits in india

Compensatory discrimination was one of the means chosen to achieve those ends. Its purpose is to promote equalization by offsetting historically accumulated inequalities. The Government of India has used compensatory discrimination as a means of achieving greater equality by deliberately overcoming some of those historically accumulated disabilities from which Dalits have long suffered. The Constitution provides some preferential options to the Dalits who for so many centuries have been deprived of their rights in Indian society. It was Dr. Ambedkar, himself a Dalit and the chief architect of the Indian Constitution, who really formulated the provision of compensatory discrimination.
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Ambedkar’s Ideology as a Source for the Study of Dalits

Ambedkar’s Ideology as a Source for the Study of Dalits

Ambedkar was also responsible in creating a huge compendium of statistics of communities and of their socio- economic status. No other individual of contemporary times has ever created a document of this magnitude except Ambedkar. Even to this very day with the many research centers across India and with the existence of a number of NGO’s we still stand in the same very place that Ambedkar had left us behind. Strangely enough, in one of the programmes aired by NDTV on 25-03-2010, at 10 pm, debating over an issue where in students in one of the school in Bihar were asked to write their name and caste on their answer scripts, also mentioned the population of dalits in India to be 65 million and even specified that half of them lived in Uttar Pradesh. 2
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Caste Based Discrimination in the enjoyment of Fundamental Rights: A Critical Review of the present status of Dalit’s in India

Caste Based Discrimination in the enjoyment of Fundamental Rights: A Critical Review of the present status of Dalit’s in India

Under-educated, severely impoverished, and brutally exploited, Dalits struggle to provide for even their most basic daily needs. Dalits must also endure daily threats to their physical security from both state and private actors. The violence by upper-caste groups against Dalits have two major causes: the “untouchability” and discrimination upper-caste community members practice on a daily basis and the desire of upper-caste community members to protect their own entrenched status by preventing Dalit development and the fulfillment of Dalits’ rights. A review of the political, social, economic, and cultural status of Dalits in India shows the State Party to be in violation of its obligation to respect, protect, and ensure Convention rights to all individuals in its jurisdiction. India routinely denies Dalits the rights and privileges that many of its other citizens take for granted. An attempt has been made in this paper to high light the issues and problems of India as a country that has failed in its duty to eliminate caste discrimination and ensure the full enjoyment of the fundamental rights and equality before the law of Dalits guaranteed by Article 5. A review of the political, social, economic, and cultural status of Dalits in India shows the State Party to be in violation of its obligation to respect, protect, and ensure Convention rights to all individuals in its jurisdiction.
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Ambedkar’ s Alternative Philosophy towards Caste Discrimination and Economic Deprivation of Dalits

Ambedkar’ s Alternative Philosophy towards Caste Discrimination and Economic Deprivation of Dalits

This paper tries to throw light on how Ambedkar unearthed the age old problems of Dalits in India, and advocated a new philosophical outlook to emancipate Dalits from the clutches of dominant caste and feudal landlords of this country. Monopoly of all privileges were in the hands of the upper caste and all sufferings to the lower caste Sudras was a significant feature .To overcome this situation Ambedkar suggested alternatives to the existing social order. Dr. Ambedkar says, “The first condition which I think is a condition precedent for the successful working of a democracy is that there must be no glaring not be class which has got all the privileges and a class which has got all the burdens to carry. Such thing, such a division, such an organization. If a society has within itself the germs of a bloody revolution and perhaps it would be impossible for democracy to cure them”. The Social justice through protective discrimination is not a privilege given to some aliens by somebody out of mercy or magnanimity but it is rather the rights of those who had not either realized or raised their voices so far but were exploited and deprived off for many centuries.
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Social Exclusion and Jobs Reservation in India

Social Exclusion and Jobs Reservation in India

This paper argues that social exclusion robs people of their "confidence" and this loss adversely affects their capacity to function effectively. We may not be able to define confidence precisely but we know it when we have it and also when we lack it. In a “just” society, no group should unfairly suffer from a “confidence deficit” or enjoy a “confidence surplus”. However, affirmative action policies to boost a deprived group's employment rate suffer from several defects. In particular, they may have only a small effect (as with Dalits in India) when the group's educational base is low. Consequently, another prong of policy could, indeed should, focus on improving the educational standards of Dalits. The root of the problem of poor Dalit achievement lies in the many dysfunctional primary and secondary schools in the villages and towns of India. Admittedly, tackling the problem at its roots will only yield results after a long delay. Nor does the emphasis on effective learning at school carry the glamour associated with being a putative graduate of the Indian Institute of
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Indian Vernacular Blogs and its Usage as an Alternative Media for Dalits - A Critical Discourse Analysis

Indian Vernacular Blogs and its Usage as an Alternative Media for Dalits - A Critical Discourse Analysis

author reviewed totally 154 blog posts as well as the comments from readers for each post in the blog. One of the reasons as to why this blog has been chosen for the study is the activeness of the blog and this blog is regularly updated with more than two posts per day. Furthermore, it was noticed from the other Dalit blogs that they invariably relied on the news on Dalits from the mainstream media source for the information. Apart from discussing openly on various issues on Dalits in India, in sakya blog also updates several information and news on day today issues pertaining to Dalits.
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Discrimination Based on the Caste and Lineage: With Special Focus on Dalit Women in India

Discrimination Based on the Caste and Lineage: With Special Focus on Dalit Women in India

Dalits in India are at the lowest of cast system. Physical separation of Dalits from the dominant casts in, strict enforcement of the prohibition of inter dining at public places, housing patterns, seating arrangements in educational institutions, particularly primary schools and forces the performance of degrading occupation like carrying of night soil by women and manual scavenging. Discrimination based on caste and descent results in the sexual control and violent appropriation over Dalit women by men of the dominant caste, apparent in systematic performance of forced prostitution in the name of religion through Devadasi system and rape of Dalit women. Despite the preamble of the constitution which resolves to usher in a society where there is justice, political, social and economic to we people of India, the law of the state lacks in providing for a active programme of positive action to raise the
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DALIT SPIRIT IN THE FOLK LITERATURE OF SAURASHTRA

DALIT SPIRIT IN THE FOLK LITERATURE OF SAURASHTRA

A versatile poetic genius of Gujarat ‗Padmashree‘ DulaKaag (1803-1977) is famous for his lofty tone, rhythm, rhyme and sweetness of his voice. He has depicted real, alive, and heart touching pictures of Dalit suffering and exploitation by other people especially in the poems on Gandhi. Such poems can awaken the masses. He has written beautiful padas and bhajans (hyms, verses) about the plight of Dalits and Gandhi‘s concern for it. The Bhajan ‗BhayankarVratBhangavo‘ about the fasts of Gandhi for protecting Dalits, ‗Mano Svabhav‘ dealing with the scolding to people against Gandhi‘s service to Dalitsare noteworthy. The poems ‗Mohan-ne Trajave‘ and ‗Mohan DoobaloKem‘ show tremendous Dalit spirit.
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Expanding User Experience in India

Expanding User Experience in India

UX India’s iINNOVATE is an annual design challenge open to all college students or recent graduates from anywhere in the nation and from any discipline. This design challenge is a great opportunity for colleges and universities to shape students into thought leaders by addressing problems and finding solutions to those problems that could make a difference in their industries. UXINDIA has been running this program for five years and has been successfully providing a great platform for these student innovators to showcase their ideas and make connections with key people in various industries. Some of the design challenge winners are selected to provide design mentorship for students in their colleges and educational institutes through the Instill Design program. So far iINNOVATE has reached more than 10,000 students and citizens of India.
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A Study on Alienation of Panjami Lands in Tamil Nadu

A Study on Alienation of Panjami Lands in Tamil Nadu

According to Express News Service in Chennai, More than 2,000 acres of Panjami land has been handed over to special economic zones (SEZs), industrial parks and other projects, according to Dalit MannurumaiKootamconvenorNicholos. Addressing a consultation on retrieval of Panjami land by scheduled castes using data collected under the Right to Information Act on Tuesday, Nicholos said that despite dalits politicians having the political will, they have failed to win back the Panjami land.

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Opening spaces: Power, participation and plural
 democracy at the World Social Forum

Opening spaces: Power, participation and plural
 democracy at the World Social Forum

In fact, these five points really combine to recommend the continuation and intensification of the two fundamental existing strengths of the ‘open space’ methodology: firstly, uncompromising inclusivity, and secondly, the courage to resist the consensual model of modernist politics. However, they also indicate the need to supplement these two strengths with an ethics of alterity through which the open space opens itself up to the Other. The transformative and indeed politicising effects of Othering the Self, which includes displacing one’s own assumptions about what politics is and how it can be done, deserve to be put at the heart of this process. To return to the example of the Dalits in Mumbai, encountering lived subalternity should productively question pre-existing epistemological, theoretical, and also emotional presuppositions. And yet, given the critique of essentialism which has informed the more radical elaborations on Habermas’s model, the most difficult task for the WSF is perhaps that of charting a course between recognition on the one hand (for example, recognising the genuine and specific plight of the Dalits), and essentialism on the other (for example, setting up the Dalits as the embodiement of authentic victimhood). Political, but not only political, forms of representation thus remain at the heart of democratic praxis. In general then, the WSF must not fall under the nostalgic spell of the Old Left and, in so doing, invite the political parties, of any stamp, to take the reigns. It must withstand the jibes about it being little more than an efette and terminally liberal talking-shop. It must ignore the corrollary demands for some kind of manifesto which will spell out ‘where we stand, and what we must do’ (who this constituent ‘we’ is is always already in question, and productively so). And shocking as it may seem, the WSF must also tolerate the imprecise definition of its enemy: the fact that ‘neo-liberalism’ means different things to different particpants at the forums should be celebrated, and used, rather than deemed an analytic short-coming. Indeed, that this apparent catch-all term can encompass the experiences of sweat-shop workers, trade unionists, aid volounteers, small business owners, farmers, feminists, economists and environmental activists, indicates the kind of semantic reach absolutely necessary to the shifting complexity of a globalised world. And only a rhizomatic acitivism, rather than an arboreal political philosophy, 29 is appropriate to the networked nature of that world. Rather than some kind of cosmopolitan global parliament that uncritically adopts a simplistic notion of representation then, the WSF meetings must continue to be conceived as spaces which are open, but still criss-crossed by the inescapable, yet also enabling, constraints of power.
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International Aid and Dalit Development A Case study of INGO Intervention in Tamil Nadu

International Aid and Dalit Development A Case study of INGO Intervention in Tamil Nadu

discriminated for ages. The kind of discrimination faced by Dalits varies from the practice of untouchability to atrocities in various forms. The caste Hindus always had a clear agenda in alienating and discriminating the Dalits. The mindset of untouchability of the caste Hindus went to the extent of building an ‘untouchability wall’ in Uttapuram village in Madurai District of Tamil Nadu. The discriminatory mindset of the caste Hindus and other oppressive communities continued even today despite the reformative efforts by prominent Dalit leaders like Rettamalai Srinivasan, Ayothi Dasan, self respect movement leader EVK. Periyar and even with the influence of Ambedkarism. The political mobilization in the post nineties often seen as
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Jesus is a Dalit

Jesus is a Dalit

In this world all know about the Jesus Christ and his life of history. Even I am also one of the believer and follower of Christianity. In all Christians faith everything created by God. Therefore Mahatma Gandhi (father of nation) was said we are children of God. But unfortunately the based on the economic condition was divided into different corps specified rich and poor people in our society. The poor people day by day faced many problems in our society and their living with difficult situations. This situation was not only in India, maybe around the World. Even we are see through Jesus life in the Bible mentioned many places Jesus was helped the poor, oppressed and help less people. As a researcher believer and follower asked many questions myself, why Jesus was helped to poor and help less people. Some people point of view Jesus also one of God but the researcher vision Jesus is a Dalit, because, I have here one example, suppose your suffering some diseases and unhappy
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DISPARITIES IN LITERACY RATE OF DALITS IN KARNATAKA AN INTER DISTRICT LEVEL ANALYSIS

DISPARITIES IN LITERACY RATE OF DALITS IN KARNATAKA AN INTER DISTRICT LEVEL ANALYSIS

Though the Karnataka state is striving towards achieving universal literacy at a faster pace, but still 35% of the Scheduled Castes population and 38% of the Scheduled Tribes population is still illiterate. The following article has analysed the trends and pattern of literacy rates of Dalits with regard to regions and gender in Karnataka. Statistical and analytical methods such as Averages, Percentages, Range, Disparity Indices and Co-efficient of Variation are employed in the study. It is found that the literacy rate of Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe in the state is far behind the benchmark goal of 85% by the Planning Commission. This is a cause of concern. The female SCs and STs are quite worse off when compared to male SCs and STs. The inter-district variations are also quite wider in their case. Further the literacy rate of female SCs and STs across northern backward districts have not crossed 50 per cent. This is one of major challenge that the State should address on a priority concern. Twelfth Plan proposes that efforts will be made for providing functional literacy with special focus to Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and other disadvantageous groups for keeping track with the objective of Inclusive Growth. It will go long way in sustaining the Dalits improvement in the growth process. Once the literacy rate of female Dalits is improved, it will help them to utilize better economic opportunities and enhance their capabilities, there-by leading to socio-economic empowerment.
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Financing Higher Education in India

Financing Higher Education in India

There is now sufficient evidence to show that higher education generated large positive externalities for growth and that the level of development of a country and the stock of highly educated manpower is related. This is also now widely recognized both in India and China. Among the BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China), the enrolment rate in higher education is the lowest in India and also appears to growing the most slowly. Although, it is likely that expansion in enrolments in India is underestimated due to the poor data base regarding private unaided education, still the performance of China in expanding enrolment in higher education stands out as exceptional. The GER in higher education in china increased from 3 % in 1985 to 16 % in 2001. An area of great concern in India is the low level of per student expenditure, reflecting poor educational support and infrastructure. According to Carnoy (ibid.), the per student expenditure in Brazil in 2000 was $5,5000 PPP, whereas in China it was about $11,000 PPP. By contrast, the per student expenditure in India in 2000-01 was only $1300 PPP. The financing of higher education in India is still largely in the public domain. In India, however, private educational institutions played an important role from the very beginning. A large percentage of these institutions were provided recurrent financial support by governments and were closely regulated by the state. However, the new self-financing institutions which have grown rapidly since the 1990s are poorly regulated and are mainly governed by commercial motives. In China, by comparison, higher education was completely state financed but since the 1990s, nearly 30 % of total expenditure is financed through fee realization, while in India this element is lower, at about 12-15 %.
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EMERGING CONSCIOUSNESS AND RESISTANCE : READING DALIT SHORT STORIES IN TRANSLATION

EMERGING CONSCIOUSNESS AND RESISTANCE : READING DALIT SHORT STORIES IN TRANSLATION

This story brings out the problems of uneducated old villagers, particularly the grandfather who sees hope in future and advises his grandson to acquire education and defeat the age-old caste system. But the problem seems to be more serious than what it appears on the surface. In another story, “ Explosion ” by Yogiraj Waghmare (1970s) highlights the problems of educated lower castes. Yogiraj Waghmare has been an activist and one of the pioneers who participated in Dalit Literary movements. He wrote major works around 1970 ’ s. His story is about the struggle of the educated Dalits for employment. Where on one hand, there is a hope that education might be a solution to all problems, on the other education has added up more frustration on the pretext of caste division, unemployment and poverty. Shetiba was a young matriculate who had been in search of a job for past three years but his efforts resulted into a naught. The story is about helplessness of Shetiba and his father Sheku who were living in dire poverty. Despite all resistance, Sheku provided education to his son. He explains that:
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While different aspects of perceived stigma towards leprosy affected people were measured by EMIC, the total score of EMIC was used as a total perceived stigma score comparing with different socio-demographic features and their knowledge about leprosy. Regarding socio- demographic features of the participants, participants living closer to the Leprosy hospital had lesser perceived stigma compared to those living further. This might have been because of the greater acceptance level in people living closed to the hospital compared to living further. Both ethnic groups Brahmins and Dalits including minorities had higher perceived stigma compared to rest of the ethnic groups. Ethnicity and stigma association has been found in a study conducted in India 12 where
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