Abstract: The power dissipated by the links of a network-on-chip.the power dissipated by the other elements of the communication subsystem, namely, the routers and the network interfaces. we present a set of data encoding schemes to reduces the power dissipated by he links of an Network on chip. In proposed schemes are general and transparent with respect to the Network on chip (i.e., their application does not require any modification of the routers and architecture). We shows the both synthetic and real traffic scenarios of the effectiveness of the proposed schemes, which allow to save up to 51% of power dissipation and 14% of energy consumption without any significant performance degradation and less than 15% area overhead in network interface.
Here, within the proposed work the encoder in LDPC is replaced with our data encoding schemes therefore as to cut back the power consumption in the LDPC techniques. Three schemes join to reduce the dynamic power of the NoCs data path by minimizing the number of bit transitions. Different transitions like odd, even and full are taken into consideration. During this experiment determined that the proposed technique yields sensible ends up in dynamic power reduction.
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A system-on-chip (SoC) combines the required electronic circuits of various computer components onto a single, integrated chip (IC). SoC is a complete electronic substrate system that may contain analog, digital, mixed-signal or radio frequency functions. As the density of VLSI design increases, the complexity of each component in a system raises rapidly. Today’s SoC designers face a new challenge in the design of the on-chip interconnects beyond the evolution of an increasing number of processing elements. The main problems in SoC are wire delays, synchronization, uncertainity, power etc. hence to overcome these problems we go for Network on Chip (NoC). In the case of large-scale designs, network on chip is preferred as it reduces the complexity involved in designing the wires and also provides a well-controlled structure capable of better power, speed and reliability. For high- end system-on-chip designs, network-on-chip (NoC) is considered the best integrated solution. As the technology shrinks, the power dissipated by the links of a NoC starts to compete with the power dissipated by the other elements of the communication subsystem, namely, the routers and the network interfaces (NI). In this project, I analyzed a set of data encoding schemes aimed at reducing the power dissipated by the links of a NoC with small area overhead. The proposed schemes are general and transparent with respect to the underlying NOC fabric.
an ever more significant fraction of the total power budget of a complex many-core system-on-chip (SoC) is due to the communication subsystem. The data encoding techniques are developed to reduce the power consumption caused by the transitions in the interconnect on the chip. The data encoding techniques are based on reducing the number of transitions by considering the types of transitions in the interconnects and by considering them as discussed in the table below and also consider the transitions as different types of inversions available for us. The different types of inversions available for us are odd inversion, full inversion and even inversions. By reducing these inversions we can control the number of transitions in the interconnects which reduces the power consumption caused by these transitions in the links.
Abstract: There is an expanding interest for productive and dependable transmission of computerized information. A noteworthy worry here is the control of blunders for dependable generation of information. By appropriate encoding of data to a codeword with the assistance of Error Correction Codes (ECC), errors induced can be reduced. The proposed architecture parallelizes the comparison of the data and that of the parity information. To further reduce the latency and complexity, in addition, a new butterfly-formed weight accumulator (BWA) is proposed for the proficient calculation of the Hamming separation. Grounded on the BWA, the proposed design analyzes whether the approaching information coordinates the put away information if a specific number of wrong bits are amended. . The proposed engineering is actualized by utilizing xilinx14.7 form and the trial comes about demonstrate that the proposed design lessens the dormancy and the equipment multifaceted nature separately. In expansion we do Golay code for more decrease in the idleness. Golay code is a different mistake adjusting parallel code equipped for remedying a blend of three or couple of arbitrary blunders in a piece of 23 digits. The Comparison of Golay Code and BWA is due to Delay and Speed.
An electronic circuit might consist of a CPU, ROM, RAM and other glue logic. VLSI lets IC makers at all of this into one chip. A contrast of Network On Chip’s (NoC’s) structure makes a fitting replacement for System On Chip (SoC) design in designs incorporating large number of processing cores. In NoC the overall power dissipation is due to the interconnection system. The interconnects have become main element in dynamic power dissipation in a NoC design. NoC improves the scalability of SoC and the power efficient of complex SoC compared to other designs. The wires in the links of the NoC are shared by many signals. The project concept depends on the traffic flow in the chip. The idea presented in this project exploits the wormhole switching techniques and works on an end to end basis. That is flits are encoded by the Network Interface (NI) before they are injected in the network and are decoded by the destination NI. In such a way as to minimize both switching activity and the coupling switching activity which represent the main factors of power dissipation. The proposed schemes are general and transparent with respect to the underlying NoC fabrication. The data encoding technique in which number of switching transitions in data word is brought down to reduce the power dissipation. To verify the efficiency of the proposed technique, encoder structure was designed by using VerilogHDL. As result, we save the power on NoC links more than 50%.
links. The previous designs are concentrated to reduce power of links that suggests shielding to the link, introduce the large space between the lines and inserting repeaters even they need more area but the othet techniques are data encoding techinques there are several encoding techniques which reduces the power without introducing the area. Those encoding techniques may reduce any one of switching technique either coupling switching or self switching. The self switching activity is that power consumed by the same bus due to data transfer in it. The bus inversion and inc-xor coding styles are employed to reduce power for randomly distributed data patterns. We also employ other coding like gray code, one zone encoding and T0-XOR gate for the correlated data pattern. Since each data will have unique style of data transitions hence employing different techniques. This techniques will not suitable for the data transfer at the submicrometer techonology nodes where each node is having certain capacitance, that capacitance will constitue major portion of the power dissipation at the nodes. This iscalled coupling switching.
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3) Block Data Encoding: In block data encoding, we do two steps. First step is getting the block data and second step is calculating the block size. In get block data, we get the same color block size from calculate block size. Block data will get xNode + row, yNode + clm and same color block size. In calculate block size, we calculating the pixel value with pixel by pixel based row order by intending the lossless. So, we use the idea of row by row raster scan order. In this calculation, the main intended area is first row and first column of block and last row and last column of image. Because we need to know the beginning of block that remark as a start region of block, and we need to know the end of the image that to stop the indexing.
KM module calculates, on the basis of the linguistic cues captured, to what extent the behavior displayed in the signature corresponds to the one expected if the word could be said to hold a particular syntactic feature. For instance, the system can assess that the adjective blind, that displays the behavior reported in Figure 2, can be said to be predicative with enough confidence because there were linguistic cues confirming that feature. However, for the adjective countless, following the data in Table 2, should be considered no predicative, there are no cues that support such a consideration for countless.
concepts explained in this paper are just the base to understand the applications for the analysis in the frequency domain. Similarly, the process to digitalize a signal using PCM is the first step to digging deeper into this area that involves sampling, quantization, and encoding. Theoretically, the sampling theorem of Shannon states that the rate samples must satisfy the criterion f c ≥2f m , but with the purpose of increase the
With ISABELA and ISABELA-QA, we created an inherently lossy compression tech- nique. Based on the lessons learnt, we proposed DIRAQ , a parallel, scalable, in- situ index building algorithm, which creates losslessly compressed data with an inbuilt precision-based index for approximate query processing. DIRAQ aggregates group-level indexes across large spatial contexts without significantly impacting the simulation per- formance. It proceeds by first dividing the processes in the simulation into processor set (pset) groups based on network topology, and then applies in-situ indexing on each local process. The encoding technique converts raw floating-point data into a compressed rep- resentation, which incorporates a compressed inverted index to enable optimized range- query access, while also exhibiting a total storage footprint less than that of the original data. Once the indexes are built, the layout of the group-level “defragmented” index layout is created at the group-leader by communicating and merging local index layouts. A load-balanced data transfer mechanism takes place using in-network Remote Memory Access (RMA) operations, to move the index to writer nodes, which then writes the aggregated index to disk. Additionally, we introduced a new approach for aggregator selection that incorporates data-, topology- and memory-awareness to enable smarter aggregation strategies at run-time.
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Bioinformatics techniques to protein secondary structure prediction mostly depend on the information available in amino acid sequence. Support vector machines (SVM) have shown strong generalization ability in a number of application areas, including protein structure prediction. In this study, a new sliding window scheme is introduced with multiple windows to form the protein data for training and testing SVM. Orthogonal encoding scheme coupled with BLOSUM62 matrix is used to make the prediction. First the prediction of binary classifiers using multiple windows is compared with single window scheme, the results shows single window not to be good in all cases. Two new classifiers are introduced for effective tertiary classification. This new classifiers use neural networks and genetic algorithms to optimize the accuracy of the tertiary classifier. The accuracy level of the new architectures are determined and compared with other studies. The tertiary architecture is better than most available techniques.
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Data compression methods will compress the original file such as text, image, audio or video into different file which is called compressed file. It is a technique used for decreasing the requirements of storage space in different storage media. It also requires less bandwidth for data transmission over the network. It also reduces the time for displaying and loading data.
lation (Kunchukuttan & Bhattacharyya, 2016), (Sennrich, Haddow, & Birch, 2015) — the pro- cess of BPE allows for reasonably efficient data extraction and the ability to handle unknown vo- cabulary. As BPE preferentially combines the most common tokens, the compressed content will often feature tokens that include common word conjugations (e.g., − ing, − ed, etc.) and subwords (e.g., un − , − ology, etc.), creating an emulation of the common processes of language synthesis on social platforms and capturing po- tential misspellings of words. Furthermore, due to the fact that the “worst case” scenario for BPE is simply an uncompressed character em- bedding, completely unknown strings are also reasonably tokenized and captured.
The vertices should be sufficiently distributed that the resulting mesh can be deformed reasonably freely without individual triangles becoming too angular and introduc- ing noticable discontinuities. The helper points not only add bendpoints to the mesh but the stress their edges contribute when the mesh is deformed acts as a regular- izer and helps to preserve the geography. Many strategies are possible for placing the helper points. We considered both uniform (grid) and non-uniform placements.In prac- tice we find a regular grid of helper points works quite well. Placing points intelligently with respect to geographic features might give better results but this only works if their geometry is known. A disadvantage of non-uniformly placed points is that due to the quadratic nature of the stress function the optimal position of the data points can change if many helper points with short edges surround it. This makes the relation between the dissimilarity and the deformation less clear. Conceptually, our “rubber-sheet” model is achieved by treating mesh edges as springs whose relaxed length is the same as in the starting mesh. Our goal is that any forced displacement of a vertex will be evenly interpolated by displacements of vertices in the surrounding mesh. This is achieved in the stress model of Eq. 1 by includingour helper points. Then, for any pair of points i, j connected by a mesh edge, we set the ideal separation d ij to
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In traditional communication systems, a preamble is used to obtain parameters to decode a frame. This approach is efﬁcient because the transmitter controls the output power and timing, and thus, the symbol properties (amplitude and duration) do not change (much) between the preamble and the payload. In our system, signals can change in amplitude and time, causing decoding errors if traditional approaches are used, Fig. 12. For example, when multiple stripes are under the FoV (a requirement to maximize the data rate of our channel, c.f. Sec. III-D), the amplitude changes depending on the number of consecutive ones and zeros, Fig. 12 (left). The peaks are higher when two HIGH symbols are together (instead of just one HIGH symbol) because more light is reﬂected back. The issue of timing is also problematic, Fig. 12 (middle). A signal could be stretched out or compressed, and the decoding process would lead to more (or less) bits than the original reﬂections. The state-of-the-art  applied dynamic time warping to solve this problem. However, its computing complexity is high and it requires a training dataset with signals for all possible tags. To overcome our decoding challenges, we took inspiration from barcode scanner techniques , . We borrow two key concepts from these methods. First, we use edge detectors to identify the symbol boundaries instead of symbol duration.
In this paper we have shown the implementation of our proposed system. Our proposed work was on enhancing the security of ECC and to reduce its data complexity which we did efficiently by combining ECC with the compression algorithm RLE and got fruitful results. We have successfully reduced the number of bits and also increased the security by applying permutation on the private key. In every new process we get a different private key which in turn provide us the better security of data between the sender and the receiver.
cies of canonical representation and execution re- sult matches between the predicted SQL and the ground truth respectively (Yu et al., 2018a). Ta- ble 1 shows the results. First, we can observe that query match accuracy on test data can be im- proved by 6.4% at most and 1.1% at least. Fur- thermore, for TypeSQL, query match accuracy can be further improved by 1.1% although it has used string-match based approach to anonymize table- related tokens. Moreover, we perform ablation studies by 1) removing the supervision for the anonymization model (denoted as ‘-Supervision’ in Table 1), and 2) simply using the output of the trained anonymization model as the input for the parser without training them as a whole (denoted as ‘-Co-training’ in Table 1). We can observe that the performance improvement is limited without supervision and co-training, indicating that both of them are indispensable.
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In recent years, communication security over the Internet is becoming more and more important because the multimedia and network are widely developed. Two fields of research have been proposed to enhance the communication security: cryptography and information hiding. Although they are both applied to the protection of secret message, the major diﬀerence is the appearance of the transmitted data. The cryptography methods, such as DES and RSA, referred almost exclusively to encryption which is the process of con- verting ordinary information (plaintext) into unintelligible gibberish (cipher-text). After data encryption, the secret data appears to be a total chaos of seemingly meaningless bits. However, the existence of the transmitted secret message can be detected. Because it does not conceal the fact that there is an important message, the encrypted message could
Literature review of image compression technique by V.Karthika. It is the mainly reliable method for statically lossless encoding. It provides extra flexibility plus better competence than the Huffman coding. The main aim of arithmetic code is to provide code words with a perfect length. Arithmetic code is the most useful method to code symbols according to the probability of their occurrence. The average code range is very close to the possible minimum given by information theory. The arithmetic code assigns an interval to each symbol whose size reflects the probability for the presence of this symbol. The code word of a symbol is an arbitrary rational number belongs to the similar interval.