Results of the study present the structure and formalisation concepts of the INSPIRE data model, its extensibility, means for securing interoperability and standardised approach in defining data model elements. The responses to the questionnaire have shown that, on a regional level, spatial data managers have made certain progress towards compliance and are familiar with the Directive, but also still lack a coordinated approach and implementation guidance. Aside from the low capacities, the respondents’ view is that due to the current state of the data structures, harmonisation is a highly complex process and a goal that is difficult to reach. The user needs and data model structure characteristics of the regional geology dataset that were obtained, were integrated in the formal description of the source and target INSPIRE data model. The concept required structuring the source model to meet both INSPIRE and local requirements. Source data schema and data itself are successfully transformed into the target data model and validated against the INSPIRE requirements. The general aim was reached by implementing the INSPIRE dataharmonisation with fulfilling the main objectives – creating market-oriented, interoperable and accessible dataset, meeting national legal requirements towards the geological data management and increasing efficiency of data usage. Further application of the developed approach is seen as the implementation methodology for other INSPIRE themes and other geographical regions.
Since 2012, there have been three systematic reviews on dataharmonisation and related activities, indicating a growing interest in the topic. The reviews were con- cerned with the integration of health information found in multiple databases across multiple organisations, for the purposes of clinical and service improvements, and for research analyses. One review focused on the deter- minants of RHIS performance and its role in improving health systems functioning and performance at the local level . Another focused on views of health care pro- fessionals on data sharing or data linkage of clinical data for research purposes , while the third focused on barriers and facilitators of health information exchange (HIE) in LMICs . Consistent with what was found in primary studies of dataharmonisation processes, these reviews used a variety of terms to explain the integration and exchange of health information . Data harmon- isation was defined both narrowly and broadly depend- ing on its objectives; in one review, data linkage was used solely to describe the technical stages of combining multiple databases , while in another, health informa- tion exchange was used to describe similar as well as broader processes involving multiple stakeholders to mobilise information across various systems, organisa- tions and geographical areas . It is important to identify and synthesise these variations in terminology in a systematic way, to reflect both the range of activities, but also to identify the commonalities, and build an un- derstanding of how dataharmonisation interventions are thought to work to support the different needs of imple- menters and/or users of harmonised data.
Keywords cartography, dataharmonisation, DTM, orthophoto, digital cartography, INSPIRE,
A basic issue for the European cartography, since the publication of the INSPIRE European Directive (Infrastructure for Spatial InfoRmation in the European Community), is the harmonisation of national maps of European States to perform correct cross-border environmental analysis (INSPIRE directive, 2007).The necessity of procedures for cartographic harmonisation has produced numerous researches (Jaroszewicz et al., 2013). Various studies analyse the harmonization of reference systems (e.g. HELIDEM project) or the maps themselves (Dabove et al. 2013b) for general purpose product, some other ones describe the harmonisation of the mapping applications on specific thematic data, for example for environmental studies (Fabbro, Haselberger, 2009). Furthermore, some study for the harmonisation of semantic data based on INSPIRE have been performed, but often they concern specific themes: e.g. land cover / land use (Valcarcel et al., 2008), hydrography (Reis, Barrot, 2010, Vilches-Blázquez et al., 2007), information for fire management (San-Miguel-Ayanz, 2003), environmental thematic information (Zsófia, 2011). Several researches are today aimed to the effective use of semantics in the management of spatial information ( http://wogis2.igig.up.wroc.pl/wogis/ ), which will offer some more specific tools and procedures for future automatic harmonisations. Few projects aim to the harmonisation of the whole digital map (Jakobson et al., 2013, Batista et al., 2013), as the presented study do. In particular, the investigated area between Italy and France presents various problems, which are not completely resolved but are object of current researches (Haase, Frotscher, 2005, Şahin, Alkış, 2013): since it is a cross-border
The paper gives an overview of dataharmonisation in the HUMBOLDT project from an application point of view. It focuses on the technical aspects of dataharmonisation (e.g. schema translation) rather than legal or organisational aspects. First, dataharmonisation requirements and user needs are addressed, followed by a description of the harmonisation process. In the next steps the HUMBOLDT Framework with its Tools and Services is introduced and their use for two different scenarios is explained. One of the scenarios, named European Risk Atlas (ERiskA), aims at developing a cross-border flood risk management application for the Lake Constance region which includes Swiss, Austrian and German territories. The second scenario, Atmosphere, demonstrates possibilities to provide users with air quality information adapted to their needs within a mobile environment. The final section will conclude the results and benefits of the harmonisation efforts and solutions, as well as provide an outlook on future perspectives of these developments.
3.1.2. The emergence of a HIS intervention for primary health care: minimum data set
Once HISP was well-established as a HIS initiative amongst different government and research stakeholders, the team began to develop and pilot different types of HIS interventions, firstly to address known information needs of the PHC services. It emerged from the first phase of HISP (when information needs were assessed) that an essential data set and standards for PHC data were required. The old data sets were biased towards work-related elements (such as staff performance and labour costs) and the data were of poor quality. The process of standardising the PHC data set occurred in three stages. The first stage was for developing and piloting the new minimum data set (MDS) which had additional features to the essential data set. In addition to the data elements provided in the essential data set, it also provided definitions and standards for collecting, analysing and reporting health data and information useful for decision-making, particularly for vertical programmes at the PHC level. The MDS became a key element of the district-based HIS approach especially because each district needed to develop its own HISs. By mid-1997, the new MDS (referred to as the Routine Monthly Report) was implemented in the Western Cape Province with a reduced number of data elements (from around 300 down to 40) to decrease workloads and costs associated to data processing (such as labour or resource costs).
Sobre los autores
Holds a University degree in Applied Geology and Environment from the Faculty of Science from Lisbon University and a M.sc in Geographic Information System (GIS) from Thecnical Institute from Lisbon University. She developed the thesis in statistical and spatial analysis of the distribution pattern of geochemical data and biomonitors. Additionally she did a course in GIS in former Superior Formation Institute (IFQ) and more recently in PostGIS Spatial Databases and in Spatial Data Infrastructures (IDE) and Web Mapping, both from the Polytechnic University of Valencia. Her field of expertise is in GIS applied to geoscien- ce, statistical and spatial analysis and databases. She worked for eight years in private companies as a GIS Technician and since 2011 she has been working in several international and national projects within project fellowships. Within this work, she designed and implemented a Geochronological database; applied multivariate statistical analysis methodologies to lipid biomarkers; she harmonized and implemented information from the National Mineral Occurrences and Resources Infor- mation System - SIORMINP in INSPIRE compliant structured and harmonized data models. Currently she collaborates in the development of a methodology for the definition of a Mineral Deposit of Public Importance.
The Department of Chemistry at Ibadan University offers an MSc in Analytical Chemistry and an MSc in Environmental Chemistry which are run over three semesters (18 months) for each programme. MSc by course work which includes advanced lectures on; research methods, data management, QA/QC, titrimetry, gravimetry, reaction chemistry, electroanalytical methods (potentiometry, voltammetry, coulometry, amperometry, electrogravimetry, etc), quantitative spectrophotometry (AAS, AES, ICP, MAS, AFS, XRF, etc), separation methods (GC, GC-MS, ion exchange, HPLC, solvent extraction, ion chromatography, etc), radioanalytical methods (neutron activation, radioimmunoassay, etc), thermal methods, enzymatic methods, water analysis, air analysis, food analysis, drug analysis, analysis of miscellaneous organics & biological samples, and practicals as well as the required environmental chemistry courses. The programmes also include a 6-months research project.
There are also of course countervailing arguments. These include:
• sovereignty (for trans-national harmonisation);
Sovereignty (supremacy, self-government) is often a relative rather than absolute concept. It can be seen as ultimate authority in a specified area, but must be compromised to achieve international co-operation. Sovereignty can be seen as overlapping and existing within international regimes – “implicit or explicit principles, norms, rules, and decision-making procedures around which expectations converge in a given area of international relations”. 3
It is desirable that the rules on agreements are harmonized for the following reasons. First, if the rules on, for example, termination of employment agreements or the mandatory continuation of agreements differ too much, this may elicit "insolvency tourism" (forum shopping, see Recital 4 of the EC Regulation N° 1346/2000) by the attempted shift of the COMI (Centre of Main Interests) of the company or a race to the courts. Secondly, harmonisation of the rules on reorganization plans will lead to greater transparency and will therefore result in increased support by creditors for justifiable schemes. Thirdly, harmonisation will decrease the need for secondary proceedings aimed at seeking a local advantage for a few creditors rather than promoting restructuring and/or efficient distribution to all creditors. Fourthly, harmonisation of these rules will enhance a level playing field. With respect to the leases of real property, there is no compelling need to seek harmonisation, because these agreements are governed by Article 8 of the EC Regulation No 1346/2000. Although Article 10 of the EC Regulation No 1346/2000 contains a choice of law rule with respect to employment agreements, harmonisation of this part of the law is nevertheless desirable, because Article 10 does not extend to the powers of the liquidator under Article 18. Harmonisation of the rules regarding reorganization plans should take place with respect to the consideration of the following issues:
Data on 220 motorcycle riders admitted to a level one trauma centre in Sydney were extracted for an 18 month period (July 2008-December 2009). 190 motorcycle riders wore a helmet. Compared to not wearing a helmet, the results showed that there was a statistically significantly lower likelihood of a helmeted motorcycle rider experiencing a head injury (Exp(B) = 0.35), intracranial injury (Exp(B) = 0.34), intracranial injury including concussion ((Exp(B) = 0.34), but not concussion (Exp(B) = 0.42) . In absolute terms this shows that AS/NZS 1698 certified helmets are providing a high level of protection compared to no helmet. In yet another study, the US Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) database was queried for the years from 2000 to 2009 (inclusive), and 11,681 fatal motorcycle rural roadway departure collisions with fixed objects were identified. It was found that enforcing helmet use would provide reductions in fatality risk by around 11% . To conclude, there are no suitable real world crash data that facilitate a comparison of the
integration process. 67 Besides its focus on the advancement of the harmonisation process, the Commission tends to achieve solidarity among the Member States through the initiation of burden sharing instruments. Besides, in the field of refugee and asylum policy, Non-governmental organisations (NGOs), even they don’t have much influence; they are carrying important functions, because often they are the only institution that represents the interest of the asylum seekers. Their general view is the fear of an erosion of the protection standards for refugees. That applies to the reception standards within the Member States, as well as the criteria of expulsion. Especially the expulsion to so-called ‘safe third countries’ has been criticised by various NGO’s 68 because of an insufficient guarantee of human rights in some of the non-European countries. Furthermore, they denounce the different treatment of asylum seekers in the different Member States with their different national laws 69 : “Even after five years of harmonisation of EU asylum policy, a person can have a 90% chance of being accepted as a refugee in one EU country, while her chances are virtually nil next door.” 70
NOLS eligibility criteria also strictly involve licensing, which offers no variation to other regulatory tools, which may be more suitable in the context of debt collection regulation. Further, a suitable licensing framework has already been established under the National Credit Act that could readily be applied to debt collectors, and debt buyers who also engage in debt collection for fee or reward will already be covered by these credit licensing requirements. Harmonisation of the debt collection licence will reduce burden within the industry and provide some legislative clarity for its participants by eliminating overlap, but for the reasons outlined above it is not clear whether the benefits would be of the scale of the occupations that are already included in NOLS.
European Insolvency and Social Policy: Harmonisation Woes
Jennifer L. L. Gant, BA MBA LLM
The author is a PhD Candidate at Nottingham Law School, Nottingham Trent University in Insolvency, Employment and Comparative Law. Jennifer's project focus is on business transfers occurring out of corporate rescue procedures and the application of the Acquired Rights Directive/ Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) Regulations 2006 in the United Kingdom and France. The aim of her project is to look at the development of the law in these areas in the jurisdictions under study to understand the cultural, economic, social and historical influences which have affected the way that the law is approached. With the fundamental underpinning of the law in mind, it is hoped that through the understanding of the similarities and differences, a way might be found to achieve a greater balance within the jurisdictions and to apply the same on a European wide spectrum in order to foment a greater competitive arena for business investment.