The plant entered an operational phase in August 2014 after a period of commissioning. The initial phase of operation was to establish remote operations, automatic start/stop operations and adherence to and establishment of pathogen based critical control points. In addition, it was to establish operational calibration criteria for sensors, CIP schedules for the MF and RO and chemical re-fill schedules. Assessment was also made of the level and types of interventions (in technical expertise) required to re-start operations after critical faults. Production was typically limited to a five day per week schedule based on the refill cycle of a ‘virtual’ buffer tank such that the actual production and standby times were similar. A classical commissioning and hand-over was not conducted and as such, a formal client fault analysis and retribution was also not performed. In addition, some of the analysers and sensors (i.e. turbidity analysers) were not fully commissioned until late in the trial. Rather, an ongoing process of fault improvement was conducted. This was probably not helpful to the ability to fully assess operational robustness since the AWTP was not operated in a mode that simulated actual DavisStation operations. Each week, the on-going experimental and testing plan meant that a particular barrier was being manipulated and instruments were being validated at a higher rate than anticipated under normal operations. In the case of the sensors, this was a deliberate measure to determine minimum maintenance schedules.
The risk of spikes in chemicals in the influent to the treatment process is once again exacerbated for small communities. The QMRA study conducted for pathogens can be used as an analogue here, although two factors significantly change the risk profile relative to the pathogen case. The first of these is that highly concentrated chemical inputs (i.e. a single chemical spill) may induce a toxic effect in the biomass used to achieve secondary treatment and second, the number of barriers designed specifically for chemical removal in AWTP’s is usually far fewer than that for pathogens. As such, the ability to achieve an overall LRV through multiple barriers is far more restricted than for pathogens. In short, the need for source control is heightened in a small community although it is not well documented what level of source control is required to ensure a reproducible feed for an AWTP in a small community. As with the pathogen analogy, a 1 kg spill of a highly toxic chemical into the sewer collection system of a city of 1 million people will be diluted by a factor of 10,000 relative to a community of 100. However, in the absence of source control in the small community, the base chemical load from household chemicals such as disinfectants, cleaners, personal care products and pharmaceuticals is likely to be similar. Therefore, it is the spill situation that is of greatest concern. An example of the case for a small community is typified by the design of the AWTP for DavisStation that is the subject of the work herein. The plant is a seven barrier process with ozone, micro-filtration (MF), biologically activated carbon (BAC), reverse osmosis (RO), ultra-violet radiation (UV), calcite dissolution and chlorination (Cl 2 ). The feed to the AWTP once installed at DavisStation, passes
For each of the water quality hazards identified the team used a qualitative risk assessment process determine the maximum risk or inherent risk to end users i.e. the risk posed without removal via the AWTP barriers. The team then considered each of the AWTP treatment steps and their effectiveness at removing, inactivating or reducing each water quality hazard assuming during normal operational conditions the treatment step was working effectively. When a treatment step was identified as essential for hazard removal, the removal effectiveness was validated. The risk assessment process considered the hazardous events that could occur at each treatment step which may reduce the effectiveness of the treatment step or the event of treatment failure i.e. abnormal operating conditions and any water quality hazard that may be introduced at each treatment step e.g. by-product formation. After considering all of the preventative / control measures in place to mitigate and manage risk (this ranged from the physical treatment process steps to management and administrative practice used by the AAD at DavisStation) the residual risk for each water quality hazard was then determined i.e. the risk posed with the risk mitigation measures in place.
The AWTP for potable water recycling was designed for small, remote communities. In the context of DavisStation, the winter community size was sufficiently small (~20 people) that a high rate of infection amongst the total community (40%) was considered during outbreak conditions for the QMRA. The high rates of infection considered elevated the required LRV by approximately 2-4 log when compared to the default LRVs required for average municipal wastewater treatment plants, and thus drove the inclusion of additional treatment barriers beyond that required for larger scale water recycling plants. Additionally, the DavisStation wastewater system comprises a pressurised sewerage system, which negates infiltration so that there is no dilution of sewage in the Davis wastewater collection system. Coupled with this, no access to the Station is possible for 6 months of the year, thereby raising the significance of such disease outbreaks and warranting a conservative approach to setting LRV targets. At other locations, the impact of a disease outbreak may be less significant, or the likelihood of a significant proportion of the community becoming ill may be smaller, so that the default AGWR LRV targets shown in Table 2 could be used. Therefore, proponents of small, remote schemes should consider these issues when setting target LRV values. At the commencement of the project, claimed MBR LRV without on-site testing would have provided only 0.5 LRV or less. It was considered that onsite validation for MBR at DavisStation was impractical because it has no ready access to laboratory facilities and expertise. However, during the project, the AWRCoE NatVal project undertook extensive testing for pathogen rejection from operating MBRs and demonstrated higher LRVs at the 95% confidence level 16 . This suggested that 2 LRV may be claimed across the MBR as shown in the revised LRV Table (see Table 2). Indeed, 2 LRV is claimed for virus but higher LRV has been demonstrated for protozoa and bacteria (LRV 4+) due to their larger size 17 . It should be noted that while there are data that may support the use of a default 2 LRV for pathogen removal by MBR processes, the final MBR LRV default values are yet to be approved by regulating authorities. The required LRV target will be able to be met even if this LRV target is lowered, as the total LRV currently claimed by the AWTP process is greater than the target values as shown in Table 2. It should also be noted that if 4 LRV for protozoa could be claimed across the MBR, as suggested by the NatVal project 7 , then this would allow the ceramic MF to be removed from the process train without impacting the ability of the AWTP to reach the required LRV for small communities.
Within the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings, momentum has been building to deﬁne and manage the human footprint of research stations in Antarctica. This has been re ﬂ ected by national operators and researchers offering varied approaches to measuring “ footprint ” . By not having a standard method, comparative measurements have shown great disparity. By formulating a standard approach, this study delivered a method that enables compar- ison. To achieve this, recognition was needed of the vastly different environments in which Antarctic stations are situated. To aid this, deﬁning what to measure, resources consumed, and location descriptors were developed to represent the actual impact of the footprint. The model was then tested on Australia’s DavisStation. Inspection of aerial photography and mapping with geographical information systems was supported by ﬁeld measurements. The model was found to be applicable, with on-the-ground measurements detecting ad- ditional footprint area not obvious from the desktop methods. While open to reﬁnement, this study offers a standardised and comparable approach to measuring the footprint of Antarctic research stations.
The plant was operated at a continuous flowrate of 20 L/min. A virtual tank was filled at a rate lower than 20 L/min and the plant operated until the virtual tank was at 500 L. The plant recommenced operation once the virtual tank was filled to 3500 L. This operation was designed to simulate operation at DavisStation, where the MBR effluent fills a holding tank that activates and shut downs the AWTP once high level and low level set points are reached. This resulted in the plant operating for approximately 6-7 hours before shutting down for approximately 4 hours. Consequently there were many start up and shut down routines implemented. This regime was altered on occasions to allow continuous operation during critical periods associated with sampling, as a shutdown would have resulted in representative samples not being taken. This was particularly important for micro-contaminant samples that were taken monthly and that were required to be sampled at a set time on a particular day to allow sample preparation to be undertaken in a suitable time period.
holds for each a ∈ A . But it is not generally true when the state φ is replaced by an arbitrary positive linear map between C ∗ -algebras. However, Davis  showed that if Φ is a unital completely positive linear mapping from a C ∗ -algebra into B( H ) for some Hilbert space H and if f is an operator convex function on an interval J , then
White supremacy struck again in September of 2011 with the execution of Troy Davis in Georgia. But the violence of his execution, despite serious doubts about his guilt, generated an unprecedented flood of opposition both to his execution and to the death penalty itself. Troy Davis was named one of Time Magazine’s People Who Mattered in 2011, and the story became a Time Magazine top ten U.S. news story of the year. It was also the second most Tweeted story in 2011 (based on Tweets-per-second). Even some conservatives, the core of support for the death penalty, came out vocally against his execution. The highly visible conservative pundit Kathleen Parker called capital punishment an abomination. She wrote: “When we join together to administer death, we become something other than a civilized community of men and women. No matter how we frame the arguments or justifications, we become executioners.” Here we see the echo of both Camus and Wilson Gilmore’s sentiments guiding us toward an antiracist people’s geography.
extended the trend toward streamlining even further than Davis could support. In Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Corp. v. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc., 55 the Court unanimously declared that reviewing courts may not tell agencies what procedures to use in conducting rulemaking proceedings, except where the procedures are required by positive law, such as a statute or regulation. The Court left room for judicial intervention in “extremely compelling circumstances,” 56 but the severe tone of the opinion plainly implied that courts should be slow to discern any such circumstances. In short, the Court seemed to insist that procedural choices are for Congress and the agencies themselves, not for the judiciary. Davis refused to take Vermont Yankee at face value. 57 He maintained that the Court’s words were “not a reliable guide to the future role of courts with respect to rulemaking procedure . . . .” 58 Indeed, he declared, the opinion was “largely one of those rare opinions in which a unanimous Supreme Court speaks with little or no authority,” 59 because “the sure-footed, painstaking, and cautious opinions of courts of appeals during the 1970s on rulemaking procedure are highly responsible and generally admirable and cannot be abolished by sweeping and abrupt generalizations that seem on their face to be precipitate . . . .” 60 He never reconciled himself to the Court’s rhetorical premises. 61
program’s implementation, the rural pediatric sexual as- sault sites have joined our bimonthly case review con- ference via telemedicine. This allows the rural practitio- ners access to cases discussed not only among UC Davis examiners, but those from multiple institutions in Northern California. All practitioners are encouraged to submit interesting and difficult cases for discussion. The enthusiastic response to this child abuse case conference has led us to open the program up to all 16 of the UC Davis pediatric telemedicine sites in rural Northern Cal- ifornia and Nevada. These additional sites are not in- volved in our pediatric sexual assault study, but are now benefiting from telemedicine access to multiple child
orem 3.5 is not finitely generated. The goal of Section 5 is to chase a construction of a finitely generated resolution. Such resolution for p-adic algebraic groups is constructed by Schneider and Stuhler by choosing a suitable cosheaf on the Bruhat- Tits building BT ‚ . A convenient abstract machinery for assembling such a cosheaf comprises systems of idempotents, is introduced by Meyer and Solleveld . In- spired by these two approaches, we propose a similar construction in Conjecture 5.4, proving only the 1-dimensional case in Theorem 5.5. We lack several crucial tools available to Schneider and Stuhler. Firstly, the Davis building D ‚ of a general type is not as well behaved as an affine BT ‚ . Secondly, we lack Bernstein’s Theorem that certain subcategories of M A pGq are closed under subquotients [22, Th. I.3]. To overcome these difficulties, we propose to utilise the metric properties of | D |, which is a CAT(0)-space by Davis’ Theorem. This controls the assumptions of Section 5: we work with a locally compact totally disconnected G acting on a simplicial set X ‚ whose geometric realisation | X | admits a CAT(0)-metric.
Dyslexia is defined as a “Specific Learning Disorder with impairment (American Psychiatric Association, 2000), and is considered a brain-based difficulty in reading. Kalantzis and Cope (2012), describe dyslexia as difficulties with distinguishing phonic symbols and letter reversal, which from the authors’ experience is supported by the observation that dyslexics commonly confuse and reverse ‘b/d’ and ‘p/q’, both in the direction of the circle and placement on the line when writing. This letter reversal results in them sounding out words incorrectly so for ‘dog’ – dee-oh-gee the may write: bee-oh-gee (b-o-g); thus creating the wrong sounds from the writing; difficulties in decoding words by analyzing the alphabetical representation of sounds; and spelling. Dyslexics experience difficulty in attaching sounds to letter/s, which may affect their ability to match the appropriate sounds and letters consistently (Treiman 1992). This affects both the encoding of spelling words and the decoding of the words due to erroneous matching of sounds to symbols. It results in poor spelling (Phillips and Feng 2012). Students experiencing these difficulties find themselves under a lot of pressure as they learn the spelling rules and their usage. Another difficulty experienced may be ‘mirror writing’, which results in the words being written backwards, but when held up to a mirror they are spelled correctly (Davis and Braun 1994).
In Chapter 2, ‘The citizenship question’, Yuval-Davis explores contemporary constructions of citizenship denoting various political projects of belonging. Yuval-Davis introduces the notions of active vs. activist citizenship; intimate citizenship; consumerism as citizenship; multicultural citizenship; and multilayered citizenship. The author points out issues related to politics of belonging highlighting some of the paradoxes of contemporary citizenship. According to her there is a distancing between citizens and their states along with a somewhat contradictory unprecedented penetration of state surveillance . Along these two lines there is a third rise in activist citizenship protesting against the reconfiguration of the state and its associated diminishing of citizenship rights. More broadly the author reveals how dual and multiple citizenships ‘challenge the fundamental logics of a twentieth century politics of belonging, which were based on state citizenship’ .
This interpretation supported the cultural beliefs that were revealed in discovery phase of the research (Davis, 2016a). The potential for emergent outcomes was provided by the variations in the perspectives of the participants and their interactions within the complex process of human relating (Stacey, 2012). Stacey et al. (2000) also argued that where the requirement was for a novel outcome, the rubrics and circumstances that could generate the desired result are by definition previously unknowable. This supported the notion of emergence rather than the linear delivery model, which was evident at JLR, which progressed to a predetermined outcome. Stacey et al. (2000) defined this development to a preordained form as a ‘formative teleology’. Acknowledging innovation was contingent on small variations, they proposed the ‘transformative teleology’ as an effective alternative, recognising that it was not possible to detect, specify or measure the constituents of innovation with sufficient precision in advance. The potentially transformative effect of small fluctuations also reinforced the need for openness and transparency, as discussed in section 8.11. Attending to the ‘small signals’, that were otherwise obscured in a blame culture, was observed to have significant implications (Syed, 2015); (Davis, 2016a).
In November 2012 I was hinted on an internship position at the Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering department of University California Davis by H.W.M. Hoeijmakers professor and chair president for the Engineering Fluid Dynamics department at University Twente. The research I did at UC Davis on active load control using micro jets was supervised by Professor C.P. van Dam, who made a great effort in assisting me if there were any problems with the work or non work related problems during my stay in Davis. Dr. A.M. Cooperman, who did her dissertation on load control using microjets and microtabs, assisted me with everyday work related issues and with installation of the wind tunnel setup. Dr. H.J. Shiu and Dr. R. Chow often helped me out if Dr. A.M. Cooperman was unavailable. For other more general issues I could always rely on D. Richardson, staff of the Mechanical Aerospace Engineering department. Furthermore I would like to thank all the above mentioned people, and in particular Professor C.P. van Dam and Dr. A.M. Cooperman in supervising and assisting me with the work I did during my internship, because I could not have done it without their assistance and insight.
As an example, see Figure 3: it is the tessellation of the euclidean plane induced by the triangle group ∆(2, 4, 4) together with the dual tessellation given by squares and octagons. The latter is Σ, the Davis complex given as union of Coxeter cells. The skeleton filtration correspond to Coxeter cells of rank 0 (points), rank 1 (intervals) and rank 2 (2n-gons).