types on how they transfer the energy. The energy can go from the input to the magnetic through load or the energy can be stored in the magnetic to be released later to the load [2,3]. In this paper among the Dc-Dc converters Half Bridge Converter (HBC) is widely used to have low voltage stress, low EMI and highefficiency performance. LCL Filter is added with the HBC to reduce the input current ripple. The experimental circuit investigated in this paper is Dc-Dc HBC converter, which allows the conversion of energy from higher level to lower level [4,5]. HBC with LCL filter is used to reduce the inrush current, decrease the switching losses and to achieve high frequency operation.
rotor current (4 channels) and temperature (8 channels). Two techniques were considered. The best solution was to insert physical taps between loops in the rotor such that small EMF voltages are induced in an external circuit. An active rectifier and DC/DC converter were designed to convert the low AC input voltage into a stable DCvoltage for battery charging and powering the energy harvesting microcontroller, sensor circuitry and Bluetooth module. The system was successfully characterised (efficiency measurement) and calibrated (sensors and signal conditioning) on the lab- oratory bench to check it met all the design requirements. The current prototype might experience space limitations especially in compact machines with high power density, but the system could still be further miniaturised. As an example, if only temperature measurements are required the Bluetooth module and SAM4S microcontroller can be replaced with a single Bluetooth 4.0 IC fea- turing the same tasks but at lower sampling rates. This leads to lower power consumption, smaller electronic components, less energy storage requirement and a smaller footprint. Also, the size of the current prototype is limited by the use of components suitable for hand assembly and the presence of testing points/connectors that can be removed in further versions. Once the energy har- vesting is proved to work, this current design can be optimized depending on the user specifications to reduce size and power consumption, for example if only temperature sensing is required.
battery and modify its charging actions according to the battery algorithm. Conversely, a standard or simple battery charger supplies a constant dc or pulsed dc power source to a battery being charged. A simple charger does not alter its output based on time or the charge on the battery. Therefore, smart chargers are preferred for EV battery charging applications. The proposed EV battery charger power architecture includes an ac–dc converter with power factor correction (PFC) [5-6], followed by an isolated dc–dc converter, as shown in Fig . 1. . This architecture virtually eliminates the low- and high frequency current ripple charging the battery without using a bulky filter capacitor. Instead, it uses a high-frequency transformer. This structure maximizes battery life time without penalizing the charger volume. In the work that follows, the front-end ac–dc PFC converter is a conventional continuous conduction mode (CCM) boost topology [7-8]. Second stage of dc–dc converter is a half-bridge resonant LLC converter. The criteria for choosing these topologies include high reliability, highefficiency, and low component cost.
Shih-jen Cheng,Yu-Kang Lo(2013) proposes to design and implemented digital controlled interleaved dc-dc converter which provide regulated highvoltage output for high-power – proton-exchange-membrane fuel-cell application. Ripple cancellation on input current and output voltage can be achieved by the studied interleaved dc-dc power conversion technique to reduces hysteresis energy losses inside the fuel-cell stacks and meet battery charging consideration on the high-voltagedc bus. An active clamped circuit is also use to reduce the voltage spike on the power switches for raising system reliability.
The solar panel provides the necessary input voltage for the converter to operate. The pic microcontroller is interfaced with mppt using fuzzy logic. The controller circuit will help the driver circuit for turning on and off of the mosfet switches in the interleaved boost converter. this helps the working of the converter as mentioned in the operation of the converter. The two stage voltage multiplier circuit will further help in the boosting of the output voltage. The filter circuits help in removing the harmonics and in reducing the ripple voltage and current values. The load side consists of a battery as in this case which will be charged by the help of the step upped voltage from the solar panel. The circuit is made not only to boost the voltage but also it will be used faster charging of the battery than conventional boost converters for better utilization of the available power.
Components with values of L is 1,10, and 20µH with C=1.0µF and T=0.1µs. Duty ratio consecutively changed to 0.2,0.4,0.6, and 0.8. Capacitors voltage increases stepwise to 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, and 1.6 V, which is consistent with EV. Current reaches steady state after a initial large flow. Steady state current then oscillates in between two values, then oscillation amplitude decreases when L increases. Fig. 7 is the magnification of Fig. 6 at around t=154µs. In this case of L=1.0µH, current oscillates linearly between-24 and 23 mA. For L=10 and 20µH, it oscillates between-2.4 and 2.4 mA and between-1.2 and 1.2 mA, respectively. Theoretical values, E(1- E)TV/2L , are 24, 2.4, and 1.2 mA, which are consistent with the MATLAB simulation results.
Perturb and observe: In one method, the controller adjusts the voltage by a small amount from the array and measures power; if the power increases, further adjustments in that direction are tried until power no longer increases. This is called the perturb and observe method and is most common, although this method can result in oscillations of power output. It is referred to as a hill climbing method, because it depends on the rise of the curve of power against voltage below the maximum power point, and the fall above that point. Perturb and observe is the most commonly used MPPT method due to its ease of implementation. Perturb and observe method may result in top-level efficiency, provided that a proper predictive and adaptive hill climbing strategy is adopted.
ABSTRACT: In this paper we have proposed a hybrid charging of electric vehicle and dual substantiation of electric vehicle. In future generation we are using electric vehicle, but the major drawback of electric vehicle is we are couldn't use for long driving range and it also takes more timing for charging of battery through charging cable. To overcome this drawback we are providing wireless power charging by magnetic resonance coupling and also the solar power charging with DC-DC Converter. This paper also gives importance to protection of electrical vehicle by dual substantiation. It is done by either biometric and keypad or RF reader and keypad if any burglary activities are takes
ABSTRACT:In this project, two highvoltage-boosting converters are presented. By changing the connection position of the anode of the diode and by using different Pulse-Width-Modulation control strategies, different voltage conversion ratios can be obtained. These converters are constructed based on bootstrap capacitors and boost inductors. Above all, two boost inductors with different values, connected in series, can still make the proposed converters work appropriately. The proposed converter gives highefficiency, low output ripple and low cost. The proposed converter gives the output power 200 V DC from 24 V DC at power 100 W. The proposed converter gives a highefficiency and transformation ratio by reducing the conduction losses and switching losses. Simulation was done in MATLAB/Simulink and results were verified for open loop and closed loop of converter.
The proposed circuit is made up of step-up converter incorporated with the nine stage CW Voltage multiplier. The step-up converter consists of low input DCvoltage provided by battery. This low input DCvoltage is then passed through the boost inductor where the input voltage is boosted up. The proposed converter consists of four switches with two switches operated at alternating frequency and other two switches operating at modulating frequency. The switches work in complimentary mode. The stepped –up voltage is in the pulsed form which is then fed into nine stage CW Voltage multiplier. This CW Voltage multiplier produces highDCVoltage.
Existing solutions within the AC-DC conversion-system topology are struggling to provide even a few percentage points of large-scale improvement despite localized improvements in performance. The answer may be to look instead to a very different AC-DC structure, based on new approaches rather than merely incremental ones. Using high-voltageDC for power transmission, in conjunction with new conversion approaches, offers tangible and significant benefits for both sourcing options and system end-to-end performance. In fact, some work from France Telecom and China Mobile estimate that between 8% and 10% across the board can be saved by going to DC distribution.
An essential part of distributing power from a DC supply to its points of load (POLs), has typically been implemented with a PWM circuit. However a couple of factors have applied increasing pressure to regulator design. Firstly, power density is being forced up continuously. Secondly, DC power supply voltage levels are tending to rise to minimize distribution losses, while device voltages are reducing to increase internal speed and efficiency. These trends combine to increase the voltage drop and associated switching losses across the regulator. The focus is mainly on power savings in VLSI technology. The power savings will be greater when the voltage regulators are close to the load devices that is point-of-load voltage regulation. The primary issue in the point-of-voltage regulator is the size of regulator. Several topologies proposed for reducing the size of the voltage regulator to make the design suitable point-of –load voltage regulation . DC-DC converters are generally used as On-Chip power supplies in high performance integrated circuits. An ultra small area efficient voltage converter is required for the next generation of multivoltage systems because previous systems are highly sensitive to (P/G) noise. Buck converters, which are step- down switching DC-DC converter, are popular because of their high power efficiency -. A second order inductor-capacitor (LC) passive filter in a buck converter occupy significant On-Chip area, therefore the passive components have been implemented off-chip. As a consequence of placing these components off-chip, significant voltage drop, power loss and degradation in speed and accuracy of the load regulation occurs and as a result causing slow response times and changing output levels. An On-Chip passive LC filter is therefore infeasible due to the large area when multiple On-Chip voltage regulators are needed. To produce a voltage regulator appropriate for distributed point-of-load voltage generation, the passive LC filter within a buck converter is replaced with a more area efficient active filter circuit . A switching input voltage is used to generate the desired output voltage, and the converter uses a filter structure to produce the desired output signal. The current supplied to the output node, however, does not originate from the input switching signal, rather it originates from the operational amplifier (Op Amp) output stage, similar to a linear voltage converter. The proposed voltage converter is therefore a hybrid combination of a switching and linear DC-DC converter 
DC-DC converters are used whenever DC electrical power is to be changed from one voltage level to another. They can be step up or down using a transformer. Mostly these are power electronic converters that can operate with semiconductor switches like MOSFETs and IGBTs. These switches are required to turn on and off periodically and they provide a regulated and isolated with wide output voltage for various applications. A Dc-Dc converter with a highvoltage gain is used for many applications, such as lamp ballasts for automobile headlamps, fuel-cell energy conversion systems, solar-cell energy conversion systems, and battery backup systems for uninterruptible power supplies -. In dc–dc converters with highvoltage gain, there are several requirements such as highvoltage gain -, low reverse-recovery loss , , soft switching characteristic , low-voltage stress across the switches, electrical isolation, continuous input current, and highefficiency , . In order to meet these requirements, various topologies are introduced.
ABSTRACT: This paper consists of the development of highefficiencydc to dc boost converter. The boost converter is used to improve the efficiency of the solar panel. The low voltage input of source is boosted into highvoltage output. We can achieve the power efficiency of about 90% to 95%. The input current ranges from 4.5% to 52%. Some practical application has been done to verify the result obtained.
ABSTRACT: Electric vehicles are gaining importance in the present situations as it is the most reliable transportation system in near future with less environmental pollution, fuel economy and energy efficiency. The concept of microgrid and smart grid has added a rage to distributed generation and increased communication between customers and utility. The idea of bidirectional interaction between grid and Electric vehicle has brought the V2G,V2H etc. technologies . Bi- directional chargers adds the benefit of EVs by enabling energy transfer from vehicle to grid (V2G) or vehicle to home (V2H) in addition to charging from grid to vehicle(G2V).Typically Bidirectional chargers consists of a AC-DC stage followed by DC-DC stage. This paper presents a non isolated integrated bi-directional DC-DC converter for interfacing the vehicle battery to the DC link in both charging modes and discharging modes. The DC-DC converter is formed by integrating buck and boost converters and thus it is able to operate in buck as well as boost modes in both direction (charging and discharging). During charging (G2V) the dc link voltage is stepped down by the DC-DC converter to battery voltage and provides required charging current by current control. This is buck operation during charging. During V2G or V2H operation the function of the DC- DC converter is to boost the battery voltage to provide the DC link voltage.
The main objective of the topology is to obtain highvoltage gain and such characteristic can only be achieved when the duty cycle is greater than 0.5 and in CCM. With duty cycle lower than 0.5 or in DCM, there is no enough energy transfer from the inductors to the blocking capacitors, output capacitors, and load side, and consequently it is not possible to get the highvoltage gain as that for duty ratio greater than 0.5. In addition, only with duty cycle larger than 0.5, due to the charge balance of the blocking capacitor, the converter can feature the automatic current sharing characteristic that can obviate any extra current-sharing control circuit. On the other hand, when duty cycle is smaller than 0.5, the converter does not possess the automatic current sharing capability any more, and the current-sharing control between each phases should be taken into account in this condition.
ABSTRACT: The output voltage generated by the sources such as photovoltaic arrays, the fuel stacks, the super capacitors or the battery sources are very low, in the range of 12-48 V. Hence it must be boosted to a highvoltage. Therefore a novel topology for a boost converter, which can achieve a higher voltage gain, is necessary. The proposed converter is derived from a two-phase interleaved boost converter. The advantages of interleaved boost converter compared to conventional topologies include highvoltage gain, highefficiency, low input current ripple and better transient responses. Even though highvoltage gain can be obtained, the closed loop control of transformer-less boost converter with PI controller results in reduction of the system responses and causes damage to the components used in the system. So, in order to overcome these drawbacks a quadrupler voltage boost converter with Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is presented. Here simulation models of transformer-less interleaved boost converter with PI controller and Fuzzy Logic Controller in MATLAB was developed.The analytical model for the switching intervals has been validated with the simulation results using MATLAB simulation tool.
In the resulting cell, the controlled switches can be represented by MOSFETs, junction field-effect transistors, insulated gate bipolar transistors, bipolar junction transistors, etc. All the generated topologies present bidirectional characteristics. By using the proposed cell shown in Fig 2.4, it is possible to generate the six novel nonisolated dc–dc converters, i.e., buck, boost, buck–boost, C´uk, SEPIC, and zeta. The use of high-voltage gain converters is of great interest. It is worth to notice that the use of nonisolated converters particularly dedicated to applications regarding renewable power systems has been the scope of recent works . The efforts leading to the development of such nonisolated topologies are then well justified in the literature. In order to verify the claimed advantages of the converter family, the boost converter is chosen. The developed analysis considers the converter associated with three voltage multiplier cells and is detailed as follows.
Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) is used for primary frequency regulation. As developments in batteries progress, advancement in applications of BESS including the implementation in high power penetration is expected. Load shedding is one of frequency control methods during stand-alone operation, and the performance of frequency control improves in combination with BESS. However, without optimal size of BESS, it can cause the oscillations to the system. Thus, this article proposes the feasibility of using optimal BESS with load shedding scheme when the micro grid is disconnected from a main source. In the developing of smart grid, many new technologies and components such as energy storage and micro grid are playing more and more role for making the power system more reliable and efficient. A grid-connected micro grid consists of local controllers, local consumers, renewable energy generators and storage facilities will become an important part of future smart grid. The State of Charge (SOC) of battery bank is in an insufficient state, BESS is not possible to act as a continuous supplier. To charge SOC of the battery bank, the control methods of two charging modes are proposed and stability of control. BESS requires the stable and robust control methods whether performs either Constant Voltage Constant Frequency (CVCF) or grid-connected mode. In the controller point of view, Fuzzy control is widely used to supply stable voltage and current.
Regenerative brake is an energy recovery mechanism during braking operation it slows a vehicle by converting kinetic energy into another form of energy, which can be used immediately or stored in energy storage system . This contrasts with the conventional braking mechanism, where the excess energy is converted to heat by friction in the brake and wasted. Regenerative braking is one of the type electrical braking which is used in electric traction and hybrid in order to utilize the braking energy. During braking operation the energy dissipated in resistor or stored in different systems such as batteries, capacitors or super conductive magnets .Instead of that super capacitors or chosen for the simplicity and high power capability [2-5]. Super capacitors are the energy storage devices they store energy in the form of electric field. Super capacitors are used as power sources, in front of batteries. So they are best placed in applications where high power levels are needed during a short period of time from milliseconds to few hundreds of seconds. Utility applications include uninterruptible power systems or utility voltage stabilizers in wind farms or photovoltaic (PV) plants [6-9].