DC V-I characteristics

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V-I CHARACTERISTICS OF DIODE

V-I CHARACTERISTICS OF DIODE

Now, let’s take the diode BY127 and connect it if forward bias. The voltage that is supplied is a 5V which is connected through a variable voltage reg- ulator. First locate the coltage at which the Ammeter starts deflecting for a current. Take this point. Now, keep increasing the voltage and take the current readings based calibration of the Ammeter. This will give us with about 7 points. If we require more than this sa as to get a more pronounced curve and how it is exponentiating we can use the DC voltage regulator at 30V.

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Matlab Based Static I-V Characteristics of Optically Controlled Gaas Mesfet’s

Matlab Based Static I-V Characteristics of Optically Controlled Gaas Mesfet’s

A new and systematic way of modeling photo effects on the static I-V characteristics of GaAs MESFET’s in both linear and saturation regions is presented. Effect of illumination on the device is explained in terms of photovoltaic and photoconductive effects. Photoconductive current is shown to be small by several orders of magnitude than total drain-source current. Reduction of drain-source current due to deep level traps in the substrate is explained analytically under optically controlled conditions of GaAs MESFET for the first time. Finite slope in the I-V characteristics in saturation region of GaAs MESFET is modeled with the help of channel length modulation. Further, effect of backgating is also included in modeling I-V characteristics. Finally, small signal parameters of MESFET such as transconductance and output resistance are derived from the modeled I-V characteristics. The theoretical conclusions are complemented by comparing with reported experimental results in the literature, which conform the theory. Since accurate dc modeling is key to accurate ac modeling,this model may be very useful for the designing of GaAs MESFET’s particularly in MMIC’s and OEIC’s.
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Modeling of Double Diode Solar Photovoltaic Module using Matlab

Modeling of Double Diode Solar Photovoltaic Module using Matlab

Photovoltaic (PV) effect means, when solar energy (photons) hits the solar cell, with energy greater than band gap energy of the semiconductor, electrons come out from the atoms in the material, creating electron-hole pairs. Due to the impact of the internal electric fields those carriers result current. Generated current is directly proportional to the perpetration irradiation. A PV cell, the functional unit of photovoltaic generator, is a p-n semiconductor device that converts sunlight into DC current (electricity) using photovoltaic effect. In the dark, the I-V output characteristics of a PV cell and a diode are similar. When the cell is short circuited, this current flows in the external circuit; when open circuited, this current is shunted internally by the intrinsic p-n junction diode. The characteristics of this diode therefore set the open circuit voltage characteristics of the cell [6]. Large numbers of PV cells are attached in series and parallel summation according to energy requirements. This arrangement is known as PV module. A PV array is defined as group of manifold PV modules which are altogether connected with each other in series and parallel connections to increase the array voltage and current in the array respectively [7].
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HYBRID-STATCOM : A Reactive Power Compensation and Resonance Avoidance Approach

HYBRID-STATCOM : A Reactive Power Compensation and Resonance Avoidance Approach

Reactive current poses a lots of problem in transmission systems and leads to increase in transmission losses and lowers the stability of a power system. In this work we try to present a technique for a three phase power transmission system which has a wide compensation range and low dc-link voltage and we call it as an Hybrid- STATCOM. As the system has a wide compensation range and low dc-link voltage, the system becomes quite inexpensive. In this paper, we present the circuit configuration of hybrid-STATCOM then its analysis on the basis of V-I characteristics along with the parameter selection criteria. As the we intend to avoid the potential resonance problem we try to develop the control strategy which achieves the same. Simulation are carried out to verify the dynamic performance of the proposed hybrid-STATCOM.
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Modeling of Single Diode Solar Photovoltaic Module using Matlab

Modeling of Single Diode Solar Photovoltaic Module using Matlab

Photovoltaic (PV) effect means, when solar energy (photons) hits the solar cell, with energy greater than band gap energy of the semiconductor, electrons come out from the atoms in the material, creating electron-hole pairs. Due to the impact of the internal electric fields those carriers result current. Generated current is directly proportional to the perpetration irradiation. A PV cell, the functional unit of photovoltaic generator, is a p-n semiconductor device that converts sunlight into DC current (electricity) using photovoltaic effect. In the dark, the I-V output characteristics of a PV cell and a diode are similar. When the cell is short circuited, this current flows in the external circuit; when open circuited, this current is shunted internally by the intrinsic p-n junction diode. The characteristics of this diode therefore set the open circuit voltage characteristics of the cell [6]. Large numbers of PV cells are attached in series and parallel summation according to energy requirements. This arrangement is known as PV module. A PV array is defined as group of manifold PV modules which are altogether connected with each other in series and parallel connections to increase the array voltage and current in the array respectively [7].
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Performance optimisation of a flywheel energy storage system using the PNDC power hardware in the loop platform

Performance optimisation of a flywheel energy storage system using the PNDC power hardware in the loop platform

To address these challenges, the UK MOD and the PNDC have worked collaboratively to develop a 540kVA Power Hardware in the Loop (PHIL) testing facility. For the UK MOD this supports the “UK-US Advanced Electric Power and Propulsion Project Arrangement (AEP3).” This testing facility has been used to explore the capabilities of PHIL testing and evaluate a Flywheel Energy Storage System (FESS) in a notional ship power system environment. This testing provided an opportunity to develop and further validate the capability of the PHIL platform for continued marine power system research. This paper presents on the results from PHIL testing of the FESS at PNDC, which involved both characterisation and interfacing the FESS within a simulated ship power system. The characterisation tests involved evaluating the: response to step changes in current reference; frequency and impedance characteristics; and response during uncontrolled discharge. The ship power system testing involved interfacing the FESS to a simulated real time notional ship power system model and evaluating the response of the FESS and the impact on the ship power system under a range of different operational scenarios.
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Static and Dynamic Characterization of High Speed Silicon Carbide (SiC) Power Transistors

Static and Dynamic Characterization of High Speed Silicon Carbide (SiC) Power Transistors

Switching speeds in this range are indicative of well controlled minority carrier lifetimes in the base. Very short turn-off times are obtained even though the junc- tion breakdown voltage VBE is less than 10 V. The dy- namic characteristics shows that the switching features of the SiC power devices can be very fast but at high fre- quencies the controlling external circuit must have high switching speed (rise time). The very fast switching characteristics show that a SiC-based BJT device has low effective stored charge even when operated at high tem- peratures. Therefore, the switching losses in SiC devices caused by the stored charges are negligible in these de- vices; whereas about 30% of losses in Si power devices and ICs occur during switching [9]. The switching cir- cuits required can be totally integrated into the switching scheme, and can be dynamically adaptive, fast, ultra low losses, and very small size. The SiC-devices have excel-
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Optimum Performance of Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistor

Optimum Performance of Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistor

Abstract—Phenomenological predictions have been elucidated in this paper. The predictions are elaborated for the field effect transistor using carbon nanotube (CNT) technology. CNTs have small band gap compare to other traditional semiconductor technologies. The modeling of a single wall nanotube with optimum bandgap for the designing of the carbon nanotube (CNTFET) is the aim of this work. Analysis of I-V characteristics of CNTFET with the drain current-voltage analytical relation enables the lower energy consumption from the proposed design. In this research, the optimum carbon nanotube (CNTs) is analyzed where the bandgap is 0.45eV as well as the diameter is 1.95nm. Modeling of CNTFET will be useful for semiconductor industries in order to manufacture the nano scale device.
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I DD1 V DD1 V IN+ V IN GND1

I DD1 V DD1 V IN+ V IN GND1

The recommended method for connecting the HCPL-7840 to the current sensing resistor is shown in Figure 18. V IN+ (pin 2 of the HPCL-7840) is connected to the positive terminal of the sense resistor resistor, while V IN- (pin 3) is shorted to GND1 (pin 4), with the power-supply return path functioning as the sense line to the negative termi- nal of the current sense resistor. This allows a single pair of wires or PC board traces to connect the HCPL-7840 circuit to the sense resistor. By referencing the input circuit to the negative side of the sense resistor, any load current induced noise transients on the resistor are seen as a common-mode signal and will not interfere with the current-sense signal. This is important because the large load currents fl owing through the motor drive, along with the parasitic inductances inherent in the wiring of the circuit, can generate both noise spikes and off sets that are relatively large compared to the small voltages that are being measured across the current sensing resistor. If the same power supply is used both for the gate drive circuit and for the current sensing circuit, it is very impor- tant that the connection from GND1 of the HCPL-7840 to the sense resistor be the only return path for supply current to the gate drive power supply in order to elimi- nate potential ground loop problems. The only direct connection between the HCPL-7840 circuit and the gate drive circuit should be the positive power supply line.
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VIRTUAL INSTRUMENT SOFTWARE FOR PLOTTING V-I CHARACTERISTICS OF SILICON DETECTOR USING 6487PICOAMMETER

VIRTUAL INSTRUMENT SOFTWARE FOR PLOTTING V-I CHARACTERISTICS OF SILICON DETECTOR USING 6487PICOAMMETER

In this program output comes in two forms, one as a graph display and another as a data saved in a notepad file. For displaying output as a graph subVI I-allStrip- pA@V12.vi is used. I-allStrip-Pane VI will plots the measured current in a graph at each of given voltage. This VI takes Bias voltage control, number of steps and step number as a input and display strip current, strip current exceed limit as a output. The connector pane of this Sub-VI is shown in figure 6.

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An Incremental Conductance based Maximum Power Point Tracking for a PV Array Operating under Nonuniform Irradiance

An Incremental Conductance based Maximum Power Point Tracking for a PV Array Operating under Nonuniform Irradiance

Simple and inexpensive analog circuits can be used to implement RCC. Experiments were performed to show that RCC accurately and quickly tracks the MPP, even under varying irradiance levels. The time taken to converge to the MPP is limited by the switching frequency of the power converter and the gain of the RCC circuit. Another advantage of RCC is that it does not require any prior information about the PV array characteristics, making its adaptation to different PV systems straightforward.

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The modelling of an SF6 arc in a supersonic nozzle: I. Cold flow features and dc arc characteristics

The modelling of an SF6 arc in a supersonic nozzle: I. Cold flow features and dc arc characteristics

Extensive test results given in the form of RRRV have been reported for a supersonic nozzle interrupter with fixed upstream and downstream pressures by Benenson et.al [1]. The arc behaviour and its thermal interruption capability are investigated by using a current ramp consisting of a plateau (DC level) and a linearly decaying current (specified by di/dt) before current zero and a voltage ramp (specified by dV/dt) after current zero [1]. Such a two-pressure system eliminates pressure transients caused by wave reflections within a circuit breaker which inevitably affects the arc in the nozzle interrupter. Thus, the test results of RRRV given [1] are well suited for the verification of turbulence models from which appropriate conclusions can be drawn as regards the relative merits of turbulence models employed in the present investigation (details to be given in Section 2).
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Effects of Varying Arc Angles and Poles Numbers on Force Characteristics of Switched Reluctance (SR) Actuator

Effects of Varying Arc Angles and Poles Numbers on Force Characteristics of Switched Reluctance (SR) Actuator

D. Optimized geometric design based on FEM analysis The analysis results for the force characteristics of both poles ratios configurations are almost similar where the force increases with the increased of the excitation current. However, the selected configuration is based on the highest force and smallest standard deviation. In this research, the selected optimize design was S:R = 6:4 poles ratio with the arc angle βs/βr = 30°/41°. Even though the value of force is moderate which is 2.912 N compared to the other arc angle configurations, the optimize design have a stable force which helps to control the torque ripple in the future design.
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A step-up modular high-voltage pulse generator based on isolated input-parallel/output-series voltage-boosting modules and modular multilevel sub-modules

A step-up modular high-voltage pulse generator based on isolated input-parallel/output-series voltage-boosting modules and modular multilevel sub-modules

This paper proposed a new HV pulse generator topology for electroporation applications. The topology employs input- parallel/output-series boosting modules in order to permit the use of a low voltage dc input supply. The amplified HV voltage is chopped with two MMC arms incorporating small clamping capacitors. Unlike many step-up HV generators in the literature, the boosting module capacitors of the proposed topology are charged simultaneously, allowing operation with a wide range of pulse widths and repetition rates. The simultaneous charging and discharging of VBMs implies that their switch gate signals are common to controller, consequently the control burden is low. The carried out simulation results showed the operation of the proposed topology, where the input LVDC is amplified by one hundred times using only five VBMs. Scaled-down experiment confirmed the feasibility of the proposed topology when the LVDC input is amplified by ten times using only two VBMs. Despite the obtained high amplification gains, the stresses on the utilised components are equal and acceptable. Thus, the proposed modular configuration allows the use of the market- available voltage and current ratings semiconductors. Moreover, the proposed topology can be extended to generate bipolar voltage pulses, which may be required for some irreversible electroporation applications, with two additional MMC arms across the treatment chamber.
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Cascaded Multilevel Inverter with MPPT for Grid Connected PV System

Cascaded Multilevel Inverter with MPPT for Grid Connected PV System

cell is not an active device; it works as a diode, i.e. a p-n junction. It produces neither a current nor a voltage. However, if it is connected to an external supply (large voltage) it generates a current I D , called diode (D) current

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Multi-party telephone lines

Multi-party telephone lines

But alas, this is not always perfect, one reason being that the transmission circuit of the telephone set can’t reasonably be made symmetrical, so it doesn’t really have an exact electrical centerpoint. So to finish the job, we place a high inductance in the “DC” path to ground. This will have a high impedance to the AC components of the prospective spurious currents (the only ones that can cause noise), and thus will greatly reduce their magnitude.

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C0M D I V I S I

C0M D I V I S I

Placing: Lift handset + Line key + Dial number Answering: handset connected, press flashing key) Answering ringing over handset + + Dial l 0.. Placing:.[r]

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Fault Identification and Islanding in DC Grid Connected PV System

Fault Identification and Islanding in DC Grid Connected PV System

generation from the fossil fuel may not be possible very long as they are depleting and also they are disadvanta- geous because they cause the environment pollution. Recently, the researchers are interested in the techniques for power generation with the renewable energy sources such as solar, hydro, wind, tidal biomass etc. The power generation using the renewable energy sources is advantageous because renewable energy sources are omnipre- sent, free of cost and maintenance and have longer life. Power generation based on PV sources has gradually in- creases during the last few decades [1]. This development has been matched with research into more efficient solar panels. Efficiency is calculated as the ratio of incident sun energy to the maximum attainable output power, with the recent record being an efficiency of 44.7% [2]. Along with research into solar panels, there is also an interest in the adjacent equipment. The efficiency of solar panels naturally ranges throughout the system, since any losses will disturb the final efficiency of the whole system. A DC grid system has been proposed as a power network that enables the introduction of a large amount of solar energy using distributed photovoltaic generation units. The standard configuration of a DC Grid Connected PV System (DCGCPV) is shown in Figure 1.
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Технологическая эволюция для пользователей и операторов

Технологическая эволюция для пользователей и операторов

BranchOffice Virtualized branch services L2 CPE V Branch Office Metro + WAN Data Centre Virtualized service in DC V L2 CPE Branch Office HQ / Internet HQ / Internet HQ / I[r]

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CUK CONVERTER BASED LLC RESONANCE FOR DC-DC BOOSTING APPLICATIONS

CUK CONVERTER BASED LLC RESONANCE FOR DC-DC BOOSTING APPLICATIONS

Neighbourhood of an electrical operating vehicle (NEVs) are prompt by an electric motor this is applied with power from a rechargeable battery system source. Basically, the production characteristics generated for many electrical vehicles (EV) approaches far more the storage unit this improves of conventional method of battery systems. However, battery methodology is increasing and as this transition appears the charging of these batteries units having very difficulties due to the high voltages and currents included in the system and an experienced charging of algorithms methods. easterly charging of more capacity battery packages effects maximum increased unwanted disturbances in the ac advantage to power system, here by increasing the used for more efficient, less-distortion of smart chargers. A modish charger is a battery charger this could response to the conditions of a battery and rectifies its charging movements according to the battery system algorithms. Meanwhile, a standard, or basic battery charger provide a constant magnitude of dc or pulsed magnitude of dc power supply to a battery having charged The desired NEV battery charger system of power module involves an ac–dc conversion with power factor correction process followed by a remote dcdc converter system, as appears in Fig. 1.
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