Decoupled Payments

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Income Distributional Effects of Decoupled Payments Single Payment Scheme in the European Union  Factor Markets Working Paper No  29, July 2012

Income Distributional Effects of Decoupled Payments Single Payment Scheme in the European Union Factor Markets Working Paper No 29, July 2012

The 2011 Commission proposal introduces a ‘greening’ component to decoupled payments, according to which a basic SPS payment will be supplemented by additional greening payments taking up to 30% of the SPS envelope. The ‘greening’ requires farmers to implement agricultural practices beneficial to climate and environment, which go beyond the cross-compliance requirements. The CAP greening consists of three main requirements: crop diversification, maintenance of permanent grassland and an ecological focus area (set-aside). Under crop diversification, farmers’ cultivation of the arable land needs to include at least three different crops with the minimum and maximum threshold for each crop being set at 5% and 70% of the arable land, respectively. Under the maintenance of permanent grassland, farmers need to maintain permanent grassland on the areas declared grassland in 2014. The ecological focus area requires farms to set aside at least 7% of farmers’ eligible hectares (excluding areas under permanent grassland). The areas that qualify as ecological focus area include land left fallow, terraces, landscape features, buffer strips, etc. Similar to cross- compliance, farms’ failure to fulfil the greening requirement may result in a reduction of SPS payments.

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Three Essays on the Production Effects of Decoupled Payments: Do Decoupled Payments Matter for Acres and Yields?

Three Essays on the Production Effects of Decoupled Payments: Do Decoupled Payments Matter for Acres and Yields?

crops on land that would otherwise be viewed as too risky. This effect can be magnified if payments vary inversely with market prices, thereby reducing income variability. Hennessy (1998) classified these effects as wealth and insurance effects of decoupled payments; while the latter effect would not be expected to apply to PFC payments, they could apply to MLA payments, which explicitly provided assistance in offsetting the effects of market loss. Hennessy’s Monte Carlo simulation results suggested that the wealth effects of decoupled programs were likely to be small when compared to the insurance effects of coupled programs. To ensure decoupled payments would not have insurance effects, he suggested payments should not vary with the source of randomness, and preferences would have to be constant absolute aversion for the wealth effect to be absent. Assuming wealth elasticities between 0.087 and 0.270 (taken from Chavas and Holt 1990), Young and Westcott (2000) found that PFC payments increased aggregate acreage for program crops by 0.18 to .57 million acres annually, a maximum increase in acreage of 2 percent over the period of the FAIR Act. The fundamental question, however, involves the extent to which payments actually shift the wealth of farmers. What could be considered as a large payment may not be so substantial when compared against a farmer's overall wealth, which tends to be quite large for the average U.S. farmer (Goodwin and Mishra 2006, Just 2006). For example, Goodwin and Mishra (2006) reported that AMTA payments over the 1998-2001 period averaged 1.8 percent of the typical farm’s overall net worth. In general, because the necessary amounts of transfers to bring about significant production changes in the presence of risk aversion is quite large, this body of literature is met with skepticism.

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Income Distributional Effects of Decoupled Payments Single Payment Scheme in the European Union  Factor Markets Working Paper No  29, July 2012

Income Distributional Effects of Decoupled Payments Single Payment Scheme in the European Union. Factor Markets Working Paper No. 29, July 2012

The 2011 Commission proposal introduces a ‘greening’ component to decoupled payments, according to which a basic SPS payment will be supplemented by additional greening payments taking up to 30% of the SPS envelope. The ‘greening’ requires farmers to implement agricultural practices beneficial to climate and environment, which go beyond the cross-compliance requirements. The CAP greening consists of three main requirements: crop diversification, maintenance of permanent grassland and an ecological focus area (set-aside). Under crop diversification, farmers’ cultivation of the arable land needs to include at least three different crops with the minimum and maximum threshold for each crop being set at 5% and 70% of the arable land, respectively. Under the maintenance of permanent grassland, farmers need to maintain permanent grassland on the areas declared grassland in 2014. The ecological focus area requires farms to set aside at least 7% of farmers’ eligible hectares (excluding areas under permanent grassland). The areas that qualify as ecological focus area include land left fallow, terraces, landscape features, buffer strips, etc. Similar to cross- compliance, farms’ failure to fulfil the greening requirement may result in a reduction of SPS payments.

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The Labour Allocation Decisions of Farm Households: Defining a theoretical model  Factor Markets Working Paper No  31, October 2012

The Labour Allocation Decisions of Farm Households: Defining a theoretical model Factor Markets Working Paper No 31, October 2012

A further extension of the agricultural household model hypothesises that the mean and variance of the variables specified in equation 6 also influence the allocation of farmers’ time. In other words, the variability of the farm wage, farm profit, output and input prices all affect a farmer’s decision to work off-farm. The theory is that farmers are risk averse and in order to reduce their exposure to income risk, farmers will allocate more time to less risky activities, for example waged off-farm employment. This theory is often cited as an explanatory factor for the increased incidence of off-farm employment (Barlett, 1991). Many studies have highlighted the effect of decoupled payments on farmers’ exposure to risk. Hennessy (1998) explored the interplay between decoupled payments, farmers’ risk preferences and production decisions. He concluded that if farmers display a declining absolute risk aversion preference, that is their aversion to risk declines as income increases, then an increase in wealth as a consequence of the decoupled payment can induce them to take riskier production decisions, and thus increase output and time spent farming, compared to the situation in which no decoupled payment is made. This finding can be extended to conclude that the reduction in farmers’ risk exposure as a result of the introduction of decoupled payments, known as the insurance effect, may result in farmers taking more risks and allocating less time to relatively ‘riskless’ off-farm employment.

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The Impact of CAP Payments on the Exodus of Labour from Agriculture in Selected EU Member States  Factor Markets Working Document No  66, August 2013

The Impact of CAP Payments on the Exodus of Labour from Agriculture in Selected EU Member States Factor Markets Working Document No 66, August 2013

Therefore, the objective of the study is to test the role of farm subsidies on labour allocation, and in particular to examine their impact on exit from agriculture. We differentiate among the different measures of the CAP, looking at the individual impact of instruments within Pillar 1, i.e. coupled and decoupled payments, and at the aggregate level of Pillar 2 payments, targeted at rural development support. The analysis is based on micro-data from the European Union Labour Force Survey (EU-LFS) where we control for selection bias in the decision to work in agriculture and examine the likelihood of leaving the farm sector. Due to the unavailability of data on wages and farm subsidies in the survey, we rely on the information provided by the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) regional database. In previous research (Tocco et al., 2013) we emphasise the heterogeneous farm structures and diverse functioning of labour markets across EU member states (MS) and thus we refrain from pooling the individual observations into a unique dataset. Instead, we treat the selected countries as separate and run parallel estimations. The four selected countries comprise two EU-15 and two new member states (NMS), namely France, Italy, Hungary and Poland. The empirical analysis covers the period 2005-08.

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The Impact of CAP Payments on the Exodus of Labour from Agriculture in Selected EU Member States  Factor Markets Working Document No  66, August 2013

The Impact of CAP Payments on the Exodus of Labour from Agriculture in Selected EU Member States. Factor Markets Working Document No. 66, August 2013

In this context, Ahearn et al., (2006) is one of the first studies to examine both coupled and decoupled payments, following the 1996 policy change introduced by the Farm Act (FAIR) in the US. The authors argue that it is important to recognise the way these payments are viewed by the household, i.e. if considered as an increase in the farm wage (coupled) or as non-labour income (decoupled). Despite the theoretical distinction, they find a negative probability for all kind of payments on the off-farm participation of US operators, with no significant difference in the effect of payments type. By the same token, Hennessy and Rehman (2008) consider the role of government subsidies in the farm-household theoretical model and argue that the decoupling of direct payments implies a decrease in the returns to farm labour, which would suggest an increase in off-farm employment (substitution effect). However, the increase in total income following the received payments would relax the budget constraint, which may increase leisure time while reducing off-farm work (income effect). The authors find that, in a decoupled scenario, direct payments are likely to increase the participation of farmers in off-farm employment.

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Inequity in household's capacity to pay and health payments in Tehran-Iran-2013

Inequity in household's capacity to pay and health payments in Tehran-Iran-2013

Xu et al, (2007) stated that "there is no universal formula to help poor countries to reduce out-of-pocket payments against health expenditures." There is no universal formula to help poor countries to increase the emphasis over prepayments and to re- duce out-of-pocket payments. Countries at different stages of economic, social and political development have different prob- lems thus they need different solutions. Nevertheless, many poor countries are less able to provide enough budgets on a na- tional basis for estimating the health needs in middle or short time period. In these countries governments have limited ability to collect taxes or health insurance premi- um, because people are poor and many of them work at private sector (49).

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COMMISSION STAFF WORKING PAPER IMPACT ASSESSMENT Common Agricultural Policy towards 2020 ANNEX 8 {COM(2011) 625 final} {COM(2011) 626 final} {COM(2011) 627 final} {COM(2011) 628 final} {COM(2011) 629 final} {COM(2011) 630 final} {COM(2011) 631 final} {SEC

COMMISSION STAFF WORKING PAPER IMPACT ASSESSMENT Common Agricultural Policy towards 2020 ANNEX 8 {COM(2011) 625 final} {COM(2011) 626 final} {COM(2011) 627 final} {COM(2011) 628 final} {COM(2011) 629 final} {COM(2011) 630 final} {COM(2011) 631 final} {SEC(2011) 1154 final} SEC (2011) 1153 final, 12 10 2011

Simplification was one of the major drivers behind the Commission's Health Check proposals in November 2007 6 . The Health Check simplified the single payment scheme (SPS) provisions and rendered the 2003 CAP reform more efficient. One of the main simplification elements in the Health Check consisted of further decoupling, abolition of set aside and abolishing of several schemes, such as payments for energy crops and durum wheat, as well as the disposal scheme for cream, butter and concentrated butter. As the study on administrative burden indicated, coupled support schemes give rise to additional administrative burden for farmers. Further decoupling leads therefore automatically to a reduction of such burden. The Health Check also simplified the rules on the modulation franchise as well as the provisions concerning the functioning of the National Reserve and payment entitlements that originate from that reserve. Moreover, the rules on set-aside were abolished and the conditions applicable to the transfer of payment entitlements were simplified. The Health Check was assessed to lead to a reduction in administrative burden to farms of around EUR 135 million as result of abolishing the special schemes for energy crops, crop area payment, durum wheat, nuts and starch potatoes. Moreover, the abolition of set-aside was estimated to reduce administrative burden to farms by EUR 146 million.

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A ROBUST DECOUPLED WLAV STATE ESTIMATION FOR POWER SYSTEMS

A ROBUST DECOUPLED WLAV STATE ESTIMATION FOR POWER SYSTEMS

Most of the SE algorithms used in industry are based on weighted least square (WLS) approach [1-6]. Even a single bad measurement will distort the estimate, as these algorithms minimize the weighted sum of error squares. In addition, the assignment of relatively larger weightages and round off errors cause numerical problems and might make the system ill-conditioned. Various bad data detection and identification methods have therefore been developed [7-8]. Recently an alternate SE algorithm, which is based on weighted least absolute value (WLAV) minimization technique, has been applied to power system problems [9-10]. Unlike WLS method, there is no explicit formula for the solution of WLAV algorithm but it can be reformulated as a linear programming (LP) problem. The estimate is then obtained by solving a sequence of LP problems. It is well known that this estimator has been capable of automatically rejecting bad measurements, as long as the bad measurements are not leverage points, and hence is found to be more robust than WLS estimator [11]. But this estimator requires large computation time and is not suitable for real-time applications. The need for an efficient algorithm that occupies minimum memory and requires lower computation time has led to the development of fast decoupled state estimation (FDSE) [12-17] based on P   and Q  V decoupling used in fast decoupled power flow. The rate of convergence is strongly influenced by the initial voltage, which some times has a large  and a poor V , and the coupling between P   and Q  V mathematical models. This coupling increases with system loading levels and branch r / x ratios, and consequently the convergence rate has been found to decrease [18]. The decoupled method either fails to provide a solution or results in oscillatory convergence on ill-conditioned power systems [19]. Various formulations based on WLS and WLAV algorithms have been used to obtain SE solutions [20-29].

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Control objective : In this paper, an adaptive decoupled

Control objective : In this paper, an adaptive decoupled

In this paper, we have proposed a novel SPSA-based on-line adaptive decoupled control scheme by using PID neural network for a class of nonlinear systems. In addition, the update laws of parameters with adaptive optimal learning rate are proposed based on the Lyapunov stability theorem, this guarantees the stability and performance of closed-loop system. The affect of the frictional force model and uncertainty are discussed and analyzes. The proposed approach is applied in the TORA system. In experimental results, the proposed control has been realized by DSP to demonstrate the performance and the efficiency.

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Factors affecting the informal payments in public and teaching hospitals

Factors affecting the informal payments in public and teaching hospitals

According to the results of our study, 21% (n=63) respondents reported that they had paid informal payments. By compari- son, this rate is lower than the numbers re- ported in the studies done in Turkey and Greece (16,19,20). According to the study of Özgen and colleagues (in Turkey, 31% of respondents believed that at least they had informal payment for one time (16). A study by Liaropoulos in Greece showed that among those who were treated in pub- lic hospitals, 36% had at least one informal payment to doctors or nurses, and 8 to 11% had informal payments to other hospital staff (19). Our findings showed that among 63 patients who had informal payments (21% of total respondents); all had paid to the hospital housekeeping staff. Liaropou- los and colleagues in Greece reported that 31% of individuals paid informally to the doctors whereas 11 and 9% had informal payments to nurses and other hospital staff respectively (19). In a study by Tatar and colleagues in Turkey, they stated that phy- sicians and surgeons were the main recipi- ents of informal payments in hospitals (20).

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The Opportunities of Digitizing Payments

The Opportunities of Digitizing Payments

However, the challenge is to encourage recipients of electronic payments to use their accounts for other financial transactions. For example, a study in Mexico shows that recipients of international remittances are more likely to have accounts, but not insur- ance, credit, or other financial products, suggesting big opportunities to foster financial inclusion on remittance recipients (Li et al., 2014). It can be practically feasible for financial services to be linked in some way to remittance services, such as savings ac- counts into which migrants can remit in the home country. For example, remittances sent directly to a recipient’s bank account can facilitate access to loans and the use of the account for automatic bank loan repayments and can help build long-term savings. In very practical terms, offers of other financial services can occur when migrants are visiting a branch location of a financial institution to make a remittance transaction.

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The Factors Influencing Consumers To Use Mobile Payment Systems At Retail And Outlet Stores

The Factors Influencing Consumers To Use Mobile Payment Systems At Retail And Outlet Stores

In – App payments refer to any purchasing of goods and services by using the application on the mobile devices. This application can be downloaded for free from play store or apple store. The subscribers can upgrade the application. The upgraded of the application will involve some fees. This situation occurs due to ability of developer to adding new features from time to time. Example of In – App payment is Games and Starbucks.

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How does the preference for increasing payments depend on the size and source of the payments?

How does the preference for increasing payments depend on the size and source of the payments?

Smith (2009a) presents a model of a decision maker with imperfect memory who makes a choice involving payment sequences in exchange for work-related e¤ort. It is assumed that the decision maker has an uncertain cost of e¤ort, and before the decisions regarding e¤ort, the decision maker receives information about the cost of e¤ort. After the action related to e¤ort, the decision maker forgets the signal but makes an inference of its content from the objective features of the decision which are not forgotten: the wage paid and the choice of e¤ort. Smith (2009a) shows that increasing payments imply a lower perceived cost of e¤ort and thus a larger experienced surplus from engaging in the e¤ort. Intuitively, this is the case because a lower payment before the choice of e¤ort serves to reduce the subsequent perceived cost of e¤ort. Here we …nd evidence consistent with this prediction: the di¤erence between the preference for increasing wages and the preference for increasing non-wage payments is largest for intermediate amounts.

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The decoupled representation theory of the evolution of cognition - a critical assessment

The decoupled representation theory of the evolution of cognition - a critical assessment

As with decoupled representation, Sterelny doesn’t provide a direct, explicit argument linking his conception of preference to human desires. The requirement that preferences be subject to flexible cognitive valuation doesn’t appear to be true for many cases commonly thought of as desires; the desire for chocolate or heroin may be suppressed on given occasions, such that the options ‘eat chocolate’ or ‘take heroin’ are subject to cognitive valuation on particular occasions, but the dispositional desires for chocolate or heroin may be resistant to cognitive revaluation. This might be the kind of thing that Sterelny has in mind with the claim that the transition to preferences in humans is incomplete. Clearly, though, some human desires involve cognitive valuation, and the flexibility of human agency depends on this. Intuitively, humans take decisions: that is, decide on particular actions taking into account structured features of the situation. This essentially involves cognitive valuation, because the value of the options is assigned at the point of choice based on the structured relations. Focusing on cognitive valuation may thus be a useful approximation for getting at key features of human motivation. 7

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The Pricing of Payments

The Pricing of Payments

Traditionally, central banks have played two roles in the payments system. They have been offering certain payment services themselves (mostly settlement and possibly clearing services) and they have been overseeing the participants in the payment system. On the whole, the basic aim was very much one of limiting risks and thus reducing the potential problem of payment system crisis affecting the other sectors of the economy. Consequently, they mainly focussed on wholesale payments. The Bundesbank and its position in the payment system are a case in point. Art 3 of the Bundesbank Act states that the Bundesbank “shall arrange for the execution of domestic and cross-border payments.“ In the past, this somewhat vague definition has been interpreted in a fairly restrictive sense as: „Issuing of bank notes and provision of central clearing and settlement functions for giro, check and direct debit payments.“ (Pfleiderer and Schieber 1988, 172).

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Kelly's Criterion in Portfolio Optimization: A Decoupled Problem

Kelly's Criterion in Portfolio Optimization: A Decoupled Problem

Both return functions require advance knowledge of the joint distribution function ( ) for the assets in the portfolio. As equation (11) involves an -dimensional integral that is not seperable, it is computationally more complex and may not be analytically solvable (depending on the form of ( )), even in the case where the random variables are independent. By contrast, the decoupled return function (10) will reduce to a marginal distribution for a single asset ( ) as the dependence of − 1 of the variables is eliminated via integration over the space of outcomes in − 1 dimensions. Thus the decoupled problem may be preferable both analytically and numerically. If the time required to compute a single expectation value in the decoupled problem is , then the time required to compute all expectation values is . The time required to compute the expectation value in the coupled problem is . The remainder of this paper will focus on solving the portfolio optimization problem using the decoupled return function.

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Finite State Acoustic and Translation Model Composition in Statistical Speech Translation: Empirical Assessment

Finite State Acoustic and Translation Model Composition in Statistical Speech Translation: Empirical Assessment

Statistical speech translation (SST) was typ- ically implemented as a pair of consecutive steps in the so-called decoupled approach: with an automatic speech recognition (ASR) system placed before to a text-to-text translation sys- tem. This approach involves two independent decision processes: first, getting the most likely string in the source language and next, get- ting the expected translation into the target lan- guage. Since the ASR system is not an ideal device it might make mistakes. Hence, the text translation system would have to manage with the transcription errors. Being the translation models (TMs) trained with positive samples of well-formed source strings, they are very sensi- tive to ill-formed strings in the source language. Hence, it seems ambitious for TMs to aspire to cope with both well and ill formed sentences in the source language.

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COMMISSION STAFF WORKING PAPER IMPACT ASSESSMENT Common Agricultural Policy towards 2020 ANNEX 3, SUB ANNEX 3A, SUB ANNEX 3B, SUB ANNEX 3C, SUB ANNEX 3D {COM(2011) 625 final} {COM(2011) 626 final} {COM(2011) 627 final} {COM(2011) 628 final} {COM(2011) 629

COMMISSION STAFF WORKING PAPER IMPACT ASSESSMENT Common Agricultural Policy towards 2020 ANNEX 3, SUB ANNEX 3A, SUB ANNEX 3B, SUB ANNEX 3C, SUB ANNEX 3D {COM(2011) 625 final} {COM(2011) 626 final} {COM(2011) 627 final} {COM(2011) 628 final} {COM(2011) 629 final} {SEC(2011) 1154 final} SEC (2011) 1153 final/2

The simulation is conducted with the model AIDS7K, which has been developed in DG AGRI. The analysis is based on 2007 FADN data. The model is able to simulate the impact of the change of DP schemes on farm income and DP for the approximately 81 000 sample farms included in FADN. The impact on the sector level e.g. EU-27 is measured by aggregating the individual data using the FADN weighting scheme. The model is static. This means that the structure of farms and the allocation of land do not change in different scenarios. Outmost regions are not covered in this analysis because it is difficult to separate the POSEI payments from the rest of the EU DP received by the farmers in these regions. For the calculation of farm income both changes in output and intermediate consumption and DP are taken into account at individual farm level. The coefficients for agricultural outputs and inputs are mainly derived from medium term projections of DG AGRI using from AGLINK COSIMO, assuming the removal of sugar beet quotas. For certain agricultural outputs not covered by AGLINK (vegetable, flowers, olive and wine), the coefficients were set based on the analysis of long historical price series.

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Economic efficiency in protected vegetable cultivation

Economic efficiency in protected vegetable cultivation

By estimating receipts and payments table. for a period of 5 years from the time of investment demonstrates that the investment available cash in the first year of implementation is 46,191 lei in the first year of forecast earnings from agriculture are worth 52,000 lei and total payments worth of 65,949 lei, resulting in available cash at the end of the first year of 32,242 lei. In the coming years the forecast available cash at the end is becoming smaller, with proceeds from agricultural activity cannot cover, thus Year 5 tested negative.

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