Ga-vacancies which result in non-intentional donor doping. One approach to reduce the conductivity of such layers is the use of carbon doping. Carbon predominately occupies the N lattice site introducing deep acceptor-like trap states and hence compensates the n-type background doping. 13,14 It has been demonstrated that carbon-doped GaN buffer layers can enhance the breakdown voltage of HEMTs. 15–18 Studies have also shown that carbon doping of buffer layers can have significant impact on the dynamic on-resistance and dispersion in devices at high voltages. 19–23 Since carbon is present in the metal organic precursors used for GaN/AlGaN metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) growth, the carbon level in layers is strongly dependent on the growth conditions used. Higher carbon levels are often associated with lower growth temperatures and lower V-III ratios which are also known to result in 3D growth of layers. Morphology can have a significant effect on the device per- formances. For example, deep pits have been reported to cause the reduction of breakdown voltage. 24 Besides, 3D growth can also impact the incorporation of non-intentional impurities, so it is important to control both the morphology and dopant levels. Therefore, a further understanding and development of GaN buffer layer and strain relief layer (SRL) growth is vital to control the conductivity in the vari- ous parts of the HEMT structure.
Different from the popular object detection framework FPN , our GaFPN makes full use of global information between each convolution block to avoid information loss during downsampling operation. As it is well known, feature maps outputted from CNN layers could be a result of convolutional operation with many kernels consisting of set of kernels. The number of kernels corresponds to be the feature depth and each kernel is learned to extract the specific type of feature such as shape and texture. Therefore, we attempt to make the model to automatically mine the depth activation vector while ignoring the effect of spatial information that could weigh the different kernels so influence the weights of feature maps depth. As for position activation, the motivation is that limited receptive field of convolution operations lead to powerless features in pests positions without appropriate supervision. So, we propose a novel supervised mask to learn the spatial activation vector that could activate the position points of objects. Therefore, our GaFPN is proposed to achieve depth and spatial activation in global level that could improve the feature discriminating power of pest objects.
To link the difference in lifetime degradation to the introduction of thermally activated defects, electrical mea- surements were carried out to identify the deeplevel elec- tronic defects responsible and investigate if the differences in either the types of defects introduced or their concentra- tion could be linked to the difference in nitrogen content in the samples. Figure 2 shows DLTS spectra recorded on sam- ples of n-type nitrogen rich FZ-Si cut from the wafer center in the as-grown state and following annealing at 500 C, 950 C, and 950 C followed by 500 C for 30 min in Ar. Before any annealing treatment, the DLTS spectrum is flat, and no deeplevel electronic traps are seen to be present. This implies that the electron trap concentration is less than 5 10 11 cm 3 .
Once we finally get to the syscall() routine in syscall.c , not much work is left to do (Figure 2.6). The system call number has been passed to us in the register %eax , and now we unpack that number from the trap frame and use it to call the appro- priate routine as defined in the system call table syscalls . Pretty much all operating systems have a table similar to this to define the various system calls they support. After carefully checking that the system call number is in bounds, the pointed- to routine is called to handle the call. For example, if the system call read() was called by the user, the routine sys read() will be invoked here. The return value, you might note, is stored in %eax to pass back to the user.
These additional costs have tremendous welfare and fiscal implications at the policy level. While poverty rates are projected to fall in most other regions of the developing world, a rising trend is predicted in Sub-Saharan Africa where unemployment rates have continued to soar in the face of a structurally lower productivity and in the absence of sustained investment rates and industrial output expansion [Chen and Ravallion (2004), Berg and Qureshi (2005)]. However, as a growing number of countries projected to meet the Millennium Development Goals in the rest of the developing world do so, addressing the technology trap may become even more critical to exiting the poverty trap— vicious circle of persistently high incidence of poverty and low savings and investment
The work presented here reports on Portland cement-based grouting systems that are being developed for DBD cementing operations. A proof-of-concept study has been undertaken, and the inﬂuence of a range of additives on grout performance has been assessed. Rheological properties and setting characteristics of fresh grouts have been studied at elevated temperature and pressure, and the early age phase composition has been investigated to conﬁrm the formation of desirable hydrated phases. Four different organic additives were chosen to study the in ﬂ uence on grout thickening/setting properties under conditions representative of those found in deep boreholes. Two of these additives are marketed as retarders and two as superplasticisers or dispersants. The latter have been chosen because superplasticisers restrict chemical re- action between cement particles and mix water, and in doing so may also cause retardation of thickening and setting. Even though the presence of organic compounds will complex any radionuclides and increase their solubility, the release of any waste ions as a result of container corrosion will only occur many years after the borehole has been sealed; this creates a geological barrier where any release of radioactive material will take millions of years to return to the human environment making it radiologically harmless. The results obtained in this study have been used to assess the applicability of using cementitious grouts in this DBD application.
If we compare the widely used Condi- tional Random Fields (CRF) with newly proposed “deep architecture” sequence models (Collobert et al., 2011), there are two things changing: from linear archi- tecture to non-linear, and from discrete feature representation to distributional. It is unclear, however, what utility non- linearity offers in conventional feature- based models. In this study, we show the close connection between CRF and “se- quence model” neural nets, and present an empirical investigation to compare their performance on two sequence labeling tasks – Named Entity Recognition and Syntactic Chunking. Our results suggest that non-linear models are highly effective in low-dimensional distributional spaces. Somewhat surprisingly, we find that a non- linear architecture offers no benefits in a high-dimensional discrete feature space. 1 Introduction
X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) with an Al Kα X- ray monochromatic source at 1486.6 eV. Ar ion etching was performed in order to avoid the influence of surface absorption in the atmosphere, and the binding energy was calibrated by the C 1s peak at 285 eV. High-resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra were recorded to study the crystallinity of the samples on a Philips X’pert Pro diffractometer. The vibrational properties of the samples were investigated by a JOBIN YVON HR800 Raman sys- tem in the backscattering geometry with 514-nm radiation at room temperature. For analyzing the luminescence properties of a single MR, TD-PL excited by a He–Cd laser at the wavelength of 325 nm and SR-CL using vari- able acceleration voltage from 3 to 15 kV were carried out. The CL spectra and monochromatic imaging in this work were performed at the temperature of 100 K. To get the electrical parameters of N-doped ZnO MRs, back-gate field effect transistors (FETs) of a single MR were fabri- cated and measured.
Fig. 3 shows and summarizes the effect of different concentration of anti-oxidant on total acid number (TAN) of stored B100 vs. storage time. For biodiesel B100, the addition of antioxidant at concentration 250 ppm displayed noticeable increase in TAN. BHT gave the highest TAN increase at 250 ppm, followed by BHA, TBHQ- PG, and TBHQ-BHA (Fig. 3). It was noted that PG followed by binary TBHQ-BHT and TBHQ had almost the same effectiveness in stabilizing biodiesel at concentration 500 and 1000 ppm. For the effectiveness of antioxidants concentration on the of grease trap oil-based biodiesel at 500 ppm: PG produced the best improvement to stabilizing PV, TBHQ was the second most effective antioxidant followed by TBHQ- BHT. The effect of PG, TBHQ, BHA, and BHT are consistent with a previous study with frying oil based biodiesel (Mittelbac et al., 2003). TBHQ also could be used as good additive for recycled cooking oil methyl ester stability (Schober et al., 2004).
Deeplevel transient spectroscopy (temperature scans) of AlGaInP based red light emitting diodes was carried out from 77 K to room temperature. At least ten defects were observed. Of these, five defects assigned to energy states 0.21, 0.22, 0.24, 0.26, and 0.24 eV were characterized. Respective capture cross-sections, measured at infinite temperature (T = ∞), were found to be 8.84 × 10 −16 ,
rapid urbanization, regular reintroduction, large numbers of breeding sites, a submicroscopic and/or asymptomatic parasite load, and the difficulty of targeting dormant stages of P. vivax. Mosquito control tends to be restricted to application of larval insecticides, targeting known breeding habitats of An. stephensi such as wells, overhead tanks, and other water storage con- tainers. Use of interventions against the adult vectors within domestic dwellings, such as LLINs or IRS, is minimal. The reasons for the lack of adult mosquito control are varied but include the extremely dense and complex nature of the housing within urban slum settings (it is logistically challeng- ing to access every house), discomfort in using nets in the hot and humid conditions, low transmission rates (there are many challenges at the household level above and beyond occa- sional infection with generally nonlethal P. vivax), and very low density of adult populations of An. stephensi. Indeed, determining where and when local transmission occurs is very difficult. The adult vectors are highly zoophagic (human blood index [HBI] = 0.028) and almost exclusively found in cattle sheds (Table 1). However, these biting and resting behaviors create the potential for novel control strategies targeting the more limited focal sites (i.e., cattle sheds) with tools such as toxic sugar baits, or possibly treating cattle and other livestock directly with insecticides or antihelminthics. Nonetheless, given that the majority of adult malaria vectors are not feeding on humans or resting in domestic dwellings, such focal interven- tions targeting zoophagic and exophilic behavior could have
characteristic. As can be understood from Fig. 1, a certain voltage is needed in order to bring the energy levels above the Fermi-level and make it possible for electrons to leave the QDs. This is similar to a situation where a trap is localized in space. It influences the D-contours and causes gradients in the voltage direction for the lower voltages. A lower slope occurs for the deeper s energy levels. The reason is that deeper energy levels occur at a higher tem- perature, where the Fermi distribution is more smeared out along an energy scale. For a traplevel where the only emission possibility would be tunneling, the TVD-surface would have a non-zero gradient in the voltage direction only as shown in Fig. 4c. Also in this case the influence of the Fermi distribution is taken into account, which results in the sloping contour lines for the lower voltages. Fig. 4d, finally, is a theoretical contour representation, calculated for the QDs investigated in the present work by using the parameters in Table 1. Here, one notices the horizontal contour lines, and thus vertical gradients, for the lower temperatures, revealing pure tunneling emission in this part of the TVD-space. For temperatures above about 30 K, the pattern becomes more complicated because the DLTS signal now is influenced by both thermal and tunneling emission and, for the lower voltages, also by the Fermi- distribution. The influence of the kink, as discussed above in relation to Fig. 3a, occurs as the ‘‘Cape’’ in Fig. 4d at about 60 K and 1.5 V.
To characterize the oncogenic functions of DAB2IP in the progression of CRC, we investigated the effect of DAB2IP knockdown (KD) on CRC cell behaviors. According to endogenous DAB2IP expression in 7 CRC cell lines (Supplementary Figure S1A, S1B), we introduced two specific siRNAs toward DAB2IP into SW480 and HCT116 cell lines and generated stable transfectants (Figure 1A, Supplementary Figure S1C). Since the coding domain of DAB2IP gene is as long as 3399bp and rich in GC contents, we failed to construct the expressing vector. Our results showed that DAB2IP KD promoted the proliferation of SW480 and HCT116 cells by MTT assay (Figure 1B). Similar results were observed in colony formation assay (Supplementary Figure S1D). DAB2IP KD caused a significantly increased S or G2/M phase cell population, and a decreased cell population in G0/G1 phase in SW480 and HCT116 cells (Figure 1C), indicating that DAB2IP could elicit G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest. However, DAB2IP KD did not affect cell apoptosis (Supplementary Figure S1E). DAB2IP KD also significantly enhanced cell invasion through Matrigel (Figure 1D), and promoted the migration in SW480 and HCT116 cells (Supplementary Figure S1F). However, it did not affect cell adhesion (Supplementary Figure S2A). When endogenous DAB2IP expression in SW480 and HCT116 cell lines was depleted, EMT was clearly detected based on changes in cell morphology and biomarker expression. DAB2IP KD SW480 and HCT116 cells displayed a clear morphological transition from spindle-like fibroblastic to cobblestone-like cells (Figure 1E). Meanwhile, DAB2IP KD increased the mesenchymal marker Vimentin and concomitantly reduced epithelial markers E-cadherin and α-catenin (Figure 1E, 1F). Taken together, these data indicate that DAB2IP is sufficient to suppress the proliferation, invasiveness and EMT of CRC cells in vitro.
two households (both in Rachuonyo) reported using nets that were insecticide-treated (either long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) less than three years old or nets treated within the last 12 months), potential impacts of treated vs non-treated nets on trap efficacy could not be evaluated. The assessment of net treatment status in this study, however, may have underestimated the true number of treated nets. A mass LLIN distribution campaign was conducted during the second half of 2006, which significantly increased ITN ownership throughout all of Kenya . LLINs from this campaign had just exceeded the three-year mark by the end of the trap evaluation, and thus, were counted as untreated. Further- more, while large numbers of untreated nets had been distributed by KEMRI\CDC in the Asembo Bay area of Rarieda, these nets were treated with the KO-Tab 123 (a long-lasting insecticide formulation)  in early 2007. Therefore, it is likely that many of the bed nets used during this study still exhibited insecticidal activity, but were reported as untreated to err on the side of caution.
founders of the behavioral analysis of political preferences and electoral choices institutionalized a research agenda that departed from the social logic of politics.” The heavy reliance on survey data that examined individual characteristics without much attention to the social context, coupled with the introduction of rational choice theory into the subject matter, led, for a period, to a focus on the individual level of analysis, and on individual attitudes and calculations as the main determinants of vote choice. Nevertheless, in the last decades the study of the social logic of political behavior has regained interest. For a comprehensive account of the academic debate on the individual versus social logic of political behavior and a detailed review of the related literature, please see Alan Zuckerman, “Returning to the Social Logic of Political Behavior”, in The Social Logic of Politics.Personal Networks as Contexts for Political Behavior, edited by Alan S. Zuckerman (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2005).
perceived the status of them every day. I saw the flowers fading as time passed. I got inspiration from those fading flowers and I used progressively changing number of needles to express time. At the same time, the progressive number of needles is a metaphor for human beings who have thrived in larger and larger groups from 70,000 years ago to today. In the second part, I painted the wood board orange and punched hundreds of steel needles into it (Figures 5-6). It represents space. This space is called the “trap”. It seems like hundreds of needles rush into the orange space. What I want to express is the countless human beings rushing into the endless trap with no