Defense Related Enzymes

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Biological control of Podosphaera xanthii the causal agent of squash powdery mildew disease by upregulation of defense-related enzymes

Biological control of Podosphaera xanthii the causal agent of squash powdery mildew disease by upregulation of defense-related enzymes

Results illustrated in Fig. 3 revealed that the tested bio-agents and fungicide (Topas-100) significantly up- regulated the activity of defense-related enzymes com- pared with untreated plants. The highest level of CAT activity was recorded in plants treated with B. pumilus and B. megaterium, followed by T. harzianum, B. chiti- nosporus, B. subtilis, T. viridi, B. polymexa, and then fungicide, while the highest level of POX activity was re- corded when squash plants were treated by B. polymexa, followed by B. pumilus. PPO activity significantly in- creased in all tested treatments, particularly T. harzia- num, compared with control, except the treatment with B. megaterium. These results are in agreement with the results of El-Sharkaway et al. (2014) who found that treatment of cucumber plants with bio-agents led to ac- tivation of antioxidant enzymes such as peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase, and significantly decrease the dis- ease severity of downy and powdery mildew in cucum- ber plants. Resistance might be correlated to the production of oxidative enzymes in the treated healthy and infected plant tissues (El-Sharkaway et al. 2014; Hafez et al. 2016 and Hafez et al. 2017).
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Enhancing Resistance Level against Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Virus by Inducing Defense Related Enzymes in Mungbean

Enhancing Resistance Level against Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Virus by Inducing Defense Related Enzymes in Mungbean

at100µM concentration of SA (Vanacker et al., 2000). Primary and secondary metabolism is involved in the induction of resistance by SA against MYMV which depend on enhanced protein synthesis during metabolic reprogramming. Recognition of proteins depicting huge profusion, associated with process of photosynthesis is essential analysis which recovers virus induced destruction of photosynthesis process and gave increased metabolites that are needed for re distribution of available defense resources. Our findings agree with Mandal (2010). Elicitors are capable and imitate in recognition of pathogen by plants, hence activate the delicate and easy defense capability in plants. Activity of PAL by application of SA and BTH showed an increase in POD activity was increased. The effect or activity of these compounds on other antioxidants like CAT, SOD was also higher by these elicitors. Phenolic compounds accumulation and activity of several defense related enzymes were increased as they were triggered by elicitor. SA application is helpful in activation of defense proteins in plants (Clarke et al., 1998). The results of this investigation suggested that when SA was applied to plants infested with viruses than Pathogenesis related proteins (PR) inhibit production of viral replication and movement protein Ashfaq et al. (2010) also observed the increase in total proteins of virus infected Urdbean (Vigna mungo L.) plant due to viral and PR proteins. It has been known for some time that SA modulates the induction of SAR following pathogen attack (Ryals et al., 1996) Loon et al. (1994) concluded that PR proteins has strong defense ability against viral infection. In our whole study on induction of resistance in highly susceptible variety Kabuli mung under controlled conditions we observed that by application of elicitor compounds BTH and SA activity of defense related antioxidants like SOD, POD, PAL, CAT and total proteins and phenolic contents were higher in mungbean leaves that were treated with elicitor compounds and in healthy control as compared to infected control our study coincides with investigation of many scientists their results also showed that the external application of elicitor molecules enhances plant defense system by producing higher level of SOD, POD, CAT, phenols and proteins. Nandi et al. (2005) that the most appropriate defense mechanism of plants was linked with metabolic variation that are integrated in plants are interconnected with our results in their results leaf curl infection in tomato plant was reduced by application of SA and activities of SOD, POD,
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Enzymatic Responses to SriLankan cassava mosaic virus infection in cassava plants after grafting

Enzymatic Responses to SriLankan cassava mosaic virus infection in cassava plants after grafting

Cassava, an important tropical tuber crop is affected by a number of diseases, of which Cassava mosaic disease is the most important. This disease is caused by Cassava mosaic virus belonging to the family Geminiviridae. A short duration cassava variety, VellayaniHraswa released from College of Agriculture, Vellayani is found highly susceptible to the disease, caused by Srilankan cassava mosaic virus. The present study involves the response of defense related enzymes like peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and phenyl alanine ammonia lyase in the healthy and graft inoculated cassava plants of Hraswa variety.
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Effect of biotic and abiotic inducers on induction of  defense enzymes in sunflower

Effect of biotic and abiotic inducers on induction of defense enzymes in sunflower

host from invasion by fungal pathogen and they are integral components of a general disease resistance mechanism (Verburg and Huynh, 1997). Ratnam et al. (2001) reported that with the treatment of salycilic acid (5 mM) observed an increased amount of phenol content in plant and less severity of disease the plants and developed induced systemic resistance. Trichoderma species, necro trophic mycoparasites easily isolated from the soil, are efficient in controlling plant pathogens, especially those with resistance structures, because they act through several antagonism mechanisms such as antibiosis, antibiotic production, competition, and induction of resistance in addition to growth promotion of some plants (Howell, 2003). Chitra (2004) has documented Bio control agents inoculated groundnut seeds has developed induced systemic resistance against A. alternata. Savitha (2004) observed induced systemic resistance against Alternaria blight in sesame, by seed treatment of salicylic acid and Psuedomonas fluorescens. Karthikeyan et al. (2005) reported that isolate of Psuedomonas fluorescens was found to inhibit the growth of the pathogen Alternaria palandui leaf blight in onion with the foliar spray of talc based formulation. Thus, showing treated plants showed significant increase in levels of defense enzymes in compared to untreated plants. Chen yu et al. (2014) reported that the activity of defense related enzymes enhanced drastically including peroxidases, polyphenol oxidases and Phenylalnine ammonia lyase and induces resistance against Pencillium expansum when treated with GABA and its affectivity was high when GABA at 100 µg/ ml inoculated 24 hrs before pathogen inoculation. The above mentioned supportive findings to the present investigation done it can be concluded that in management of Alternariaster blight of sunflower induced systemic resistance is one of the best methods to enhance the production of defense enzymes and increase resistance towards the infection. Table 4. Effect of different inducers on catalase activity in different genotypes of sunflower at
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Tagetes erecta leaf extract induces defense enzymes in Solanum lycopersicum

Tagetes erecta leaf extract induces defense enzymes in Solanum lycopersicum

The study here reports the capability of an aqueous extract from Tagetes erecta leaves in induction of POX, PPO, LOX and CAT in tomato. However, the compounds present in the extract which interacted with the cells of target plants leading to the induction of the activities and higher expression of these defense related enzymes, need to be identified. Also, the molecular events following this interaction should be traced in order to identify the target genes of these compounds. This would allow engineering of these genes in disease-susceptible crops and investigating their responses towards the application of marigold leaf extract, and their subsequent defense against pests and pathogens. All these informations may lead to the possibility of preparation of an eco-friendly biocide from marigold leaves.
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Biochemical basis of resistance in papaya genotypes systemically infected with Papaya ringspot virus

Biochemical basis of resistance in papaya genotypes systemically infected with Papaya ringspot virus

The use of resistant varieties being the safest, economical, and effective option to manage plant viruses, many papaya varieties have been evolved over the years. But new strains of PRSV could overcome the resistance of host plant. The present investigation was conducted on the quantitative estimations of phenolic compounds, protein contents and activities of defense related enzymes, indicating their role in virus inoculated and uninoculated plants of resistant and susceptible genotypes.

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Local Trichoderma strains as a control strategy of complex black root rot disease of strawberry in Egypt

Local Trichoderma strains as a control strategy of complex black root rot disease of strawberry in Egypt

with a clear aim at the avoidance of human health hazards and environmental pollutions caused by chemicals. So, biocontrol agents were tried herein as safe alternatives. Trichoderma harzianum, T. viride, and T. koningii consid- erably reduced the growth area for all such pathogenic fungi. These four species significantly reduced black root rot disease incidence and severity under field conditions. The highest reduction was attained by mixture of the four species. Individual treatment of T. harzianum, T. viride, and T. koningii reduced both disease incidence and sever- ity more than 70.8 and 74%, respectively. Moreover, this mixture considerably increased the strawberry fresh and dry weight as well as the yield. Also, Trichoderma species tested herein significantly increased two plant defense- related enzymes against pathogens in strawberry plants, i.e., peroxidase and chitinase activity. Thus, integrated pest management programs in ways that make these biocontrol agents complementary or superior to chemical fungicides should further be examined.
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Vol 70, No 1 (2018)

Vol 70, No 1 (2018)

The results obtained using PCA show clear separa- tion between the investigated tissues and seasons. Prin- cipal component 1 discriminates between investigated tissues (liver in winter and spring on one side, and white muscle in winter and spring on the other side). Principal component 2 discriminates between the in- vestigated seasons (liver and muscle in winter on one side, and liver and muscle in spring on the other side). This analysis revealed clear separation of antioxidant defense enzymes between the liver and muscle. Also, more pronounced seasonal differences were obtained for white muscle than for the liver. In studies includ- ing multiple biomarkers, IBR was obviously a tool that allowed for a better understanding of the complex sets of results. In this way, it is more relevant than analysis of each single biomarker response [7]. Using IBR index analysis, comparisons were made between two differ- ent seasons with different environmental influences and two metabolically different tissues by two visual criteria: the size and geometric form of the areas of the polygons. Star plots showed a higher biomarker response in the liver in spring, as well as a higher re- sponse of glutathione dependent enzymes (GSH-Px, GR and GST) and CAT in both tissues.
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The PO activity also showed a marked increase in stems and leaves, but not in roots. This spatial regulation of enzyme activity in distant tissues has been reported by previous researchers [26]. Tissues of plants attacked by necrotizing pathogens including Rhizoctonia and Colletotrichum species have been shown to accumulate a substantial amount of the enzymes not only at the site of infection but also in distant tissues. The presence of enzymes in infected plants has been associated with lesion development and limiting the spread of the disease [27-29]. The PO action could still happen in an indirect way by the activity of byproducts with antimicrobial activity or by inducing the formation of structural barriers. Higher activity of PPO was observed in pigeonpea resistant cultivars than susceptible cultivars, upon inoculation with Fud and the difference was more prominent in root and stem tissues than in the leaf tissues. In pigeonpea, increased PPO activity strongly indicates Asha and Maruthi’s resistance was partially conferred by higher induction of polyphenol oxidase up to 52% over the susceptible varieties upon Fusarium infection. Similar results in chickpea were recorded by Raju et al. [30] who reported higher PPO activities in resistant cultivar ICCV-10 upon infection. The induced PPO-2 isoform in roots and shoots treated with salicylic acid, spermidine and the pathogen imparted defence response against the pathogen invasion. However, no induction of PPO was observed in susceptible cultivars. The present results confirm the reports of Raju et al. [30] where no induction was noticed in susceptible cultivars in either root, shoot or leaves at S3 upon inoculation. Studies conducted by Constabel et al. [31] and Stewart et al. [32] showed that plant PPOs are induced in response to mechanical wounding, fungal and bacterial infection, and by treatment with signalling molecules such as jasmonic acid/methyl jasmonate (MeJA), systemin and salicylic acid. The transgenic tomato plants with PPO over- expression gene exhibited high resistance to Pseudomonas syringae, the causative agent of speck disease compared to control plants [33]. Localized inoculation of tomato leaflets with Pseudomonas syringae induces a significant
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Molecular responses of Phytophthora capsici-challenged cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants as influenced by resistance inducer application

Molecular responses of Phytophthora capsici-challenged cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants as influenced by resistance inducer application

defense system that inhibits pathogen penetration as well as reducing their adverse effects after penetration. Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR), Hypersensitive reaction (HR) and accumulation of a wide range of defensive biochemical are among the most important plant defense mechanisms [20]. Plant strengtheners or resistance inducers are chemical, biological and physical factors that efficiently induce plant defense cascade. In this way, plants will be ready before pathogen attack and can inhibit pathogen infection more efficiently. This has triggered formulation and application of various compounds to be used instead of chemical pesticides [1, 14].
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Impact of cadmium on the level of hepatic metallothioneins, essential elements, and selected enzymes in the experimental rat model

Impact of cadmium on the level of hepatic metallothioneins, essential elements, and selected enzymes in the experimental rat model

5% is absorbed through this pathway (Jarup et al., 1998). Another reason is a long time of Cd applica- tion. In our assay, Cd was applied in a small amount for 60 days. It has been shown that the activity of GR rises up after 30 days of peroral application and after 60 and/or 90 days the activity slightly lowers. That may be connected with other probably non- enzymatic antioxidative mechanisms (Jadhav et al. 2007). Domanska et al. (1999) observed changes in glutathione S-transferase activity produced by repeated exposure of male Wistar rats to Cd in the response to each subsequent exposure. It may be sug- gested that the response of glutathione S-transferase depends on the duration of the exposure to Cd, as well. Localization of enzymes may play an important role, too. The in vitro experiments showed increased mitochondrial catalase and glutathione reductase (GR) activities more than the cytoplasmic enzymes (Latinwo et al. 2006). Cd is bound to erythrocytes or albumin during blood transport and subsequently is deposited into different tissues. It is possible that the antioxidative mechanisms in blood plasma are not needed after a long-time exposition to a small amount of Cd, blood plasma natural activity may be sufficient for its detoxification.
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Gene Expression Profiling during Wilting in Chickpea Caused by Fusarium oxysporum F  sp  Ciceri

Gene Expression Profiling during Wilting in Chickpea Caused by Fusarium oxysporum F sp Ciceri

An array of fungal pathogenesis related genes have been reported till date which are involved in cell signaling, adhesion and appressoria formation, production of cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs) and toxins, etc. [40]. In the present study, expression of many of these genes during Foc infection to chickpea (both resistant and sus- ceptible cultivars), was attempted, however, only a few genes could be successfully analyzed throughout the course of infection (2 to 16 dai). For example, genes en- coding for CWDEs did not show a prolonged expression, while genes involved in appressoria formation could not be amplified in Foc. Thus, a few important genes essen- tial for Foc infection were extensively studied, at various time points, throughout the course of infection. Foc1, 2 and 4 inoculated JG62 and Digvijay root cDNAs were normalized prior to candidate gene studies with fungal specific ITS oligonucleotides. All the cDNA showed uniform amplification with ITS oligonucleotdes. The oli- gonucleotides being specific to F. oxysporum, they did not show amplification in uninoculated chickpea cultivars. While evaluating the expression of various virulence related genes in Foc1, 2 and 4 inoculated JG62 and Dig-
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PubMedCentral-PMC5451464.pdf

PubMedCentral-PMC5451464.pdf

(leucodelphinidin-glucoside), A4 (leucodelphinidin), and A10 (cindonain-(α-4β-8)-catechin) were not signifi- cantly related to any cluster. These results indicate that Flavan-3-ol and flavonol accumulated during MC devel- opment. Flavan-3-ol accumulated in the early developmental stages, whereas flavonol accumulated in the late developmental stages. Except for the genes in the functional category “development”, which were more abundant in Group A than in Group B, more genes in Group B were linked to functional categories than in Group A (Fig. 9). We identified 19 flavonoid pathway related genes, including 11 transporter protein genes and 13 transcrip- tion factor genes amongst the 2110 genes. To investigate the interaction between these genes, we constructed a network for MC based on a hard cut-off value of |r| = 0.85 using Cytoscape (Fig. 10). The network showed co-expression of transcription factors with transporter proteins and flavonoid biosynthesis genes. Furthermore, genes encoding transporter proteins were co-expressed with the flavonoid biosynthesis related genes. These results indicated that transcription factors and transporter proteins are involved in flavonoid biosynthesis in MC development. In addition, transporter proteins may transport flavonoids during MC development.
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Deubiquitinating enzymes related to autophagy : new therapeutic opportunities?

Deubiquitinating enzymes related to autophagy : new therapeutic opportunities?

Efficiency and usability of an inhibitor depends on its specificity. As such, the discovery of DUB-focused drugs has been challenging [20]. Indeed, although DUBs have a catalytic pocket that is suitable for drug development, their sequence and structure are very similar. Moreover, DUBs are flexible enzymes, and the regulation of their activity can involve allosteric effects as described for several DUBs that alternate between active and inactive conformations [164–169]. For instance, the free catalytic domain of USP7 undergoes significant structural modifications when it is complexed to Ubal (ubiquitin aldehyde, an irreversible DUB inhibitor) [164,170]. Recent publications of the dynamic interaction of USP7 with specific small-molecule inhibitors demonstrated that the binding of the molecules into the active site of USP7 modifies the catalytic residue C223. This modification of the active site of USP7 results in its inability to change conformation and perform the cleavage of ubiquitin chains. These studies show that the development of specific inhibitors binding to the active site of DUBs is a realistic approach, opening new avenues in the field [171,172]. In addition to intrinsic modulation of their activity and substrate specificity, some DUBs require cofactors. For instance, the full activation of USP19 requires its interaction with Hsp90, which promotes the binding of ubiquitin to the catalytic domain of USP19 [173]. Another example is the proteasome-associated enzyme USP14, whose activity is strongly enhanced when in association with the proteasome [66].
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Computational structure prediction and analyze active ligand binding site of defense and lytic enzymes of Trichoderma harzianum

Computational structure prediction and analyze active ligand binding site of defense and lytic enzymes of Trichoderma harzianum

Active site prediction is most important aspect as the interaction behavior of proteins with their ligands and other small molecules reveals the cellular function and it also helps to characterized proteins in functional point of view (Singh and Chaube, 2014). Binding site prediction of lytic and defence enzymes of T. harzianum were predicted by using SiteHound Web server which identified ligand binding site by computing the interaction energy between protein structure and various chemical probe and carries out cluster analysis. All clusters are, further ranked up according to total interaction energy calculated by molecular interaction field (MIF) (Hernandez et al., 2009). The Web server uses four probes, i.e., methyl probe used to predict binding site for drug like molecules, hydroxyl probe used to characterized sugar binding site, phosphate probe used for the detection of phosphorylated ligands and an aromatic carbon probe used to characterize various other ligands. In a study done by Ghersi and Sanchez (2009), in which test was
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Uncoordinated expression of DNA methylation-related enzymes in human cancer

Uncoordinated expression of DNA methylation-related enzymes in human cancer

In this work, we observed uncoordinated expression levels of DNA methylation-related enzymes in various types of cancer tissues. These observations suggest that aberrant DNA methylation profiles in cancers may be partly due to altered cooperativity among DNA methyl- ation-related enzymes in addition to the deregulation of a specific enzyme. Additionally, we also observed that the decreased correlations were associated with several clinicopathological characteristics and diagnostic mark- ers, as evidenced in various types of cancers (Fig.  4). Taken together, our results indicate that the uncoordi- nated expression of DNA methylation-related enzymes is another epigenetic hallmark of cancer. Additional studies will be required to better understand the under- lying mechanisms of the extensive positive correlations among DNA methylation-related enzymes and to under- stand how the altered correlations are associated with
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Protein Lysine Acetylated/Deacetylated Enzymes and the Metabolism Related Diseases

Protein Lysine Acetylated/Deacetylated Enzymes and the Metabolism Related Diseases

and energy charge in vivo . Different KDACs and Sirtuins may locate in diverse cellular compartments (see Table 1), and participate in different gene expression regulation and acetylation modification of various functional proteins. Acetyltransferase HATs/KATs are primarily divided into three groups: 1) GCN5-related N-acetyltrans- ferases (GNAT); 2) E1A-related proteins: P300/KAT3A and CBP (KAT3B); 3) MYST proteins [9]. The p300/CBP and GCN5 are the most characteristic acetyltransferase families with the strongest enzymatic activity. Extensively characterized acetyltransfe- rases are predominantly known as nuclear enzymes, although they also function in cy- toplasm under some circumstances. Furthermore, acetyltransferases now include nuc- lear receptor coactivators and others (see Table 2). These enzymes and proteins pro- foundly influence behavior and physiology of organisms, and so extensive studies on protein lysine acetylation are in progress [10]-[12]. Acetyltransferases and deacetylases determine the acetylated status in vivo by co-modulating acetylation/deacetylation of intracellular proteins, and may play important roles in regulation of intermediary me- tabolism and the metabolism-related diseases.
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Oxidative stress responses   what have genome scale studies taught us?

Oxidative stress responses what have genome scale studies taught us?

activation of intracellular transcription factors such as OxyR, SoxRS, NFκB, and AP-1 occur via interaction with ROS, leading to gene transcription (Figure 3). More recently, genome sequencing and expression profiling using DNA or oligonucleotide microarrays, and related technologies, have been used effectively in the study of global gene-expression patterns in response to different growth and environmental conditions to which organisms are exposed. Subsequent hierarchical clustering methods allow for the allocation of genes, co-regulated temporally or in response to a given signal, into specific expression groups, or regulons [19,25]. The numbers of genes that can be detected by these methods in response to H 2 O 2 or any given environmental or develop-
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DEVELOPMENT OF THE REGULATORY FRAMEWORK FOR EXPORT CONTROL OF DEFENSE-RELATED PRODUCTS

DEVELOPMENT OF THE REGULATORY FRAMEWORK FOR EXPORT CONTROL OF DEFENSE-RELATED PRODUCTS

The export control system is very important part of national security. Export Controls have the potential to severely limit the research opportunities of university faculty and their students and staff, as well as to prevent international collaboration in certain research areas. Non-compliance with export controls can result in severe monetary and criminal penalties against both an individual as well as the university, and can result in the loss of research contracts, governmental funding, and the ability to export items. The purpose of the report is to show the Development of the regulatory framework for export control of defense-related products in Bulgaria.
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FM 7 98 Operations in a Low Intensity Conflict pdf

FM 7 98 Operations in a Low Intensity Conflict pdf

b. Phase II--Deployment/Initial Combat. This is the key execution phase that encompasses the occupation of the initial lodgments in the objective area. The strength and composition of the first elements of the brigade to arrive in the area of operations depends on METT-T with considerations to political factors. This includes friendly host-nation forces that could provide security, enemy strength and abilities, and availability of other US forces to provide support. Depending on the crisis, this may require forced entry into a hostile, chaotic, or seemingly benign environment. Airborne and air assault forces are best designed to achieve strategic surprise in this phase. Moreover, follow-on forces must be prepared not only to close into the objective area but also to reinforce the assault. If an armor threat is present, an antiarmor ability must accompany either the initial assault or immediate follow-on forces. Armor, aviation, and FA assets provide a combined arms ability. If a hostile air threat exists, an air defense umbrella must be established to protect vital assets. Engineers repair runways for the follow-on forces and provide mobility support to ground forces. Another aspect of this phase is the synchronization of joint combat power during assault operations. When combined with the need to control deployment and employment at the same time, synchronization places great stress on command and control.
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