As can be seen in Figure 6, the designed manipulator robot is a robot that has its rover-type traction that allows the platform to balance and overcome obstacles greater than 10% of the height of the wheels, each wheel has a motor that allows traction and can allow the platform of 9km/h with a weight of 60kg, it also has steering motors on the four outer wheels. It also has a 4 degree manipulator of freedom, allowing that in the last link there is a decoupling, which allows to place different tools such as a gripper or a disruptor cannon like the one designed in the previous versions of the VALI robot, Table I shows the robot's main specifications, which will allow the design of the electronic system, component selection and selection of the actuators for traction and manipulator.
In this chapter, a new block decoupling vibration control algorithm based on eigenstructure assignment using measured receptances is proposed for structural vibration control . Apart from eigenvalue assignment, modal degree of freedom constraints are imposed such that the matrix of closed-loop right eigenvectors is block-diagonalised, leading to block diagonal matrices of the second-order system in physical coordinates. Consequently, the system is decoupled into substructures with desired closed-loop performances. Specifically, the block-diagonal receptance matrix is introduced and eigenstructure assignment by the method of receptances is briefly reviewed. The block decoupling vibration control algorithm for undamped and damped systems with lumped masses is explained. The number of actuators and sensors required in the case of banded damping and stiffness matrices is considered. The methodology is extended to cope with damped systems with inertia coupling using a hybrid block-decoupling vibration control law by the application of acceleration, velocity and displacement feedback control. The merit and performance of the block decoupling control method are exemplified by several numerical examples.
A hybrid approach such as the one considered here offers several further advantages besides achieving fast gating times. For example, the presence of the optical excitation in this class of system may facilitate dynamic nuclear polarization [20,21]. Further, recent experiments have shown that the principal decoherence mechanism for nuclear spins that are controlled through their interaction with electron spins is caused by that very same interaction . However, for the entangling operations that are the subject of the present article, the electron spin is transient and only exists as long as the system is in its optically excited state, which should therefore be beneficial for the nuclear spin coherence time. Finally, the fact that the interaction is controllable implies that we do not rely on dynamic decoupling schemes to switch off the interactions.
This project is going to model and simulate a 3 degree of freedom of robot manipulator with simulink software. The robot manipulator in this project will be carried forward to do further research by combining with a vehicle simulator to do research on vibration rejection. This robot manipulator is designed to help human for pick and place a dangerous item, for example explosive bomb. So modeling and simulate a robot manipulator is a necessary.
for a vase form fruit tree. To check the model its calculated data have to be compared with data measured on real fruit trees. The two degree of freedom model enables also the calculation of power demand at different shaking frequencies both for trunk and limb.
This paper introduced a 4th roll Degree-Of-Freedom designed to retrofit to the Phantom Omni haptic device. The system is intended for applications where the addition of a low-cost attachment to an already low-cost 3 DOF force feedback device may be desirable over more expensive 6 DOF haptic devices. The system was achieved at a low-cost while satisfying the functional requirements by using COTS components, a simple bearing drive system with extensive investigation and fabrication using low-cost 3D printing technology.
Previous work performed in our laboratory has demonstrated that the scaling of external dimensions of the locust’s legs does not predict the scaling of the mechanical behaviour of the legs in bending. The scaling of the locust metathoracic (‘jumping’) tibiae’s external dimensions produces legs that increase in length faster than they increase in diameter (i.e. becoming increasingly slender) as the animal becomes larger. Engineering theory predicts that this changing geometry will result in legs that are subject to relatively larger deformations in larger animals. Mechanical testing revealed, however, that the legs are constructed in a manner that produces normalized deformations (i.e. deflections per unit length of beam per unit body mass) that are scale-independent. That is, the mechanical behaviour approximated the predictions of the elastic similarity model (McMahon, 1975), even though this model predicts that limb dimensions will scale in a manner that produces increasingly stout limbs in larger animals. Thus, the scaling of external dimensions does not provide sufficient degrees of freedom to explain fully the scaling of the locust’s legs. In this paper, we will examine the nature of this ‘uncoupling’ between the scaling of dimensions and the scaling of mechanical properties in locust legs. We have analyzed the mechanical behaviour of the locust tibiae in bending, but what is the relationship between the morphology of a bending tibia and its mechanical behaviour? We can calculate the deformation of a cantilever beam of specific dimensions loaded at its end with the following formula:
Similarly, the output-decoupling zeros of standard linear systems are the eigenvalues of the matrix of the un- reachable and unobservable parts of the system. In a similar way we will defined the decoupling zeros of the positive linear discrete-time systems.
A low tax burden often translates into a lesser chance for political representation. The Freedom House Freedom Index measures political participation as well as civil liberties. Repression has long been used by resource-dependent countries to maintain elite power, suppress the agents of government change, and deter proponents of government transparency. Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries rate poorly on the Freedom House Freedom Index. Kuwait scores best as the only GCC country rated “Partly Free”, while all other countries rate as “Not Free”. This is likely because of Kuwait’s legislature, which has more power and influence than any councils or legislatures in the other GCC countries, but is still quite limited and only marginally powerful in comparison to the royal family. The Freedom in the World index is scored on a scale from 1 to 7, with a lower score indicating more freedom.
3. We test 16 conceptual properties and two sampling properties of a b-diversity metric: met- rics should be 1) independent of a -diversity and 2) cumulative along a gradient of species turnover. Similarity should be 3) probabilistic when assemblages are independently and identi- cally distributed. Metrics should have 4) a minimum of zero and increase monotonically with the degree of 5) species turnover, 6) decoupling of species ranks and 7) evenness differences. However, complete species turnover should always generate greater values of b than extreme 8) rank shifts or 9) evenness differences. Metrics should 10) have a fixed upper limit, 11) sym- metry (b A,B = b B,A ), 12) double-zero asymmetry for double absences and double presences
(39.3%) were male whereas 60.7% were female. The degree Programs were divided into three categories; results revealed that out of 150 participants 44 (29.3%) were of natural sciences, 88 (58.0 %) of Social Sciences and 18 (12.0 %) enrolled in Applied Sciences. Percentage method was applied to divide the participants. They responded 100% against the demographic variable. It has been observed that 76 participants were junior (50.7%) as they are in earlier semester of the degree programs and 73 were senior as they are studying in late semester of their degree programs.
A simple stationary representation of earthquake-induced ground acceleration was proposed by Kanai  and Tajimi , based on the study of frequency content of a number of strong ground motion records. They sug- gested that the ground acceleration of the earth surface layer could be approximated by the absolute acceleration of a simple oscillator with a concentrated mass supported by a linear spring and a dashpot. The spectrum prop- erty of an earthquake is reflected in its interaction with the structures which have different damping ratios and natural periods. In general, one can use the response spectrum, power spectrum or the Fourier spectrum to cha- racterize the spectrum property of an earthquake. In this paper we propose a novel method to characterize the earthquake property when it is exerted on a simple one-degree-of-freedom system:
. Moreover, the trend growth rate of emerging markets has also increased noticeably and diverged away from the trend growth rate of advanced economies (see Figure 1). This increased divergence has two important lessons. First, business cycle fluctuations, defined in the usual manner as an output gap, could remain highly similar even though actual and trend growth rates diverge significantly across re- gions. Even though both are rising, the difference between them could remain identical or even decrease. Second, it is no surprise that Kose et al. (2008) conclude that decoupling has taken place across regions, but not within regions. When growth rates become so different across regions, the share of the variation in growth rates explained by the com- mon factor will decrease. Moreover, because growth rates were generally high throughout emerging markets, it is also no surprise that greater synchronisation should show up within
groups increasing their cross-linking density of polyol moiety. This is due to epoxy oils successfully ring-opened by CaOD fatty diol. From the GPC, shorter and longer retention time of SCOL chromatogram peak reveals to their molecular weight have been increased. The rheometry analysis, the cross- linker CaOD fatty diol reacts with epoxy group, number of -OH group increased in SCOL, GCOL, NCOL, JCOL and ICOL polyols, due to CaOD of the viscosity decreases with an increase in decreasing shear rate. On the other hand, the flow rate were determined by power law model, while ‘ n ‘ value decreased and ‘ K ‘ value were increased due to their flow rate of the viscous fluid is increased, this reveals to all the polyols acting as a pseudoplastic newtonian behavior. The resulting polyols stability were characterized by TGA analysis, their degree of cross-linking and decomposition of the polyols have been noted and the polyols (SCOL and GCOL) have close different decomposition, this revelas that the other polyols also assume to conclude their stability of the product.
While simplified methods exist for quantifying the airblast pressures on a target and the response of a single-degree-of-freedom representation of the structure to these pressures, the use of high-fidelity computational fluid mechanics and finite element calculations provide more accurate airblast and structural response results and deliver a wealth of useful information not delivered by simplified methods. CFD calculations provide threat and target-specific airblast pressure data that include the effects of the structure geometry and orientation, as well as pressure clearing around the target. Detailed nonlinear explicit finite element analyses provide accurate response predictions not only on a global scale but also on a local scale. Specific details include accurate representations of the structure construction and connections, geometry nonlinearity to capture large deformations of the structure or structural components, material nonlinearity to capture the responses of materials and components stressed past yield, and modeling to capture interactions of structural components during blast loading.
In the past, the relative value of various reformatting tech- niques has for the most part been evaluated for the assessment of the degree of renal artery stenosis 10-14 and carotid artery steno- sis, 15-18 yielding widely differing results and considerable contro- versy. These studies were generally conducted on single-section scanners and focused solely on the measurement of the degree of stenosis of the artery of interest. Moreover, for the most part they compared either MIP or MPR with a volume-rendering tech- nique without comparing MIP and MPR with each other. In ad- dition, most studies did not apply an STS technique when using MIP reformatting, but instead used a single projection of the en- tire data volume.