For the measurement of the second independent variable I will look into the Migration Integration Policy Index (MIPEX), which measures the degree of Labor Market Mobility for migrants by assessing integration policies, as they want to create a ‘multi-dimensional picture of migrants’ opportunities to participate in society by assessing governments’ commitment to integration’ (MIPEX, 2015). This assessment is done by measuring different policies and whether or not they can be found in the specific country. Through this tool of measurement MIPEX ‘reveals whether all residents are guaranteed equal rights, responsibilities and opportunities’ (MIPEX, 2015). MIPEX in total conducts research on 7 policy areas and one of it is Labor Market Mobility for immigrants, which is further subdivided into data on: labor market access policies, access to general support policies, access to targeted support policies and workers’ rights (MIPEX, 2015). These four subcategories will serve as indicators of the concept. Although not clearly stated, these subcategories indirectly measure the two dimensions of Labor Market Mobility, namely geographical and occupational Labor Market Mobility. Labor market access policies would fall into the geographical mobility category, as it deals with whether or not immigrants in general are allowed to enter the labor market of another country (private sector, public sector or self-employment). The remaining three subcategories access to general support, access to targeted support and workers’ rights belong into the occupational mobility dimension, as they deal e.g. with the equality of access to education and vocational training,
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Chapter 3 indicates that the economic activity rate in Rotherham over time has lagged behind the national rate. The economic activity rate has been improving since 2017 and the 3 year average for 2016-2018 is 76.3 per cent compared to the national rate over this period of 78.1 per cent. If the last three annual APS data files in 2018 from NOMIS 13 for Rotherham are considered then all are indicate the local economic activity rate is above 79 per cent (average 79.4 per cent). This compares to an average of 78.4 for Britain over the same three data points. The figures for Rotherham do need to be treated with some degree of caution as there is a greater degree of sampling variability if any one time peiod is used 14 and the annual files will have overlapping quarterly samples underpinning them. Time will tell if this upward trend seen in Rotherham is consolidated over time. If the trend holds then the economic activity rate in Rotherham may now have surpassed the national average. It is also important to understand the characteristics of the economically inactive as well as the unemployed. Some residents maybe economically inactive through choice - perhaps to look after a family or be a full-time student - but for others it may not be through choice but because they face barriers to actively participating in the labour force. These residents may benefit from further opportunities and support to enhance their skills and qualifiactions inorder to make them more competitive in the workforce.
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Increasing participation in agricultural markets is a crucial factor to lifting rural households out of poverty in Africa (Delgado 1998). Markets represent a channel for sectoral and macroeconomic policies that target to improve well-being of ds. Inspiring participation of subsistence farmers into market will aid them to benefit from these economic opportunities and is significant to realize food security and poverty alleviation. Yet the economic literature on market g in scope and degree, remains to be relatively thin (Bellemare and Barret 2006). Dairy marketing is a crucial constraint to dairy development in sub- Saharan Africa, where Ethiopia is not an exception. Marketing problems need be addressed if dairying is to secure its full -based agricultural The rapidly growing urban population creates a rapidly expanding urban demand for milk and is the primary focus of dairy development efforts. However, most rural people do not live near large urban centres. In seeking to ensure that agricultural development plays its crucial role in overall economic development, the role of dairying in rural development should not be overlooked.
One of the welfare indicators of the household is nutritional status of its members especially the children and women. Child nutritional status affected by household and village level characteristics’, and by governments policy towards smallholder farmers. The objective of this study was to identify and evaluate if there is significant difference in preschoolers' children nutritional outcomes of smallholder farmers at differing levels of market participation. The study used the 2009 ERHS dataset and 38 preschool children who were all the surveyed children in the dataset were included in the analysis. The result showed that 42% preschool children are stunted or too short for their age, 10% wasting or too thin for height, and 36.8% underweight. Moreover, the One-way-ANOVA result showed that farm households with high degree of market participation are better-off in child nutrition outcomes than those with low degree of participation. In order for commercialization of agriculture policies to have dramatic effects on improving health and reducing malnutrition, attention must be given to health, sanitation, and environmental issues as complementary components of agriculture policies and programs.
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In pointing out causes of a decline in employment and increase in unemployment following the financial and economic downturn of 2008, neo-liberal market economists emphasise labour market efficiency and the degree of regulation. Largely in line with this approach, EU policymakers have given preference to adjustments directly linked to labour markets implying that, with enough flexibility, the unemployed would quickly be able to move to other jobs while employers will be encouraged to create new positions (e.g. Draghi 2014). Accordingly, since the onset of the crisis, precedence has been given to a push for neo-liberal welfare and labour market reforms with the aim of restoring job growth. Measures include further deregulation of employment arrangements, a downsizing of public sector employment, employer-led flexible working time arrangements and an erosion of employee representation. The adverse effect of such measures on many aspects of job quality for both women and men is inevitable. Decreasing job quality during the recession was particularly manifest in terms of falling wages, as well as in declines in career development and collective interest representation (Erhel et al. 2012; Leschke and Watt 2014).
Even though the model is able to decrease the volatility of wages, it is still too volatile. For that reason, an extension was made where only a fraction of workers are able to renegotiate their salary each period. This staggered wage bargaining model based on Gertler and Trigari (2009)  generates a recovery labor pattern similar to the one seen in the great recession. That is, the GDP recovers faster than the unemployment rate. Afterwards the employment rate goes back to its pre-crisis level and lastly the labor market participation returns to its steady state level. Therefore, the participation rate remains contracted longer than the other labor market variables.
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For immigrants, differences by marriage type are considerably stronger: Immigrant men in intermarriage work more hours per weekday than other immigrants. They devote about the same amount of hours to household tasks in intermarriage as in immigrant marriage, whereas native wives spend more time working in the labor market and less time with household work than immigrant wives. Furthermore, intermarried immigrant men have significantly more education than those in immigrant partnerships, and the difference in education between spouses is noticeably smaller and even insignificant in intermarriage. Moreover, those who live with natives have spent more years in the hosting country, immigrated at younger ages, report better linguistic abilities - both with respect to speak- ing and writing skills - and feel more attached to Germany. On top of that, they are more risk loving than immigrant men in marriages with other immigrants and more likely to re- port a best German friend. They are, according to their self-assessment, more open and have higher values of extraversion than men in immigrant marriages – even though men in immigrant marriages view themselves as more agreeable. A noticeably higher percent- age of immigrant men reports that each spouse manages his/her own money separ- ately when they are intermarried. And, most strikingly, only 9 percent of immigrant men in intermarriage report to have the last word in financial decisions, in contrast to over 16 percent of men in immigrant marriages.
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of equity incentives built up in the prior firm. Equally, firms would not meet these higher wage demands unless they believe that the incoming executive will deliver sufficient value. Further, if superior job matches (Gabarro, 2012; Janovic, 1979; Pellizzari, 2011) result from movement between companies, executives on average will perform better in their new company than in their prior company. This superior performance will be reflected in greater realised payments in the new job, hence we need to control for individual fixed effects in the multivariate analysis below to eliminate unmeasured aspects of individual ability. Nevertheless, as has been pointed out by others (Conyon, 2006; Murphy, 2002), the observation that external movers handsomely trump internal movers does not sit well with the managerial power narrative of inflated pay for entrenched executives (Bebchuk and Fried, 2004). It is difficult to reconcile the much larger rewards to executives from moving between companies with the centrality given to managerial power in the Bebchuk perspective. The subsequent section of the paper provides a detailed analysis of these descriptive findings and attempts to clarify the role played by the market in determining executive remuneration.
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than 5 years; 2.67% vendors for 4-5 years, 1.33% for 2-3 years and 1.33% for 3-4 years. About 2.67% vendors sold vegetables less than 1 years and 1-2 years. During this study it was found that maximum (88%) vegetable seller’s source of possession was other resources followed market owner (8.67%) and any other vegetable seller (3.33%). Majority of the respondents (77.33%) did not to pay taxes for this place for business Only 22.67% respondents payed taxes for this place to business. Present study also showed that maximum vendors (96%) don not get any kind of Govt. help, but only 4% vendors got Govt. help. Mode of expenditure is an important information in the present study. It showed the economic condition of a vendors. About 64% vendors used the money for family expenditure, 34.67% vendors both for family and children education, 0.67% vendors for others. Making a savings for future reflects future awareness of a vendor. Maximum vendors (72.67%) could not make any saving from your earning, but only 27.33% made saving from their earning. The annul saving was very low, only 14% respondent’s annual savings was below Rs. 500/, 6% respondents’ had a savings of Rs. 500/ - Rs. 100/ and 4% respondent’s annual savings was Rs. 1000/ - Rs 2000/.
Abstract—Brand attachment is a relationship between the enterprise and consumers which is of a higher level and stronger strength than repeated purchase behavior. Virtual brand community provides a medium of exchange for brand information, experience and feeling for customers, can supply extra brand involvement and brand value, and is an important carrier of the establishment of brand attachment relationship. This paper explores and builds the model of relationship between characteristics of virtual brand community and brand attachment. The characteristics of virtual brand community include participation of community members, quality of information system and community service management etc. And through the survey of random samples of 145 Nokia BBS members, we have found that “community service management, community participation degree and frequency” has significantly positive influence on brand attachment. Therefore, to improve community management and to attract wide participation of users is an effective way of strengthening the brand attachment of consumers to Nokia.
Consistent with what we predicted, markets with more hospitals and vendors were more likely to have an HIO. This suggests that markets with many hospitals or ven- dors may perceive a greater need for an HIO, leading to a greater likelihood of HIO presence. However, also as we predicted, competitive dynamics among hospitals appear to work against HIO presence. More competitive hospital markets were less likely to have an HIO. Contrary to what we predicted, vendor dynamics did not additionally limit HIO presence. Markets with an alter- native, EHR vendor-led approach to HIE were more likely to have an HIO (and vendor competition was unrelated). While this finding contradicts our hypothesis that hospitals in markets with an alternative approach may be less inclined to support an HIO because the majority of hospitals can use Epic’s Care Everywhere platform to engage in HIE, a possible explanation is that this measure is serving as a proxy measure for health IT market maturity, which we would expect to increase the likelihood of having an HIO.
Our research provides concrete examples of authentic community participation. In one project in Zambia, for example, the research team worked with peer leaders who were responsible for delivering HIV/AIDS programs in their local communities and assisted them with developing research skills to collect data from participants. The research team co- designed interview schedules and questionnaires with young people to incorporate knowledge that they considered to be important for understanding the impact of projects and its role in young participant ’ s everyday lives. This process was considered mutually bene ﬁ cial by both the research team and peer leaders. The latter gained valuable skills that enabled them to continue to collect information about their projects that they could use to leverage further funding, as well as providing important insights into their delivery approaches and how they might better provide and support young community members. For the research team, the approach reduced some of the North/South tensions inherent in the research process. Moreover, peer leaders usually had a strong and trusting rapport with participants and were also able to undertake interviews in local language, if necessary, leading to a rich array of information emerging from this data collection approach. Similar examples can be drawn from AGSEP, VIDA, and Vencer, where staff members discussed, added, deleted, and/or edited interview questions before the interview process began. We also engaged in member checking, sharing drafts of reports and papers with community members and incorporating their feedback into publications. In addition, in the Vencer study, a local youth leader was trained as a (formally employed) researcher by the lead researcher, and the local NGO and subsequently contributed to the design, implementation, and analysis of the survey and interviews.
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In theory, an efficient land market should help to resolve these problems by providing aspiring farmers with opportunities to consolidate land and to expand their operations. Vietnam’s 2003 Land Law still imposes strict ceilings on land ownership (3 hectares) so that opportunities to consolidate and expand farming operations through the land sale market are very limited. Vietnam therefore requires an efficient land rental market to promote growth in agriculture and to raise rural incomes. Previous studies of cropland markets in Vietnam (Deininger and Jin, 2008; Do and Iyer, 2008; Ravallion and van de Walle, 2003) were conducted in the context of Vietnam’s 1993 Land Law. The 2003 Land Law strengthened tenure security by broadening the bundle of land rights assigned to landholders. In theory, this should have enhanced the efficiency of rental markets for cropland and strengthened farming household incentives to invest in agriculture.
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18. From Figure 2 it is seen that the API shows an absolute gap in HE participation between the upper and lower social classes which has been widening during the period of HE expansion, despite the increase in participation by the lower social classes. Although there are two periods during which the gap appears to be fairly static (1970-1990 and 1995- 2000), overall the gap is seen to have increased by some 23 percentage points between 1940 and 2000. This has contributed to the motivation behind the Government’s current widening participation initiatives. It is worth noting, of course, that the period covered by figures 1 and 2 includes significant change in the social structure of the population, as well as changes in higher education participation.
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However, market participation decisions affect the extent of poverty alleviation. There are two basic decisions that are open to smallholders in their quest to be market participants: selling at farmgate or selling at a designated market centre. These two decisions are key determinants of the effectiveness of the market system in poverty alleviation. The decision of farmers to participate in the market through the vent of farmgate continues to hamper poverty mitigating efforts. For example, Fafchamps and Hill (2005) indicate that selling at the farmgate is mostly less remunerative. That is, farmgate prices are usually low such that significant gains can be made if sufficient quantities are put out for sale, and given the low productivity of smallholders, there is no doubt that such gains from farmgate would continue to elude them. The problems of the farmgate system of market participation have led to calls for policies to provide price incentives to encourage farmers to sell their harvest at the market rather than at the farmgate (Muamba 2011). Fafchamps and Hill (2005) also note the raising of welfare of farmers through institutional packages such as producer cooperatives as means of avoiding lower prices through the farmgate.
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Therefore this mode of participation does not necessarily require participants to possess the civic skills (see Verba et al. 1995) that are required for most other political activities. The challenge here is to mobilize students and to know at whom to concentrate on, possibly concentrating on those students that might be easy to motivate and that have adequate capabilities already. Especially students are of particular interest as this may give directions for facilitators. Students are an interesting target group, willing to participate and have considerable potential capacity. It is therefore noticed by Bakker et al. (2012, p.408), that citizen initiatives are considered as ways to improve the social quality and living conditions in deprived neighborhoods, but due to limitations of resources – to include monetary resources, time and civic skills – these initiatives are often hindered (Bakker et al., 2012, p.408). Moreover, mobilizing students instead of hiring professionals, may increase the chance to choose for students, observed from a financial perspective. Therefore, the likelihood of successful citizen participation initiatives and subsequent improvements in the district’s livability may be highest in areas where such improvements are least needed. It is more likely that students already have the required civic skills, time and monetary resources.
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Previous international studies including ELSA and HRS have shown that some retired men and women still undertake some paid work. Although reporting themselves as retired, such individuals still show some attachment to the labour market. In the TILDA sample, 4% of both men and women aged 65 to 74 report themselves to be retired but have done at least one hour of paid work in the previous week. These are defined as “retired but working”. For these respondents, the transition out of work is not complete. For this reason, it is appropriate to include them with those who give their main status as being employed.
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This paper solves the one-period portfolio choice problem for an investor with the reference-de- pendent preferences of K˝oszegi and Rabin (2006), and finds that its solution supports two competing personal equilibria—expectations about one’s choice that make such choice optimal. One personal equi- librium involves a mix of risky and safe investments, and is a variant of the familiar utility-maximizing portfolio of Markowitz (1952). The additional equilibrium involves only safe investments, and offers an explanation for non-participation in the market based on reference-dependent preferences: for an in- vestor expecting to take risk, it is optimal to do so to the extent specified by the risky equilibrium. Yet, for an investor with the same preferences but with the expectation to hold safe assets, it is optimal to forgo risky assets completely.
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Because bribes are illegal, they have to be charged before the returns can be harvested (so that there is no problem of shirking away from the paying of the bribe), but after the investment decision has been made (so that potential bribe-payers identify themselves). When the expected bribe is too large, investors with smaller projects would not start up their projects. Inspectors would expect larger projects to start up, and react by further increase of the expected bribe. Decentralization of decisionmaking makes the cooperation of inspectors harder, keeping the economy below the production possibility frontier. Hence, I argue, the potential difference in corruption between seemingly similar countries might be in the equilibirum participation patterns, and not in something fundamental (see Del Monte and Papagni (2007) on differences in corruption across regions of Italy).
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20 effectively, and market opportunities emerge quickly. Initially, there would be urgency for farm expansion since commercialisation is possible. This expansion would reduce forest cover. But once other employment opportunities emerge and sustainable farm intensification is introduced, the rapid expansion of farms would slow down and gradually stabilise through intensification (Angelsen & Kaimowit, 2001; Rudel, 2005). Farmers would also be able to earn income from other non-farm activities. Livelihoods would improve, community development would follow, and forest cover would stabilise. Development strategies, especially in Africa, could be carried out effectively with road access if not taking the highest priority, becoming part of the major priorities. Modern farming techniques are not new in this era (Fearnside, 2007; Reid & De Sousa, 2005; Suarez et al., 2009). Application of inorganic fertilizers, improved seeds, mulching, crop spacing, etc. in Sub-Saharan Africa have proven to double and in some cases triple crop yields on the same lands without farm land expansion (Perz et al., 2008; Pfaff et al., 2007). High yields must go with ready market to avoid post-harvest losses. Road extension to inaccessible areas and improvement of existing degraded roads would integrate farm areas to market centers, reduce transport costs, and hence increase the income levels of farmers.
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