Democratic Policing

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The Progress of Democratic Policing in Post-Apartheid South Africa

The Progress of Democratic Policing in Post-Apartheid South Africa

While Marks relates these events of pre-democratic policing she does not project that image onto the entire police organization, these are the words of individual officers. She sees the occasional police brutality as a sign that transformation is incomplete, not failing. Later work conducted by Marks and Shearing (2005) found that the SAPS were using tear gas, stun grenades, and rubber bullets to dispel crowds. Ironically, these crowds were protesting the slow pace of service delivery from the SAPS. Once again this was not seen as a failure of democratic policing but as growing pains for the SAPS. It is not realistic for the SAPS to change overnight when their mission and purpose has radically changed. Eventually though they will be expected to attain the goal of reform.
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Guidebook on Democratic Policing

Guidebook on Democratic Policing

96. Interaction with the community implies that the police are accessible to the public where and when needed. The police must have a certain level of readiness and sufficient resources that they can adequately respond to public needs when it comes to accidents, crimes and other emergencies. The most immediate means of communication to provide protection of life and property are emergency telephone lines that citizens may use to call for assistance. The way these telephone lines are used – whether only in desperate need, or also for trivial reasons when there is a need for authoritative intervention – is an indicator of the relationship between the police and citizens 148 and of the extent to which democratic policing practices
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PCCs, neo-liberal hegemony and democratic policing

PCCs, neo-liberal hegemony and democratic policing

priorities of local people. This approach, it was suggested, would mean that the public, not civil servants, would be the ‘ultimate judge’ of their local policing, replacing ‘bureaucratic’ (target-based, NPM-style) accountability with ‘democratic’ accountability (Herbert, 2011). The initial flurry of furious concern which accompanied the announcement of PCCs (and which focussed mostly on the dangerous ‘politicization’ of policing which it was said they would engender) has been replaced by an air of cautious resignation, and even optimism that some PCCs might actually produce positive results for local communities. However, whilst the coming of PCCs initially appeared set to rekindle some classic debates about police governance and democratic policing, thus far most commentary has mainly served to highlight the substantially unresolved nature of these debates, without advancing them. It is instructive, therefore, to consider how PCCs measure up against some existing
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The Divergence of Democratic Policing: Reflection on Brazil and Argentina

The Divergence of Democratic Policing: Reflection on Brazil and Argentina

From the 1990’s, there has been an increase in reforms aimed at improving and bringing the functions of the police to a level that resonates with the expectations of society. These reforms have tried to shake up the status quo by making numerous recommendations ranging from altering the hierarchies of powers, introducing technological tools, making the police sensitive to human rights to dismantling the police force and building up anew. The factor of time plays a rather important role in the process of implementing the police reforms and some of the evidence points at the fact that more time is needed to cement the objectives of the reforms as the programs are unfinished albeit still in motion. The purpose of this paper is to provide insight on what the policing situation looks like in Latin America, particularly in Argentina and Brazil, the efforts of democratization that have been poured in and the challenges faced in the process. This is with the aim of understanding what is holding back the policing institution, why the concerned states have not been able to overcome the hurdles faced by police reforms, and why public insecurity continues to escalate despite the reforms.
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THE EFFICACY OF COMMUNITY POLICING IN NIGERIA

THE EFFICACY OF COMMUNITY POLICING IN NIGERIA

Swapna (2010) believed that Democratic theory of community policing rests on the premise that community policing “… involves the empowerment of a new level of social organization to generate work for the police, namely, groups, neighbourhoods, communities, businesses, civic groups et. cetera. The theory also maintain that the success of a democratic government depends in large measure, on the voluntary compliance of citizens with society’s law and norms of conduct. Bayley (2005) posits that, “the essential features of democratic policing are responsiveness and accountability.” According to him, democratic police force “is the one that responds to the need of individuals and private groups as well as the needs of the government. Strengthening of these mechanisms will strengthen the quality of democratic policing. He maintained that the problem countries face is that democratic policing, especially, in its concern with human rights and accountability, is under attack all the time because of reported increases, firstly, in serious crime and secondly, in terrorism, assassination, and collective disorder. When there are increases in individual and collective threats to law and order democratic policing become vulnerable to being labeled a “soft strategy”.
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CRIME MAPPING AND THE POLICING OF DEMOCRATIC SOCIETIES

CRIME MAPPING AND THE POLICING OF DEMOCRATIC SOCIETIES

Crime mapping offers a powerful way for police and the public to define the patterns of crime that the police must address and track how police actions affect crime. The maps allow constables and street officers, their senior commanders, and public representatives to develop a common picture of crime in an area, incorporate other information that may help explain crime patterns and suggest solutions, and then monitor changes over time. In short, crime mapping can make democratic policing not only possible, but practical.

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Policing Queer Bodies: Focusing on Queer Embodiment in Policing Research as an Ethical Question

Policing Queer Bodies: Focusing on Queer Embodiment in Policing Research as an Ethical Question

There is little doubt that bodies that ‘queer’ heteronormative sexual subjectivity are in some ways more visible than others, particularly in the case of the highly visible, hypermasculine bodies being constructed in gay culture. 92 This paper has argued that these bodies ‘emit meanings’ and can be ‘read’, and that this may be a point of interest in how queer people experience policing practices. Despite some research indicating that police too visually ‘read’ bodies as ‘queering’, based on ideas about ‘effeminacy’ in relation to gay men for example, the paper has demonstrated that criminological research on policing practices with queer communities is disembodied. That is, researchers shy away from engaging participants in discussions about whether or not they think ‘queering’ bodies are more or less targeted by police precisely because they behave in ways that disrupt heteronormative ways of doing sexual subjectivity. This paper contends that this is an unproductive research position to work from considering that ‘the gaze of the law, conjoined with the legal imagination, produces a vision of homosexual subjectivity that is severely impoverished’. 93 It has attempted to map the intersectional nexus point of a complex skein ‘of discursive elements that can come into play’ 94 that together demonstrate the importance for further pursuing research at this nexus point. We can only gain a better, more detailed understanding of how queer
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The Northern Ireland Policing Board and The Police Service of Northern Ireland POLICING PLAN

The Northern Ireland Policing Board and The Police Service of Northern Ireland POLICING PLAN

For the PSNI, keeping people safe is what we do; Policing with the Community is how we do it. Policing with the Community is about creating real participation between the police and the community - a partnership in which policing reflects and responds to the community’s needs and in which the community play an active part in delivering a solution. We are committed to achieving all that is laid out in this challenging Policing Plan. But we will not achieve success alone. The Board, PCSPs and the community, have an important role to play. Only by working together, can we achieve the targets laid out in the Plan and our shared ambition to build a safe, confident and peaceful society.
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Policing and Shaping Overview

Policing and Shaping Overview

Note To identify the hardware platform or software image information associated with a feature, use the Feature Navigator on Cisco.com. You can access Feature Navigator at http://www.cisco.com/go/fn. You can deploy these features throughout your network to ensure that a packet, or data source, adheres to a stipulated contract and to determine the QoS to render the packet. Both policing and shaping mechanisms use the traffic descriptor for a packet—indicated by the classification of the packet—to ensure adherence and service. (See the chapter “Classification Overview” in this book for a description of a traffic descriptor.)
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Policing   a gendered experience? : the influence of socialisation and gender identity on the choice of a career in policing

Policing a gendered experience? : the influence of socialisation and gender identity on the choice of a career in policing

While male officers were included in the survey, providing a way of identifying some similarities and differences, the influence of socialisation and gender identity on career choice and[r]

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New Perspectives in Policing

New Perspectives in Policing

How can a price be put on these results? Are they adequate, a sufficient return on the investment? Should response times have changed even more than they did? What about arrests and the reduc­ tions in reported crime? Should arrests have increased and reported crimes decreased even more? After all, in addition to hiring more staff, the department acquired new technology, improved training, and introduced more advanced and effective management systems such as Compstat, all of which are force multipliers and should have raised overall productive capacity. Did the results fall short of, meet or exceed the increase in the department’s capacity? Could the same results have been achieved by other means or at less expense? To answer these questions, a means is needed of weighing the accomplishments against the initial investment, a way of assessing the relative costs of policing as well as the opportunity costs.
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PROVINCIAL POLICING STANDARDS

PROVINCIAL POLICING STANDARDS

“Missing person coordinator” – the police officer designated as responsible for oversight and support functions for the police force’s missing person investigations, including those functions listed in Standard (1) of 5.1.4 File Review and Monitoring of these British Columbia Provincial Policing Standards.

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New Perspectives in Policing

New Perspectives in Policing

the public and private sectors. We see subsets of public policing functions being contracted out to private industry. We see public police officers working for private clients under a variety of different arrangements. We see not-for-profit associations forming, with membership from public and private organizations, allied around some common security-related purpose. Public police also cooperate on a daily basis with security guards and patrols operating in privately owned or quasi-public spaces, such as shopping malls, industrial complexes, private universities or gated residential areas. Also — this is not so new, but nevertheless at the boundary of public/ private policing — police routinely rely on private individuals, co-opted as confidential informants, to assist in their investigations.
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Policing unacceptable protest in England and Wales : A case study of the policing of anti-fracking protests

Policing unacceptable protest in England and Wales : A case study of the policing of anti-fracking protests

10 of the three authors visited the camp to conduct interviews or observations on fifteen separate occasions. These interviews were supplemented with follow-up interviews conducted at the conclusion of the criminal proceedings (two years later) as part of a longitudinal study into the policing at Barton Moss and subsequent criminal justice responses to those arrested (Gilmore, et al 2016). The primary objective of the research was to uncover the experiences of policing at Barton Moss from the perspectives of the protestors, therefore qualitative semi-structured interviews were the chosen method. This method was chosen in line with the aim to centralise and project unrecognised voices and to facilitate the production of a view from below (Jefferson 1987). In total twenty-two interviews were conducted involving twenty-seven participants. These interviews provide in-depth, first-person accounts of people’s experiences of the protest at Barton Moss and detail their perspectives on the policing of the protest. Purposive sampling was undertaken; the authors approached members of the camp directly to seek participation after initial discussions with gatekeepers from the Justice4Barton Moss campaign. Sixteen men and eleven women were interviewed and the age of participants ranged from eighteen to seventy. This research took the form of an in-depth longitudinal case study analysis that was conducted independently of police. This independence was necessary to enable the authors to engage with hard to reach groups of protesters who, due to their negative experiences of policing, were reluctant to engage with researchers who had links with police.
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'Policing' in Europese Metropolen

'Policing' in Europese Metropolen

Het schema was niet bedoeld als keurslijf of als struc- tuur voor de diverse bijdragen; wel kon het dienen als kader voor de gemeenschappelijke interesse. De ge- schiedenis en de huidige situatie van elke metropool is zo verschillend, dat dit schema alleen maar gehan- teerd kon worden als gestructureerde bril om die wer- kelijkheid te beschrijven enerzijds en anderzijds als gemeenschappelijk kader om een analyse van enkele vooraf omlijnde concepten (zoals lokale politie, pri- vate veiligheidszorg, plural policing, fragmentering, rol van de burgemeester) in elke bijdrage terug te vin- den. Het schema voorzag in een aantal belangrijke interessedomeinen (topics) die voor elke stad geana- lyseerd zouden kunnen worden, namelijk:
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Collaborative Governance and Partnerships in Policing

Collaborative Governance and Partnerships in Policing

Evidence also indicates that the residents who are familiar with the police of- ficers were more likely to collaborate with the public service [17]. This evidence may suggest that the community policing program has been essential in crime reduction and creation of a safer society. The citizens tend to hold differing per- ceptions towards this community policing initiative; most of the citizenry sup- ports the program, but there were people with negative perceptions. Those with negative views tend to believe that the community policing programs have li- mited effects on the successful collaboration between the police and community [12]. Implementation of community policing in the United States is found to be more comfortable in areas where residents believe that provision of proper secu- rity is a collective responsibility. These individuals respect the rule of law and always willing to provide all the necessary support to the officers [12]. Moreover, past research shows an increase in the number of criminal cases reported by the public in various regions in the US in the recent years as compared to the situa- tion in the last two to three decades [22] [23]. Such evidence points towards a possible spread of this initiative globally, thereby contributing to a reduction in the crime rate internationally.
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Enlisting the public in the policing of immigration

Enlisting the public in the policing of immigration

In this paper I explained the productive dimension of conscripting the public into migration policing, an aspect largely overlooked by policing scholars. Apart from the instrumental reasons behind this policy trend, calling upon ordinary citizens for spotting unruly non-members is a form of ‘doing citizenship work’. Migration policing is an ideal site where to produce citizens by educating the public about appropriate standards of behaviour and instilling a sense of civic responsibility in law and order maintenance to prevent immigration law-breaking. It conveys expectations about the duties that come with being a good citizen –including the active cooperation in law enforcement- and in doing so it seeks to recreate social cohesion by
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Principles of policing and principles of punishment

Principles of policing and principles of punishment

In response, note, first, that punishment is not distinct from other kinds of treatment by the hardness of the treatment involved: punishment can involve a small or trivial kind of hard [r]

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Gamification of community policing : SpamCombat

Gamification of community policing : SpamCombat

First, users can flag off a part or whole of the screen and designate the content as spam if they suspect its authenticity and credibility. Figure 2 shows the screen shot of the user interface for flagging spam. Once users confirm that the content is spam, the selected area of the website is marked grey. If numerous users flag the same content as spam, the specific portion is eventually hidden. Thus, spam is eliminated collaboratively by tapping into users’ commitment for community policing. To induce a feeling of personal rewards, users earn a brownie each time they flag out spam. On the other hand, users who frivolously flag arbitrary areas as spam are penalized.
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The Policing of Gender in Middle School

The Policing of Gender in Middle School

nonconformist “likes” other males, or is homosexual. This demonstrates how gender behavior and sexual object choice are closely associated in the middle school peer culture. Furthermore[r]

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