Although some safety culture surveys conducted in the past have considered the effects of demographic variables on how safety culture is evaluated [2,3,6,7,23], most stu- dies of safety culture fail to consider the role of demo- graphic characteristics in the evaluation of safety culture or make only vague reference to such differences . An explanation for this might be that the goal of many studies of safety culture is to capture organizational (and not indi- vidual) factors that influence patient safety and that the importance of demographic differences in safety culture research has not been recognized . We argue that demographic characteristics should be considered in understanding whether HCWs will be likely to respond to safety culture surveys and that they should be taken into account in reducing the risk of non-response bias for anonymously conducted surveys. The purpose of this study was thus to compare the demographic composition of the groups of HCWs who did or did not respond to a survey measuring safety and organizational culture. Differ- ences in demographic characteristics of respondents and non-respondents that should be taken into account to reduce the risk of non-response bias are documented and suggestions are made for understanding the responding behavior and increasing the response rate of HCWs.
in the past were also more likely to join SAW initiatives. In terms of demographic differences, women were more likely than men to participate in SAW. In past research, women have exhibited higher tendencies to donate to charitable organizations and to volunteer as well as to display higher levels of ethics of care, which is related to these activities. However, it is important to note that this engenders a crucial question: are women burdened by the expectation to care for others at the expense of activities that might give them more visibility at work or to help promote their career internally. Historically, women have been assigned to “busy work” which can be detrimental to long-term career progression . Additionally, this type of work may involve more emotional labor, and emotional labor requirements of women who have been in positions are more intense .
Taken together, these ﬁ ndings suggest that growth-oriented and diversity management strategies positively moder- ate the effects of organizational diversity on performance. This is likely because these strategies might promote the view that there is value-in-diversity facilitating the elaboration of task relevant information and in turn leading to innovation and better decision-making. A downsizing strategy may undermine performance because it might engender threat rendering demographic differences salient and eliciting intergroup bias, which in turn might lead to lower social integration. That environmental variables including change, instability, uncertainty, and complexity produced mixed results may be accounted for by higher-order contingencies. We would expect that higher information-processing or better decision-making capabilities associated with greater workplace diversity should bene ﬁ t organizations in such environments, but it may require a growth-oriented or diversity management strategy to unlock the positive effects of workplace diversity. The inconsistent ﬁ ndings for customer demographic diversity may also be accounted for by a higher-order interaction effect between workplace diversity, customer demographic diversity, and customer-oriented strategy: only when there is a customer-oriented strategy that encourages employees to see value-in-diversity will workplace diversity lead to a better understanding of a diverse customer base and in turn enhance performance. Little is known about what strategy variables might moderate the effects of work group diversity and relational demography. With the only study speaking to the issue (Jehn & Bezrukova, 2004) suffering from range restriction, it may well be that future studies that sample work groups from a wide range of organizations will ﬁ nd support for the idea that strategy moderates work group diversity and relational demography effects.
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1998, covering 100% of charges for fecal occult blood tests and 80% of charges for flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy for high risk individuals, and barium enema. Coverage was extended to include colonoscopy for aver- age risk individuals in July, 2001. Despite existing guide- lines, many eligible people are not receiving screening tests according to current recommendations [6-9]. In 2001, only 23.5% of surveyed adults over the age of 50 had received fecal occult blood testing in the previous year, and 43.4% had received lower endoscopy in the pre- vious 10 years . However, use of screening colonoscopy may be increasing . Age, race, insurance coverage, and place of residence, have all been associated with utiliza- tion [7,9,11-15]. Although lack of insurance coverage may be one reason for under-utilization, we recently showed that the proportion of Medicare beneficiaries receiving invasive colorectal screening tests (defined as colonos- copy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, or barium enema) did not increase in 1998, immediately after introduction of Medi- care coverage for these tests . In a 9-month period dur- ing this year, only 6.3% of Washington state Medicare beneficiaries received fecal occult blood testing, 6.3% had any type of invasive tests, and 3.2% had invasive screening tests. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of insurance coverage on overall utilization of screening tests and on demographic differences in screening utilization.
Tax noncompliance is a phenomenon, which has attracted attention of policy makers as well as researchers over the years. In an attempt to reverse this phenomenon, researchers had identified demographic factors as most important factors having effect on tax compliance behaviour. However, most of these researchers conducted their studies in the developed economies. To further the understanding of tax noncompliance phenomenon in the developing economies, this study analyses the differences in individual taxpayers’ compliance behaviour across demographic variables using the data extracted through a survey of individual taxpayers in Nigeria. The data were statistically treated using ANOVA technique. The results indicate statistically significant differences in taxpayers’ compliance behaviour across demographic variables of age grouping, income level, employment status and ethnicity. This finding suggests that these demographic factors significantly affect taxpayers’ compliance behaviour in Nigeria. Accordingly, policy makers must pay attention to these demographic factors in reversing the phenomenon and reawaking the spirit of compliance among individual taxpayers in Nigeria.
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Estimates of food intake from 24-hour recalls are subject to lapse of memory and this could have affected our estimation of food group intakes. However, effort was made during the 24-hour recalls to reduce memory bias, for instance by making a final check with the participants to recall eventually forgotten foods and by presenting common household utensils to them as physical aids to estimate portion sizes. The fact that some participants were lost between the dietary assessment and the collection of socioeconomic and demographic data could not affect our findings and conclusions since these participants were not different from those who remained in the study for daily intakes of energy and food groups. Moreover, we assumed that the adolescents’ socioeconomic status did not change since parental education and occupation, as well as housing conditions and the household assets that we used, are all durable and would not have changed between the food intake survey and the demographic and socioeconomic assessment. The categorisation of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics is somewhat subjective but we used standard variables used by the Beninese National Institute of Statistics during nationwide population census and demographic and health surveys.
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Given the observed score differences among some ethnicity groups, an important concept to address is that of test bias. On the surface, cultural differences in IQ test scores could easily be taken out of context and interpreted as evidence of bias within the test. However, this is not the case. In the early stages of item development for the WISC-V, there is a systematic review of all test items for potential bias by cultural experts. After final items are established, they are reviewed for differential performance across ethnic groups. This analysis of differential item functioning allows one to identify items where subjects from different demographic groups score differently despite the same overall ability levels for a construct. Further, construct bias is examined using factor analyses and measurement invariance techniques. If it is shown that subtests are correlated in similar ways across groups, it supports the hypothesis that the same construct is being measured. Finally, while examining mean differences across groups is a simple and direct technique, an alternative approach is to examine how intelligence scores relate to a specific variable across ethnicity groups. Given the established relationship between IQ scores and
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Inclusive education is an approach and philosophy that provides all students greater opportunities for academic and social achievement. The study explored the attitudes of teachers towards inclusive education in relation to their demographic variables. A total of 300 higher/senior secondary teachers were asked to fill a two part questionnaire. Part one gathered information relating to demographic characteristics of teachers. Part two was 20-item 6-point Likert scale titled “Scale of Teachers’ Attitudes towards Inclusive Classroom. Major findings of the study revealed that younger teachers were found to have more positive attitudes towards inclusion than the older teachers. More qualified teachers were found to have more favourable
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Abstract: The medical community has recognized the importance of leadership skills among its members. While numerous leadership assessment tools exist at present, few are specifically tailored to the unique health care environment. The study team designed a 24-item survey (Healthcare Evaluation & Assessment of Leadership [HEAL]) to measure leadership competency based on the core competencies and core principles of the Duke Healthcare Leadership Model. A novel digital platform was created for use on handheld devices to facilitate its distribution and completion. This pilot phase involved 126 health care professionals self-assessing their leadership abilities. The study aimed to determine both the content validity of the survey and the feasibility of its implementation and use. The digital platform for survey implementation was easy to complete, and there were no technical problems with survey use or data collection. With regard to reliability, initial survey results revealed that each core leadership tenet met or exceeded the reliability cutoff of 0.7. In self-assessment of leadership, women scored themselves higher than men in questions related to patient centeredness (P=0.016). When stratified by age, younger providers rated themselves lower with regard to emotional intelligence and integrity. There were no differences in self-assessment when stratified by medical specialty. While only a pilot study, initial data suggest that HEAL is a reliable and easy-to-administer survey for health care leadership assessment. Differences in responses by sex and age with respect to patient centeredness, integrity, and emotional intelligence raise questions about how providers view themselves amid complex medical teams. As the survey is refined and further administered, HEAL will be used not only as a self-assessment tool but also in “360” evaluation formats. Keywords: emotional intelligence, patient centeredness, sex, specialty, age, leadership assessment
A study conducted in Pakistan disclosed that some behavioral biases of individuals have an impact on their financial satisfaction. This study exposed behavioral biases like overconfidence and categorization tendency has a significant positive impact on an investor’s financial satisfaction levels. Others behavioral biases like Reliance on experts, Self‐control bias, budgeting tendency, the Adaptive tendency has no significant impact on investor’s levels of financial satisfaction (Sadiq et al.2017). The present study attempts to understand the money aspect of life satisfaction for the Pakistani individuals by finding the answer to the question that “Do demographic characteristics have an effect on financial satisfaction”? This increasing financial satisfaction level can cause intention for investment in individuals.
The results of the study largely support the importance of considering personal, psychological and discipline factors in interprofessional education. The first hypothesis that there may be demographic differences between nursing and paramedicine students enrolled at Victoria University was supported. The data indicated that nursing students were more likely to be female, slightly younger and mark- edly more likely to speak a language other than English at home. In contrast, paramedicine students were more likely to have progressed further in other studies and to have volunteered or worked in health before. This result indicates a unique profile pattern may differentiate stu- dents beginning different health science courses such as nursing and paramedicine. The high rates of female enrol- ments in the nursing course at Victoria University is in line with worldwide findings that nursing is significantly more appealing to female than male students [30, 31]. This contrasts markedly with the relatively comparable gender ratios observed in the paramedicine group. The significant number of nursing students who speak a lan- guage other than English at home highlighted a potential educational need in the interprofessional curriculum as learning styles vary considerably between cultures  and English as a second language students can struggle
The two master data-sheets that were generated from the UoL central database were examined independently because they differ in important ways. To begin with, assessments, grading criteria and selection processes differ between three-year degree programmes and the five-year medical programme (see section 3.6.2 for more information). For example, three-year degrees are classified and medical degrees are not. Conversely, grading and degree classification for the three-year programmes are largely consistent between faculties making it possible to include students on these programmes and explore associations within one dataset. Moreover, previous research indicates that the socio-economic/demographic profiles of students on highly competitive subjects such as medicine, differs to other programmes, as this typically attracts a considerably lower proportion of students from less affluent socio-economic groups compared to other programmes (Gallagher et al., 2009; McManus, Woolf, et al., 2013; Singleton, 2010a). Thus, it was considered important to examine inequalities in participation and attainment between students on three-year programmes and the five- year medical programme independently to identify potential differences between these. Maintaining this level of disaggregation is also important to refine the targeting of students with academic potential who are currently underrepresented within different programmes (Singleton, 2010a). Further, the benefits of using contextual data alongside school grades as a means of identifying students' true academic potential could be greatest for highly selective programmes such as medicine where a large proportion of applicants have the highest entry grades making it particularly difficult to discriminate between them (e.g. Tiffin et al., 2012).
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The UK has long-standing ethnic variations in health outcomes and in the prevalence of some diseases (Bhopal 2014), and ethnic classifications have been embedded in some health intervention guidelines (eg, NICE 2011). It has been argued that the inclusion in medical research of people from Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) groups is necessary to avoid unwarranted inequalities and can help guard against an un- representative healthcare evidence-base (Mason et al. 2003). There is, nevertheless, evidence to suggest that people from BAME groups are under-represented in various UK medical research contexts (Mason et al. 2003; Jolly et al. 2005; Ranganathan and Bhopal 2006; Godden et al. 2010). These existing studies, however, do not provide insights into participation in medical research among the general population and give relatively little attention to factors that cut across ethnic groups like socio-economic status, education or engagement with science, or to the role these may have in explaining or mediating any purported ethnic differences in participation. A greater understanding of the general extent of the problem of under-representation and an exploration of potential contributory factors is thus warranted.
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The purpose of this study was to conduct an organisational culture audit to determine individual differences of employees within the South African army. A quantitative study was conducted with a random sample size n=238. The participants completed the biographical questionnaire and the Organisational Culture Inventory (OCI) which was used to measure organisational culture. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to identify the existing culture type in this organisation and the statistically significant individual differences of the employees regarding their perception of the organisational culture. The findings of this study are valuable for organisational development practitioners and managers who are responsible to manage diversity in their organisation because it enables organisations to understand the culture of their diverse workforce and to propose relevant measures for improving employee performance using individual differences. These findings also provide opportunity for future research. This study also adds knowledge regarding organisational culture diagnosis and the nature of individual differences, especially within the South African work context.
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In Japan in 1995, the population aged 65 years and over represented 14 per cent of the population. Given the current trend in the rate of aging after the age of 65 years it will rise to as much as 27.4 per cent in 2025 and 32 per cent in 2050 (Makino, 2009). On the other hand, fertility is falling. As stated by Makino (2009), the Japa- nese society is changing—the old population is growing faster than in any other country. Convergence curves of movement of population and number of households in Japan show that Japan’s average household size is de- creasing (RREEF, 2009). As stated by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT, 2009) in the annual report of Land White Paper 2009, the population shows a negative trend and as a result after 2015, a number of household members are expected to fall. This means a long-term decline in demand for building land. The report (MLIT, 2009) also states that changes in the household, such as reduction of floor area, increasing number of old people, and the need for high technology (internet, communication) lead to greater demand for housing in cities. Pšunder (2009) notes that besides the increasing number of elderly people we must also con- sider the fall in the number of children as well as the fall in the working population. In his study he concludes on the assumption that GDP growth and demographic changes in key factors influence the price of real estate in which we lived, fewer people will need for your home less real estate and that are potentially able to allocate more money for them. A positive correlation between the annual gross domestic product per capita and the av- erage number of property transactions is also confirmed by the real estate market research activities in Slovenia in the period 2000-2006 conducted by the (Drobne et al., 2009). In his research Bradeško (2003) confirmed key findings, trends and relationships from a study of the European Central Bank, highlighting the correlation of growth in real estate prices and real GDP growth and household income. Pšunder (2009) notes that the change in the movement GDP does not affect directly and a priori in property prices, but that the rise of GDP is one of the key influential factors influencing real estate prices.
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Key strategies have been proven to reduce adolescent sexual risk taking and teen pregnancies. 19, 20 Studies indicate that evidence-based sex education programs can reduce sexual risk taking behaviors among teens. 19 Moreover, access to contraception has been shown to be a key strategy in the reduction of teen births in the United States. 20 Policies supporting widespread access to effective sex education programs and contraception are key to preventing teen births; however, US states have various policies regarding these issues. Differences in state policies and approaches regarding adolescent reproductive health may help explain differences in teen birth rates among California and Texas.
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Modifiable lifestyle behaviors, e.g., eating, smoking, and physical activity (PA), have been consistently found to be associated with cardiovascular diseases [9, 13, 14]. Adopting healthy lifestyle behaviors can be a strategy to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, the association between lifestyle behaviors and cardiovascular diseases remained unknown among the construction workers in Hong Kong; no previous studies have examined such an association. This information could provide insight into future strategies to prevent non- communicable diseases (i.e., cardiovascular diseases), reduce premature retirement and maximize the productivity of the existing workforce. Therefore, the objectives of this paper were 1) to describe the cardiovascular health of the construction workers in Hong Kong, 2) to examine the demographic differences in cardiovascular health, and 3) to examine the association between modifiable lifestyle behaviors and cardiovascular conditions.
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Among patients with DM/PM in this study, very few had used RCI, an FDA-approved therapy, while the use of the off-label therapies of IVIg or rituximab was more common. After controlling for differences in baseline demographic and clinical characteristics between the alternative treatment cohorts, the RCI cohort was associated with significantly lower PPPM MRU in some settings than the IVIg, rituximab, and IVIg + R cohorts, which may suggest improved disease control. Associated total visit costs were also observed to be significantly lower for the RCI cohort than the IVIg and/ or rituximab cohorts (23%–75% lower). Cost differences were particularly notable in the inpatient setting, due to RCI use being associated with reductions in both the number of hospitalizations and LOS.
The present study determined the socio-demographic and ethnic differences among acute coronary syndrome patients with and those without diabetes mellitus. Among the 175 patients diagnosed at GMCHRC during the period 2010 to 2013,less than half were found to have diabetes mellitus. We observed that among the total number of patients diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome there were almost eight times more males than females. This finding is similar to the results of studies conducted in Newcastle, New South Wales and Australia (Chun et al., 1997) and in the UK (Mulnier et al., 2008). It is reported that estrogensare linked to increased levels of bad cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol) and low levels of good cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol) in men (Tomaszewsk 2013). Considering the risk of Diabetes mellitus in ACS, our findings [75 (42.8%) Diabetic patients and 100(58.2%) non-diabetic patients] are comparable to those reported in a study from University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka (Marasinghe and Indrakumar). In the current study the majority of the diabetics were males, which is in line with the results of a study conducted in Iran that showed that almost three fourths
Many studies have examined the significance of the relation between fertility and socio-economic conditions. Indicators which can be used to determine socio-economic conditions are, for example : urban-rural residence, income, education, working status of women, and religion. This relationship, such as found by Kiser (1971) in the early phase of demographic transition, was positive between fertility and economic status. But in the later stages of the transition, Jones (1977:6) explained that the decline in fertility in Europe was associated with economic development and rising income and a negative relation was found. Nowadays, in developed countries in particular, the relation tends to be negative. It means that people who have higher standards of living have lower fertility compared with those who live in poorer conditions.
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