The percent of pixels without true disparity candidate, PPW TDC , can determine the lower bound of final error of densedisparitymap estimation in IRDC space; however, considering experimental results reveals that the share of IRDC space of total error is really negligible and is in average 10 percent, meaning quite acceptable fulfillment of the second objective in IRDC space. On the other hand, applying weighted window in IRDC space, due to choosing the validated candidates which fulfill more constraints and eliminating the noisy ones, leads to more precise results. Comparing the results of the Table 2 in different regions of image confirms this reality and also comparing the results of the first and the third rows of Table 3 reveals that in IRDC space the overall error of densedisparitymap estimation error is reduced by the average percent of 25 on different images. The comparison of the first row of Table 3 with its second row shows that applying weighted window in RDC space in some cases; e.g. Tsukuba image, increase the error and so error reduction in IRDC space revels that correction phase of ValCor process has a considerable effect on the compensation of PPW TDC .
The correspondence problem (stereo matching), has had a more or less continuous evolution with its ups and downs. From the beginning, the difficulty of the matching problem was recognized and a set of constraints and rules were proposed to limit the number of possible matchings . Since good quality matching’s occur only sparsely along a stereo pair many algorithms have concentrated on producing a sparse disparitymap, . Also, many algorithms have been devised to produce a densedisparitymap. A review of the vast literature that has been published on stereo matching will not be attempted in this document but readers may refer to , and . Here we provide a brief review of the state of the art in stereo vision. An exhaustive survey of the literature is beyond the scope of this document. Some books cover the basics of the subject: , , , , , .
We have focused on the horizontal objects in the scenes. The cable (Fig. 4a), the beam (Fig. 4b) and the table (Fig. 4c) are detected in the sparse disparitymap, example is shown in Fig 7. It is possible to detect, for instance, the cable in the densedisparitymap (Fig. 6b), but the amount of outliers is high due to the small correlation window. The column (Fig 6c) and row (Fig 6d) filter have advantage in reducing the amount of outliers, but will also reject the hanging cable since the cable occupies several rows and columns. This is also shown in Fig. 8 where the beam is detected in both images, but the number of outliers is strongly reduced with the row filter. However, the row filter also rejects inliers as the hanging smoke exhaust system (Fig. 8).
Abstract—Stereo matching techniques are used to extract 3D information from 2D stereo pair of images. It can be classified into feature based approach, window (area) based approach, and optimization based approach. Feature based approach generally generates sparse disparitymap with high accuracy and low execution time. Window based approach produces densedisparitymap with low accuracy and low execution time. Optimization based approach generates densedisparitymap with high accuracy and high execution time. Since the ultimate goal of stereo matching is to obtain densedisparitymap with high accuracy and low execution time, we choose to select optimization based approach and implement it in parallel framework to overcome execution speed deficiency. There are several optimization methods including dynamic programming, energy minimization, and graph algorithms. We choose to use dynamic programming based on disparity space image (DSI) since it is most appropriate for parallel framework. In this paper, we propose a new parallel algorithm and framework for DSI construction, dynamic programming (DP), and disparity computation using Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA). We tested the method on several stereo pairs and found that the method shows remarkable speedup while preserving the quality at a reasonable level.
In this paper, we propose to use a feature matching cost which is defined using the learned hierarchical features of stereo image pair. In order to learn these hierarchi- cal features, we propose to use a deep deconvolutional network , an unsupervised feature learning method. The deep deconvolutional network is trained over a large set of stereo images in an unsupervised way, which in turn results in a diverse set of filters. These learned fil- ters capture image information at a different levels in the form of low-level edges, mid-level edge junctions, and high-level object parts. Features at each layer of decon- volutional network are learned in a hierarchy using the features in the previous layer. The deep deconvolutional network is quite different to the deep convolutional neu- ral networks (CNN). Deep CNN is a bottom-up approach where an input image is subjected to multiple layers of convolutions, nonlinearities, and subsampling whereas deep deconvolutional network is a top-down appraoch where an input image is generated by a sum over convolu- tions of the feature maps with learned filters. Unlike deep CNN , the deep deconvolutional network does not spatially pool features at successive layers and hence pre- serves the mid-level cues emerging from the data such as edge intersections, parallelism, and symmetry. They scale well to complete images and hence learn the features for the entire input image instead of small size patches. It makes them to consider global contextual constraint while learning. In order to estimate the densedisparitymap, we combine our learning-based multilayer feature match- ing cost with the pixel-based intensity matching cost and hence our data term has the sum of these costs.
somal evolution in potato and tomato. Genetics 120: 1095–1103. Rouppe van der Voort, J. N. A. M., H. J. van Eck, J. Draaistra, Buntjer, J., H. van Os and H. J. van Eck, 2000 ComBin: software for P. M. van Zandvoort, E. Jacobsen et al., 1997c An online ultra-dense mapping. International Conference on Plant Animal catalogue of AFLP markers covering the potato genome. Mol. Genome Research, PAG VIII, January 9–12, 2000, San Diego Breed. 4: 73–77.
has been done on spatial positioning of the human globin genes, in addition to their linear organization (Brown et al. 2001; Tolhuis et al. 2002; Brown et al. 2006; Ragoczy et al. 2006; Zhou et al. 2006). More recently, it was demonstrated that active globin genes become clustered and localize to nuclear speckles (Brown et al. 2008), similar to how active tRNA genes cluster and localize at nucleoli in yeast. Studies on the oncogenes, bcr, abl, and c-myc show that they change positions relative to each other in response to cell cycle or developmental cues (Neves et al. 1999; Bartova et al. 2000), suggesting that spatial positioning of developmentally important genes aids in the differentiation processes of the cell. Activity-dependent repositioning has been shown with other human genes (Lanctot et al. 2007; Meaburn and Misteli 2008), and ligand binding to nuclear receptors can activate specific interactions between genes, which appear to be important for ligand-induced transcriptional regulation (Hu et al. 2008). Repositioning of one gene can also bring along with it adjacent, functionally unrelated genes (Zink et al. 2004), similar to how individual yeast tRNA genes might become positioned away from the nucleolus in response to more dominant localization signals from adjacent loci. Functionally distinct alleles of the same gene can, at least in one example, occupy different positions within the nucleus (Takizawa et al. 2008). Recently it has been shown possible to construct a map of the three-dimensional organization of the human interphase genome in relation to the transcriptome, thus tying together global genomic structure and function (Goetze et al. 2007). Indeed, there is an emerging body of work suggesting that functional interactions across chromosomes can drive gene localization (Rajapakse et al. 2009).
importance as a producer of silk and, in recent years, silkworm mainly based on RAPDs using double primer recombinant proteins (Maeda 1989). Moreover, it be- pairs (Kurata et al. 1994). The map contains around longs to the insect order Lepidoptera, which includes 1018 genetic markers and covers z2000 cM including many serious agricultural pests. Therefore, advances in all 27 autosomes and the Z chromosome. I also map a silkworm genomics will have a great impact not only on number of known genes and mutant loci and show the basic and applied research in the silkworm but also relationship between some of the newly established and on comparative biology and applications such as pest conventional linkage groups.
vector using a biLSTM (Graves and Schmidhu- ber, 2005). The Decoder is an LSTM generating a sequence of actions that the execution-system can perform, according to weights defined by an At- tention layer. The Entity Abstraction component deals with out-of-vocabulary words (OOV). We adopt a similar approach to Iyer et al. (2017); Suhr et al. (2018), replacing phrases in the sentences which refer to previously unseen entities with vari- ables, prior to delivering the sentence to the En- coder. E.g., “Walk from Macy’s to 7th street” turns into “Walk from X1 to Y1”. Variables are typed (streets, restaurants, etc.) and are numbered based on their order of occurrence in the sentence. The numbering resets after every utterance, so the model remains with a handful of typed entity- variables. The World-State Processor maps vari- ables to the entities on the map which are men- tioned in the sentence. The world-state represen- tation consists of two vectors, one representing the entities at the current position, and one represent- ing the entities in the path ahead. The Attention layer considers the sequence of encoded words as well as current world-state, and provides weights on the words for each of the decoder steps. In both training and testing, the Execution-System exe- cutes each action separately to produce the next position. 4
This work presents a hybrid-local global segment-based disparitymap estimation technique (BFGc). According to the Middleburry benchmark, the proposed method provides very low percentage of bad pixels in the estimated disparitymap especially in the conventionally difficult areas such as textureless regions, disparity discontinuous boundaries and occluded portions. Also, the best results are obtained with textureless regions with a disparitymap very similar to the ground truth as indicated from the Venus scene achieving a 3 rd rank among more than 160 submission. This effectiveness is achieved in two domains, in pixel domain at which the proposed gradient masks increase the ability of the matching measure and BF cost volume filtering in extracting more reliable disparity estimates. Secondly, the introduced plane extraction technique in segment domain helps the new energy formulation of the stereo problem for getting more reliable final disparity maps.
To create an illusion of depth we need to generate the depth map of the corresponding image. Depth map gives information about per pixel depth of different objects placed in the image.The most important and difficult problem in converting 2D to 3D is how to produce or estimate the depth map using a single view of an image. Traditionally the depth map can be calculated by using the Stereo camera, Laser triangulation, etc techniques. For 3D movies, depth map calculation process is the human intervention process which completely relying on “depth artists”.
Figure 2.—Linkage map of cDNA, STAR, and micro- satellite loci in Aedes aegypti. The numbers to the right of some loci indicate the chro- mosome location of the ho- mologous locus in D. mela- nogaster followed by its physical location along the chromosome in megabase pairs. NS indicates that BLAST searches failed to re- cover similar sequences (⬍e ⫺ 15 ) in the Drosophila
Based on the natural phenomena, haze can be categorized as bad weather. The photo that taken during haze might result to the degrade of image scene. In the field of image processing, this research will cover some concepts and algorithms in order to overcome the hazy image problems. The fact is that the properties of haze can disrupt the scene of image. This paper was intended to present the enhanced techniques of dark channel prior and transmission map estimation in order to remove dense haze that scattered on a single image. It includes the operations of mathematics that can manipulate the results. The experiments have been conducted by comparing the qualitative analysis, together with the values of PSNR (Peak signal-to-noise ratio) and MSE (mean squared error). The values gained indicate the quality of output haze-free image. Based on this experiment, the results have been proven that the proposed algorithms was effective to perform the dehaze process.
Using surfaces much larger (10 x 10 deg) than the dot-arrays employed by Mitchison and Westheimer (1984), Cagenello and Rogers (1993) report thresholds for detecting the direction of slant from the fronto-parallel (ground plane vs. sky plane) to be as low as 1 deg at a viewing distance of 57 cm. Although this is impressive sensitivity to surface slant, Rogers and Cagenello (1989) report greater sensitivity to surface curvature. The detection thresholds for curvature in parabolic surfaces, measured by requiring observers to discriminate convex from concave, was found to be such that the difference in slant between the extremes of the parabola was smaller than the slant detection threshold over the same spatial extent. They also reported that discrimination of disparity curvature gives a Weber fraction of just 4 - 6 %^^ across a range of reference curvatures. Johnston (1991) measured disparity curvature Weber fractions of approximately 7 % for 84% frequency-of-seeing, requiring observers to discriminate the curvature of elliptical cylinders; surfaces which unlike those employed by Rogers and Cagenello (1989) also have a non-zero third spatial derivative. All of these studies varied disparity only in one direction. That is, they provide estimates of curvature and slant sensitivity which take no account of the second free parameter which is necessary to represent the orientation of a planar surface, namely tilt (Marr, 1982). The present author is unaware of any study which has assessed tilt judgements for stereo.scopic surfaces. Furthermore, the curvature studies only examined sensitivity to surfaces curving in a single direction. Recently, De Vries, Kappers and Koenderink (1994) have measured observers' ability to discriminate the shape index of surfaces curving in more than one direction. They observed results consistent with the notion that the visual system extracts curvature with a sensitivity similar to that found by Rogers and Cagenello (1989) and Johnston (1991), then combines curvature estimates into a representation of shape index.
The article reflects the intensity of disparity in utility infrastructure development in Bangladesh. The disparity in utility infrastructure development remains in an alarming zone inspite of having considerable concern of government and development related authorities. Using the Gini Index and Lorenz Curve techniques, the paper examines the inter-district disparity in developing the selected four utility infrastructures. The paper also finds the intensity of disparity in sense of the quantity of the exist infrastructure services where the Gini Index shows it mathematically and the Lorenz Curves show it graphically. The paper concludes with the Gini Index and its implications in regional planning as well as the policy recommendations that might provide policy makers with the possible ways of finding the opportunities to alleviate regional disparity.
- Industrial development : The production of the area gives the implication for economic disparity. The production has the high relationship with the highest investment in any sector. Government must distribute the investment base on the potential sector in each region. The high investment can be used as capital to build the industry in large, medium, or small size industry (Micro Industry). As a result, unemployment will decrease and many people have an enough income and can decrease the economic disparity. There are several areas that can become the leading industry such as Tegalsari, Tenggilis Mejoyo, Gubeng, Genteng, Bubutan, Kenjeran, Simokerto, Duduksampeyan, Wringinanom, Manyar, Jabon, Sidayu, Ujungpangkah and Panceng sub-districts.
Strains, crosses, and growth conditions. The MV genome sequence was pro- duced from N. crassa Mauriceville-1-c (FGSC2225; NMF37) (2). Strains were grown under standard conditions (10) in Vogel’s minimal medium (VMM) with 1.5% sucrose at 32°C, except for ts ndc-1 strains, which were grown at 22°C, and inl strains, which were supplemented with 50 mg/liter of myo-inositol. The map- ping cross was inoculated with N. crassa MV as the recipient strain on synthetic crossing medium supplemented with 0.5% sucrose and 50 mg/liter myo-inositol. Conidia from the ndc-1 mutant (FGSC3441; NMF164) (38) were added 3 days later and spread across the recipient culture. After 2 weeks, random ascospores were recovered from the cross and heat shocked at 65°C for 60 min (standard heat shock) or 60°C for 30 min (gentle heat shock) on VMM with 50 mg/liter myo-inositol (VMMI) and FGS (0.5 g/liter fructose, 0.5 g/liter glucose, and 20 g/liter sorbose) as the carbon source. After overnight growth at room tempera- ture, 200 viable progeny that were treated according to each of the heat shock protocols were collected and incubated in slants with VMMI with 1.5% sucrose. The progeny were tested for inl by spotting conidia on VMM or VMMI with FGS, and they were tested for the ts ndc-1 allele by spotting conidia on VMMI with FGS followed by growth at 22°C or 37°C. Complementation of the ndc-1 mutant was done on VMMI with 1.5% sucrose, and strains were grown at 22°C or 37°C with or without 1 mM spermidine trihydrochloride.
surroundings. This should generate humility regarding teachers' work challenges. There is a fairly high standard deviation to the various items used to measure teacher efficacy (see Table 1). This reveals a considerable disparity in how teachers view this question. As mentioned earlier, the selection is taken from schools with a score of roughly the national average in terms of school added value indicator and that admit pupils with average grades from secondary school. Since we have found that the challenges of leading pupil groups in classrooms in which each pupil has a computer with full internet access are fairly different in schools whose pupils have high entry grades, we would not like to claim that measurements which show how teachers at such schools perceive mastery of teaching are representative of Norwegian sixth-form colleges in general. More research is needed here based on a selection of schools at which pupils have a generally high motivation for schooling and schools in which pupils have a low educational motivation in technology-rich learning environments. Our measurements strictly speaking are only valid for the three schools included in the selection, but we believe that our estimates provide an indication of how teachers perceive self-efficacy and similar at sixth-form colleges that are located in the mid-stream of pupil performance. The three schools had no previous history of ICT-supported teaching before the system of one PC per pupil was introduced beyond the fact that this system was a consequence of national and local management signals.
This paper examines the career aspirations of female and male central office administrators and their reasons for or against pursuing a superintendency, in the Texas, K-12 public school arena. Information unique to seeking and attaining superintendencies by these central office administrators will be presented, to assist with illuminating gender specific commonalities and differences, between all of the superintendent aspirants, involved in the study. This study provides insight, as to why gender disparity persists in the office of the superintendency, despite the availability of similarly, talented female and male central office administrators who aspire to gain the position of superintendent.