The bulk traps with a single energy level and uniformly distributed in GaN buffer that leads to a single Gp/ω peak were detected by f-dependent conductance measurements in the deep depletionregion. On the other hand, the interface traps with wide energies were measured in the subthreshold region, which corresponds to the multiple Gp/ω peaks observed in the f-dependent conductance measurements. Due to the different f-dependent conductance response originating from the different energy and spatial distributions, the demon- strated approach is much easier to be used to investigate the physics of the bulk traps in GaN buffer.
phenomenon can be attributed to the formation of the depletionregion when the negative voltage was added. The depletionregion decreases the electric field intensity on the dielectric layer, which resulted in a much lower leakage current density. The leakage current density of the capacitors without annealing was improved from 1 × 10 − 8 to 3 × 10 − 9 A/cm 2 at 1 V when O 3 was used as the
creased with temperature above 100 K with the activation energy about 100 meV. A possible elec- tronic conduction model based on kernel, grain boundary and surface trap to clarify the tempera- ture dependent resistivity suggesting resistivity of the layer was limited by depletionregion in the grain-boundary extended from the surface and the kernel with significantly low resistivity in 10 −3
The BPW41N generated more current than the 2N3055 transistor because BPW41N is a PIN photodiode which has a wide depletionregion called the intrinsic region width that enhances the generation of more photocurrent and BPW41N is designed in such a way that it has a high speed of response , hence it has prompt photocurrent generation.
depletionregion capacitance. Subsequently, the carrier injection was less blocked and the current becomes bar- rier-unlimited, therefore the device was effectively in a good conductance state. With high forward bias at low frequency and collapse of depletionregion, the diffusion capacitance contributes to the junction capacitance . This capacitance depends on rearrangement of minority carriers injected at interface where the conduction be- comes bulk-limited and the device is in its high conductance states. As result of that, the capacitance in P3HT/ nc-TiO 2 solar cells require high forward bias to increase the capacitance rapidly to reach a peak and overcome
of surface Fermi level pinning at approximately 1.15 eV below the conduction band which implies a band bend- ing potential, F ≈ 1.15 V [30,31]. Once UV light is turned on, oxygen molecules are desorbed, as photoex- cited holes become available, thereby reducing the sur- face potential F and the corresponding depletion width until a steady state is reached. Photoconductivity reflects the formation of a non-depleted core at the center of the wire, where the electron density is given by the doping level n. The changes of surface potential and the corresponding depletion width are determined by the interplay between oxygen adsorption and the net desorption rate which is a function of UV light inten- sity . However, because of the relatively high oxy- gen partial pressure in air, total elimination of the depletionregion and of the corresponding band bend- ing would require extremely high illumination inten- sity. The maximum achievable photoconductivity should correspond to the native electron density n . This explains why the saturation value of the photocurrent increases sublinearly with illumination intensity (Figure 2) [32,33].
Varactors are used in reverse-bias mode. The key to understanding their operation is to consider the structure of a diode, comparing it to the construction of a capacitor. Consider the depletionregion to be the dielectric of a capacitor with the anode and cathode being the capacitor plates. Consequently, all junction diodes exhibit some capacitance. Normally, designers try to minimize this effect but it is exploited with varactors. As noted in our earlier discussion, increasing the reverse-bias potential on a diode causes its depletionregion to widen. All else being equal, increasing the plate separation of a capacitor decreases its capacitance. Thus, by increasing the reverse-bias potential, we increase the effective plate spacing and decrease the diode junction capacitance. We now have a capacitance the value of which is determined by a DC bias voltage. This capacitance can be used as part of electronic tuning circuits for applications such as oscillators and filters. Compared to fixed capacitors the values tend to be small, in the tens to hundreds of picofarads, but it is sufficient for much radio frequency work. The advantages over mechanically adjustable capacitors are manifold, including small size, high reliability, low cost and the ability to rapidly change the capacitance 11 .
Recall that the basic equation for the capacitance of a parallel-plate capacitor is defined by C A/d, where is the permittivity of the dielectric (insulator) between the plates of area A separated by a distance d. In the reverse-bias region there is a de- pletion region (free of carriers) that behaves essentially like an insulator between the layers of opposite charge. Since the depletion width (d) will increase with increased reverse-bias potential, the resulting transition capacitance will decrease, as shown in Fig. 1.37. The fact that the capacitance is dependent on the applied reverse-bias po- tential has application in a number of electronic systems. In fact, in Chapter 20 a diode will be introduced whose operation is wholly dependent on this phenomenon. Although the effect described above will also be present in the forward-bias re- gion, it is overshadowed by a capacitance effect directly dependent on the rate at which charge is injected into the regions just outside the depletionregion. The result is that increased levels of current will result in increased levels of diffusion capaci- tance. However, increased levels of current result in reduced levels of associated re- sistance (to be demonstrated shortly), and the resulting time constant ( RC ), which is very important in high-speed applications, does not become excessive.
In the SNA the production boundary includes: “The production of all goods or services that are supplied to units other than their producers, or intended to be so supplied, including the production of goods or services used up in the process of producing such goods or services” (SNA 2008, 98; our italics). This production relies on social reproduction (and we argue depletion). We also know that “Economic production may be defined as an activity carried out under the control and responsibility of an institutional unit that uses inputs of labour, capital, and goods and services to produce outputs of goods or services. There must be an institutional unit that assumes responsibility…A purely natural process without any human involvement or direction is not production in an economic sense” (SNA 2008, 97-98; our italics). Now, what we have been exploring is whether the non-recognition of aspects of work (social reproduction) of an institutional unit – the household 7 - also leads to non-recognition of the ‘goods and services used up’ in this process. This non-recognition then contributes to depletion by taking social reproduction and its costs for granted and leaving these unmeasured. Thus non-valuation of both work and the resources that are used up or that ‘decrease seriously’ need to be accounted for if we are to address the issue of depletion of those engaged in social
Effects of Hydrogen Peroxide on Human Health Due to stratospheric ozone layer depletion UV radiations are penetrating in earth atmosphere which result in the production of reduced oxygen. Highly reactive species like hydrogen peroxide is produced which has bad effects on human health. It is ideal photochemical maker due to its long life and stability . Hydrogen peroxide is toxicant and it pollutes drinking water especially in lakes and makes water toxic and unfit for drinking. IT alters redox chemistry of metals that are used by our body like iron copper and manganese . Effects on Human and Animal Health Increased penetration of solar UV-B radiation is likely to have profound impact on human health with potential risks of eye diseases, skin cancer and infectious diseases . UV radiation is known to damage the cornea and lens of the eye. Chronic exposure to UV-B could lead to cataract of the cortical and posterior sub capsular forms. UV-B radiation can adversely affect the immune system causing a number of infectious diseases. In light skinned human populations, it is likely to develop non melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Effects on
Second, we refine the depletion threshold estimate by calculating the quantum corrections to the average number of absorbed photons, taking into account the probabilistic nature of photon emission. In line with the current under- standing of high-intensity laser matter interactions in the quantum regime, we model photon emission as a succes- sion of incoherent one-photon events [17,25 – 27]. There will be regimes where this assumption becomes challenged, for instance when extreme field strengths are reached such that αχ 2=3 ≳ 1 . In this case, higher-order diagrams such as self-energy corrections  and coherent multiphoton emission  can no longer be neglected. A detailed investigation of higher-order effects is clearly beyond the scope of the present study, but we can at least state that αχ 2=3 ≲ 0 . 1 for our parameter range. It is thus sufficient to
Although the findings of this study apply to only a very specialized situation such as the anchoring of localized RNAs within the vegetal cortex of oocytes, it is quite likely that other RNAs play similar roles in both germ cells and somatic cells of other organisms. In the case of Xenopus oocytes, it is clear that integration of the RNAs into the cytoskeleton is of extreme importance for the proper formation and migration of the germ cells. In other systems, the role of the RNA- Fig. 11. Effect of antisense oligonucleotide injection on primordial germ cells (PGCs) in blastula. Whole-mount in situ hybridization with digoxigenin-labeled Xpat RNA probe. Embryos were acquired by host transfer and cleared to visualize their interior. In all embryos, the side view of blastulae is shown with the animal pole at the top and the vegetal pole at the bottom. In control embryo (A), the Xpat labeled islands of germ plasm (arrows) are visible in the compact group at the vegetal tip of the blastula. In antisense VegT-injected embryos (B,C), the germ plasm is visible as the large aggregates (double arrow, B and C) and also as small aggregates dispersed within the vegetal blastomeres (arrows, B). In antisense Xlsirts injected embryos (D,E), the germ plasm was either barely visible (arrow, D) or was dispersed over the larger surface of vegetal region of the blastula (arrows, E). Scale bars: 300 μ m. The experiment was repeated three times with 20 embryos in each group.
Survival to age 65 of female and male are the target of our analyses. To compare the trends of survival rate in Thailand versus China, we present the graphs in Fig. 1. In can be seen that in the long run survival rate of population in China is higher than those in the same generation who were born and lived in Thailand. Therefore, environmental factors might be the case. We thus present the graphical information of forest area, forest depletion, and energy depletion in Fig. 2.
Our recent coarse-grained (CG) molecular dy- namics (MD) simulations of membranes with a hemifused-ribbon (λ-shaped) geometry showed curvature-driven demixing leading to enrich- ment in dioleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) in a negatively-curved region (at C –0.8 nm –1 ) of a DOPE/dipalmitoyl-phosphati- dylcholine (DPPC) membrane. Here we extend the analysis with respect to lipid composition and simulation time. Simulations of 12 - 20 μs effective time show that, compared with DOPE of the DOPE/DPPC system, a DPPC/dilinoleyl- PC [di(18:2)PC] membrane showed a similar degree of enrichment of di(18:2)PC in the curved region with C –0.8 nm –1 . For the latter mixture, even weak negative curvatures (C –0.5 - 0.6 nm –1 ) caused significant degrees of di(18:2)PC enrichment. In agreement with recent studies of a planar bilayer, a ternary DPPC/ di(18:2)PC/cholesterol 0.42:0.28:0.3 mixture phase-separated into nanoscale raft-like liquid- ordered (L o ) and non-raft liquid-disordered (L d )
Hesser and colleagues repeated the depletions of both METTL3 and the YTHDF proteins in both the iSLK.219 and TREX-BCBL1 cell lines and carried out a range of assays to determine the phenotypic e ﬀ ect on KSHV lytic replication . Viral transfer assays, assessing the ability of GFP-expressing virions produced in endothelial cells to reinfect 293T cells, demonstrated that depletion of DF2 and METTL3 strikingly de- creased infectious virion production. Additionally, while signi ﬁ cant reductions in the abundance of the late viral transcript ORFK8.1 were only observed for knockdown of METTL3, depletion of DF2 reduced the levels of the immediate early, delayed early and late KSHV mRNAs ORF50, ORF37 and ORFK8.1 and also the RTA and ORF59 proteins. These observations may be the result of upstream alterations in the expression of early viral transcripts which in turn cause a reduction in the levels of mRNAs expressed later during KSHV reactivation. In agreement with Tan and colleagues, no signiﬁcant or consistent eﬀect could be observed for depletion of DF1 or DF3. Surprisingly however, when Hesser and colleagues repeated these assays in TREX-BCBL1 cells, METTL3 and DF2 depletion had no signiﬁcant eﬀect on infectious virion production nor ORF50 and ORF59 mRNA levels, but increased protein levels of RTA and ORF59 indicating that m 6 A restricts KSHV
In addition, the use of fitting parameters, combined with the relative simplicity of the model, suggest that the model is not meant to predict specific behavior with high accuracy. Instead, it is best utilized in characterizing existing data to allow one to gain fundamental insight into the operation of a particular device structure, and to determine how specific changes to this structure may change the device performance. As it currently stands, this model does not include a universal mobility model for the channel region, and so ballistic transport is assumed. Furthermore, this model, in its current iteration, is specific to single gate devices, and assumes some arbitrary degree of gate overlap to the source/drain regions (which cannot be varied). Therefore, the effect of ultrathin body double gate devices, as well as the effects of overlap/underlap capacitance on high frequency operation, cannot be studied with this model. Again, this is a relatively simple model, developed for the sole purpose of gaining fundamental insight.
In our framework, R&D effort is a hump-shaped function of competition as well, but can potentially be observed as a monotonic function because of the following logic. By contrast with R&D outcomes, R&D effort is affected not by two, but by four forces: two direct (the escape-costs effect and division effect 8 ) and two indirect (the indirect escape-costs effect and indirect depletion effect). 9 Thus, since the two aspects of innovation, as functions of competition, are affected by different sets of forces, their turning points do not have to coincide. If, in addition, the measure of competition can take values from a limited interval, and R&D effort’s turning point is outside this interval (whereas that of R&D outcomes is within it), then R&D effort and R&D outcomes will be observed as, respectively, a monotonic and a hump-shaped function, thus producing a situation of discrepancy in their behaviour.