expected that older elders might have a better adaptation to the situation of being alone due to its longer experi- ence of aging process. They are probably in the condi- tion of being alone longer than the younger ones, and had more time of identity balance which could play a great role in helping them gradually get used to the social isolation. In other words, older elders are not as much sensitive to social support as the younger ones. A similar standpoint was described in a review of depres- sion in elders which pointed that social risk such as poor social support were not as prominent in older adults as in younger ones . Thus the association between depressive symptom and social support like mealtime companionship might be only seen in the younger elders. However, understanding of the result we found here was limited since only a few literatures were retrieved digging deep the age difference in depression. Hence other explanations could not be ruled out. Further in-depth research on the age difference in depressive symptom and its association with eating arrangement is needed.
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There are several major limitations to be noted in this study. First, we are not able to distinguish the type of tea and capture the exact quantity of tea intake due to lack of data. Without such information, accuracy of our estima- tion on the tea benefit over mental health would be com- promised. Future studies are definitely needed to collect more information in this regard. Second, we acknowledge that the 5-item scale of depressive symptom is limited in comparison with the established scales of depression such as GDS or CES-D. Cautions are thus needed when inter- preting the results. Last, although we discovered that tea consumption plays a much more important role in pre- venting depressive symptoms for males and the young old than for females and the oldest old, the underlying mecha- nisms are still speculative and more research are granted along this line.
number of cardiometabolic conditions, and number of VA prescribers in 2012). For each of the three cardiometabolic conditions, we then estimated logistic regression models to compare the odds of nonadherence (ie, anything other than “never” on the extent of nonadherence scale) between respondents with high and low depressive symptom burden adjusting for the previously mentioned demographic vari- ables. Among participants reporting nonadherence in each of the three condition cohorts, we then estimated a logistic regression for each reason for nonadherence, controlling for the same covariates to understand whether the odds of endorsing a reason for nonadherence differed by depressive symptom burden. We corrected for multiple comparisons in the 63 regressions (21 reasons × 3 cohorts) using Benjamini and Hochberg’s approach to control for false discovery rate; 38,39 a post-adjusted P-value of ,0.05 was considered
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.170, p < .05). It could be concluded that older adults who had social network behaviors tended to have a less depressive symptom. This finding is relevant to the study of Cotton et al. (2014) reporting in 8,000 older adults. Most of those older adults used the internet or social media; consequently, one-third of them had a less depressive symptom when compared with those who did not use it. Moreover, a study of Chopik (2016) about the benefits of using technologies in 591 older adults whose average age was 68 years revealed that older adults who had a positive attitude with social networks had a negatively significant relationship with depressive symptoms(r = -.09, p < .05). The explanation may be that social network could reduce depressive symptom because of social encouragement as findings from previous studies supported that social networks could decrease loneliness, increase satisfaction in life, and bring mental bliss (Chopik, 2016; Heo et al., 2015). Similar to the study of Pomnu and Roonpho (2017), which found that older adults who had more social network behaviors increased their roles and the relationships in the family, leading them to have better mental health. Additionally, using social networks were not only for seeking information, but also for maintaining
We found that diagnostic codes for depressive symptoms across a metropolitan area in patients with ICH were un- common despite a high prevalence of depressive symptoms in a representative prospectively identified cohort at one of the participating institutions. When ascertained, the preva- lence of depressive symptoms was in line with a large, inter- national clinical trial of patients with spontaneous ICH , underscoring that depressive symptoms are common in the general population of patients with ICH, and suggest our findings are generalizable. Screening for depressive symp- toms may be reasonable because they are associated with worse outcomes, although it is not part of the current American Heart Association/American Stroke Association ICH treatment guidelines . Since antidepressant medi- cation may impact outcomes in patients with acute ische- mic stroke , proactive depression screening and antidepressant medication may be a rational strategy to im- prove HRQoL in patients with ICH, a morbid disease with- out any specific approved therapy [8, 17–19].
Background: The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) is widely used to assess depressive symptoms in clinical and re- search settings. This study utilized a 4 factor solution for the 30-item GDS to explore differences in the presentation of depressive symptoms in various types of cognitive impairment. Method: Retrospective chart review was conducted on 254 consecutive cases of community dwelling elderly newly diagnosed with mild Alzheimer’s Dementia (AD) n = 122, mild Vascular Dementia (VaD) n = 71 or Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) n = 32 and Non-Amnestic MCI (nMCI) n = 29. Results: Analysis revealed no significant differences (p < 0.05) between the groups for total GDS score, the Dysphoria subscale or Cognitive Impairment subscale. AD endorsed significantly fewer symptoms than VaD on Apathy, Meaninglessness and Dysphoria. AD did not endorse a significantly different number of items than aMCI on any of the subscales. AD endorsed significantly fewer items than nMCI on Apathy and Meaninglessness. VaD endorsed significantly more items than the aMCI only on the Meaninglessness subscale (p > 0.05). No statistically significant differences were found between VaD and nMCI or between the MCI groups. Conclusions: Support is provided for the use of GDS subscales in a wide range of cognitively impaired elderly. This study suggests in mild dementia the number and type of depressive symptoms vary significantly between AD and VaD. There are indications that aMCI patients are similar in their symptom endorsement to AD and nMCI are similar to VaD which is consistent with some of the notions regarding likely trajectories of the respective MCI groups.
Despite these limitations, this study suggests that subcli- nical depressive symptom severity is selectively related to regional brain activation patterns in key emotion reg- ulation and reward processing regions and to DMN con- nectivity implicated in MDD. Although the three domains addressed here (i.e., emotion regulation, resting state connectivity, and reward processing) were assessed via separate tasks, there is clear conceptual overlap between these three domains. For example, prefrontal cortical recruitment is anomalous in MDD during regu- lation of rewarding stimuli  and DMN activity in MDD is abnormal during emotion regulation . In this regard, the present findings may represent a conser- vative estimate of the effects of subclinical depressive
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In a longitudinal study of 1448 pregnant US women who were surveyed by telephone 3 times antenatally and once postnatally, depressive symptomatology dur- ing or before pregnancy was not associated with breast- feeding initiation. Having depressive symptomatology at a single point was also not a significant risk factor for discontinuing breastfeeding within the first 4 weeks after delivery. However, having persistent depressive symptom- atology at 2 time points with at least 1 point occurring before delivery did increase the odds of discontinuing breastfeeding (OR: 1.77 [95% CI: 1.10 –2.26]). 29
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Results should be interpreted with caution in light of the following limitations. We relied on cross-sectional data obtained from a treatment-seeking population com- posed primarily of CAF veterans. As such, we cannot evaluate causal relationships between sleep disturbances, nightmares, and SI; and results may not be generalizable to other military, veteran, or clinical populations. Single-item measures were used to assess SI, sleep dis- turbances, and trauma-related nightmares. The sleep disturbances item combines difficulty initiating sleep and staying asleep. It is plausible that there are unique challenges associated with difficulty falling vs. staying asleep. Similarly, there may be differences between dis- turbing dreams and nightmares that cause one to arouse from their sleep that were not captured as a result of the language used in this single item. Lastly, the item used to assess SI ideation does not clearly distinguish between suicidal thought and non-suicidal self-injury. Addition- ally, because these single-item indicators were removed from the PHQ-9 and PCL-M to control for inflation, we essentially examined a version of depressive symptom severity that did not include sleep disturbances and SI, and a version of PTSD symptom severity that did not include sleep disturbances and nightmares. Although this approach has been used in previous re- search , findings might not accurately depict the
Objective: It was aimed to investigate between the depression symptom prevalence and related factors among the high school students in a district of Mersin. Materials and Methods: The data of this cross-sectional study were collected in the high schools on 23-31 May 2016. The minimum sample size was calculated as 558 in, 50% prevalence, ±4 error margin and 95% confidence interval for 7791 students. 605 questionnaires were evaluated in the study. The students filled out the questionnaire and Childhood Depression Scale. The electromagnetic field measurements in the classes were made with a Gaussmeter. Results: The average age of the students were 16.3±0.9 years and 54.5% of those are female. It was determined that 32.6% of the students had depressive symptoms. The mean of the electromagnetic field measurement was 0.68 ± 0.06mT in the classroom. There was no significant relationship between mean electromagnetic field level and the frequency of depression symptom. According to the binary logistic regression model, the factors related to the depressive symptom prevalence of the students were as follows: being a woman (OR=1.61), having chronic illness (OR=2.31), poor school performance (OR=5.54), poor (OR=6.64) and normal family relationship (OR=2.59) and the student’s self assessment of his/her health status with low scores (OR=0.86). Conclusion: It is an important problem that one of the three students has depressive symptoms. Studies should be conducted for the identified risk groups. The further studies are needed to assess the relationship between depressive symptom prevalence at students and electromagnetic field levels.
Background: The MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) was developed for schizophrenia patients, but is also being used to assess neurocognitive function in bipolar disorder. This study aims to describe neurocognitive differences in major depressive disorder patients and healthy controls with the MCCB, and to describe the relationship between depression symptom severity, subjective cognitive complaints, and objective cognitive test performance. Methods: Thirty-three patients with major depressive disorder and 33 pairwise matched healthy controls were assessed with the MCCB. The patients were also assessed with the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ).
The outbreak of COVID-19 had a significant negative impact on daily life and on the study of mental disor- ders, especially depression, among female adolescents , due to negative life event, heavy academic pressure, and low self-esteem, resulting in high risk of depressive symptoms, such as sense of fear, uncertainty, boredom, anger, and loneliness associated with quarantine and challenges due to conflict with parents, changes in learn- ing methods, study pressure, and insufficient outdoor ac- tivities. The outbreak of COVID-19 has raised considerable challenges for mental health services among female adolescents. It is the responsibility of all stakeholders, from parents to governments, to ensure that the physical and mental impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on female adolescents is minimal . Immedi- ate action is needed.
body esteem, concern about gaining weight, and attempts to lose weight. Similarly in the current study, mothers’ or their significant others’ comments to their daughter about her weight were associated with depressive symptoms and use of extreme weight control behaviors such as taking diet pills or vomiting to lose weight. These findings remained after adjustment for girls’ BMI z-score, strength- ening the evidence that engaging in talk about adolescent girls’ weight is associated with weight-related problems in- dependent of girls’ objective weight. Further, findings from the current study highlight the potential harm of mothers’ weight talk directed toward herself and weight talk about others, behaviors that are quite normative in our society. These types of indirect weight talk were associated with girls’ reports of lower self-worth and higher depressive symptomology.
The third significant finding of this study is that a latent vector could be extracted from the four clinical subdomains, and the iron overload and immune-inflammatory biomarkers. As such, we have constructed a pathway-phenotype that combines changes in biomarkers (early phenome features) with specific symptom domains (late phenome features) into an index reflecting the phenome of depression due to TDT. The latter provides an index of overall severity of chemical stress and phenomenology and follows a reflective model with excellent construct validity indicating that all those indicators are reflective manifestations of a common underlying construct, namely the core phenome of depression. Importantly, our pathway analysis showed that a large part of the variance in this phenotype-pathway was explained by the exposure to TDT and its consequences. More specifically, the number of transfusions, hospitalizations and use of deferoxamine is part of the external exposome, which may cause adverse outcome pathways including iron overload as well as activated immune-inflammatory pathways and, consequently, adverse health outcomes, namely the four depressive subdomains which together shape the nosological entity “depression due to TDT”. Complementing the exposome with the adverse outcome pathways and adverse health outcome concepts may promote the mechanistic understanding of exposure-induced effects on pathways and behavior (Escher et al., 2017).
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Measures of primary, secondary, and other outcomes The level of depressive symptomatology is assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale- Revised (CESD-R) [59, 60]. The CESD-R is a 20-item self-report instrument which measures symptoms of depression in nine different categories: sadness (dys- phoria), loss of interest (anhedonia), appetite, sleep, thinking/concentration, guilt (worthlessness), tiredness (fatigue), movement (agitation), and suicidal ideation. Participants rate each item on a five-point Likert scale, from 0 (not at all or less than one day) to 4 (nearly every day for 2 weeks) to indicate how they felt or be- haved during the last week or so. The Total CESD-R Score is calculated as a sum of responses to all 20 ques- tions. The CESD-R exhibited good psychometric prop- erties, including high internal consistency, strong factor loadings, and theoretically consistent convergent and divergent validity with anxiety, schizotypy, and positive
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In this Internet study, we did not attempt to ascertain whether people who possessed strong symptom control beliefs actually were better able to moderate their symptoms. We suspect that the cognitive and behavioral strategies that these people invoked to control their tinnitus symptoms were effective not so much in alleviating the noise as they were in controlling its meaning or significance. Consistent with this interpretation, several participants in our study told us that they try to keep a positive attitude (focus on the positive) and use active distraction strategies, such as involving themselves in enjoyable activities, keeping busy, exercising, and masking the noise with more pleasant sounds as means of coping when their symptoms are at their worst 3 . In effect, these individuals engaged in activities that allowed them to feel a sense
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Design: A two arm parallel group multi-centre randomised controlled trial. 200 patients will be recruited through established systematic Symptom Monitoring Services, which screen patients for depression. Patients will have: a diagnosis of lung cancer; an estimated life expectancy of three months or more and a diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder. Patients will be randomised to usual care or usual care plus Depression Care for People with Lung Cancer. Randomisation will be carried out by telephoning a secure computerised central randomisation system or by using a secure web interface. The primary outcome measure is average depression severity. This will be assessed using scores on the 20-item Symptom Hopkins Checklist (SCL-20D), collected every four weeks over 32 weeks. Secondary outcomes include severity of anxiety, pain and fatigue; self-rated improvement of depression; quality of life and satisfaction with depression care.
Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is a popular psycho- therapy which was originally designed to treat depres- sion, and now commonly used to treat a wide range of mental disorders . CBT is based on Beck’s (1979) cog- nitive theory of depression and aims to correct the faulty or maladaptive cognitive thinking and lead to changes in both behavior and affect. Other strategies such as exercise program, social interaction promotion, and relaxing tech- niques are often integrated into the CBT, which could help decrease depressive symptoms . Studies have shown that CBT can effectively improve the symptoms of depres- sion and is comparable in effectiveness to antidepressants and interpersonal or psychodynamic therapy . However, its effectiveness for depression in older people is still mixed . In traditional CBT, therapists take control of the entire process, which may lead CBT to lack interaction and com- munication between participants, as well as between partic- ipants and facilitators . Elderly adults usually have difficulty in acquiring knowledge with lower level of educa- tion and slower reactions, whereas they usually like chatting together and sharing with each other, so traditional CBT may not be suitable for older depression sufferers. More- over, access to face to face CBT is relatively limited because its delivery mode requires adequate therapist time and effort per treatment .
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In contrast to the vast majority of pharmacological trials, which rigorously measure and report adverse outcomes, only half of psychotherapeutic trials report undesirable outcomes, in particular substantial symptom deterioration (Jonsson et al. 2014; Vaughan et al. 2014). Previous research has shown that some forms of psychotherapy can be hazardous for some patients e.g. prolonged imaginal exposure may result in worsening of symptoms in some patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (Foa et al. 2005). With regard to self-guided psychological treat- ment, it has been argued that it may not be appropriate for all individuals (Newman, 2000). For instance, self-guided interven- tions may not be intensive enough for individuals with severe symptoms (Mohr et al. 1990). Moreover, lack of therapeutic sup- port may jeopardise therapy outcomes as the progress of patients is not monitored (Newman et al. 2003). Most self-guided inter- ventions are not tailored to the current depressive status of the individual and, accordingly, do not respond to symptom deterior- ation (Andersson & Titov, 2014).
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We computed a symptom attitude score along the atti- tude measurement model of Fishbein & Ajzen  and the SIAM  in creating a sum score of reported symptom weighted by reported distress related to symp- toms. We used an SPSS Mediation Macro commonly used in social sciences for mediation analysis  to test our hypothesis of a mediation of the relationship of menstrual attitudes and the depressive mood score by perceived social interferences, including estimation of the indirect effect with a bootstrap approach (Figure 1). According to Baron and Kenny  a variable is a sig- nificant mediator if the paths (c) and (a) as displayed in Figure 1 are ≠ 0 and the mediator significantly predicts the dependent variable controlling for the independent variable (i.e., b ≠ 0 in Figure 1). If the relationship be- tween independent and dependent variable (c’) is no longer significant after including the mediator within the model the mediation is called complete mediation. In this case, the mediator accounts for the major part of variance in the relationship of the two other variables.