By virtue of their location within the wider network, layout and individual geometrical properties, streets have different potential to foster resilience (Lhomme et al., 2013) (fig.5). The way a street is connected to all others in the overall street network locally and globally determines its centrality, which has a direct impact on its potential to support several interrelated dynamics which are crucial for urban life, such as location of retail and other land uses, size and form of plots, footfall, etc. (Porta et al., 2012). Street networks change and grow in time and tend to exhibit recursive characters: for example centrality tends to a power law, that combines global connectivity and local clustering (boccalettiStrano et al., 2012, Barthelemy, 2011). Such network architecture is structured as to include few urban mains links outreaching to the wider metropolitan and regional context, several local mains linking districts and neighborhoods, and many human-scale, walkable and dense local streets (Porta et al., 2006). Street networks are characterized by modularity when they feature many tightly connected sub-networks, linked to each other by means of “weak” ties that distribute flows across them. According to Webb and Bodin (2008) a balance between a modularity and connectivity should exist, so that many links are able to effectively connect to each other clusters of strongly connected nodes.
Furthermore, design patterns are not learned by reading and doing small exer- cises. In small exercises, the task of discerning which problems are present and which patterns could help to solve these problems is a trivial one because of the size of the exercise. Students should train such a competence by working with a fairly large computer program. The same applies to the ability to combine patterns: this is a trivial task in small exercises, and can only be trained truly using a larger program. Another problem with designing the right exercises stems from the fact that teach- ing design patterns means teaching advanced object-oriented design. Design can only be learned by thinking about alternatives, and the advantages and disadvant- ages of these alternatives. This is a difficult task for a student studying at home: a classroom where one can discuss matters with teachers or other students is a much easier environment to train this competence.
‘Innovation’ appears to provide an ideal balance between addressing pressing social, environmental and political issues, encouraging on-going market-liberalisation (productivity, profitability, entrepreneurship) and the need for diversification within the field of design. This helps to make sense of the rapid, almost zealous, popularisation of Design Thinking (along with its social innovation derivatives) within design and higher education globally. Alongside the RSA SDA briefs, examples include the launch of Parson’s DESIS (Design for Social Innovation and Sustainability) Lab in 2009, to “explore the relationship between design and social change” and “to advance the practice and discourse of design-led social innovation” (The New School [Sa]). The DESIS network now includes ‘labs’ at the University of Botswana (Botswana), the University of Johannesburg (South Africa), Auckland University (New Zealand), the University of Lapland (Finland), Universidad del Norte (Colombia), and Tokyo Zokei University (Japan), to name but a few (DESIS Network 2018:[sp]). In 2011 global design and advertising student and industry competition, D&AD, launched its White Pencil Award to encourage “harnessing the power of creativity to make a real difference in the world around us” (O’Kennedy 2011:[sp]). In 2015, the Hasso Plattner Institute of Design Thinking launched a new ‘d-school’ at the University of Cape Town. The launch of the school in South Africa is intended to act as a “locus of the d-school’s work” on the African continent where “the context is complex and evolving, [and where] inequity and social, economic, political and cultural diversity collide with opportunity” resulting in a call for “ongoing innovation in the form of new solutions and outcomes, as well as new applications for existing solutions” (d-school 2017:[sp]). Also in 2015, Paris College of Art (PCA) launched its Master of Arts in Design for Social Impact, seeking to “equip citizen designers with the practical know-how (design thinking methods, leadership and entrepreneurial skills) to successfully lead design projects that will bring positive societal changes” (PCA 2018:[sp]). In 2016 Ravensbourne University launched their MDes Social Innovation which uses the “lens of design thinking” to “develop solutions that address pressing social and environmental demands … often in the fields of health, social cohesion, demographic shifts, climate change and economic development” (Ravensbourne 2017:[sp]). And in 2018 Edinburgh College of Art will launch their MA Degree in Design For Change, which seeks to “address complex, global challenges such as disruptive technologies, ageing populations, economic instability, conflict and displacement and environmental degradation through design- led interventions” (Edinburgh College of Art 2017:[sp]).
In 2016, the University of Michigan Library (U-M Library) began the process of transforming physical and virtual spaces to serve the emerging needs of our research community and taking care to ensure that, whatever form our buildings and web presence take, it will follow the function and intent of our services. The U-M Library is a large, complex library with nearly 500 staff and librarians, millions of collections, and hundreds of unique services. Although the library has a decentralized organizational structure, the benefits of such a structure include the ability for departments to be nimble, responsive, and find creative solutions that are more personalized and that take advantage of unique expertise. However, when each division, department, and unit can act independently, it can be a real challenge to move forward large, important, library-wide initiatives. Implementing large-scale change that directly impacts the culture and physical space, as well as conducting meaningful assessment, becomes a complicated endeavor.
The methodology involves firstly a literature review about climate change risks and resilience building design (see Chapters 3, 4, 5 and 6). Based on the literature review and prior studies a theoretical model for resilience design is developed (see Chapter 6); how the CCRs and SFs are interconnected is explained an mapped in Chapter 7. Also based on the literature review and earlier experience in architectural design, an inclusive series of indicators were identified and used to formulate as a questionnaire (see Chapter 2). This questionnaire was sent to a broad sample of architects to obtain their opinion on resilience design strategies. Potential respondents were requested to assess the indicators using a ranking scale from 1 to 5. Completed questionnaires were collected and the data on them entered into computer. To analyse and process the data, SPSS and Excel software were employed (see Chapter 9). Indicators were subsequently extracted for further analysis and used as resilience design strategies for assessing building design (see Chapter 10). The extracted strategies were used to develop a resilience design assessment tool (see Chapter 12). This tool has the capability to distinguish between buildings that have resilience characteristics and those that are deficient in this respect, and to identify where weaknesses in the design exist and what indicators need to be improved.
Many institutions and official departments in Iraq such as Baghdad Municipality and Service Ministries will benefit from studies of land use changes during time periods. The objective of this paper is to detect the land use changes especially during the last fifteen years from 2002 to the end of 2016 and their impact on the environment in relation to the basic design in Baghdad. The green areas in Baghdad city are limited and they are gradual diminishing due to replacement of their uses to residential, commercial, and industrial without official approvals. The majority of these replacements do not include services such as building schools, hospitals, health centers, and services of water, electricity and roads. This mutation affects on the environment and changes the basic design of Baghdad maps. The reduction of land abuse and the change of service map in Baghdad are essential through finding solutions to these events.
Both these bad smells indicate design defects. More number of bad smells in the design indicates high complexity. As the software is enhanced, modified, and adapted to new requirements the code becomes more complex and drifts away from its original design, there by lowering the quality of software. To cope with this increased complexity, there is a need for techniques that reduce software complexity by incrementally improving the internal software quality. The research domain that addresses this problem in case of object oriented software development is referred to as refactoring . If the design defects are not corrected using either refactoring or proper redesign they are bound to increase maintenance cost because of high complexity, faulty behavior and low maintainability.
In terms of participants and/or collaborators in the articles reviewed, the vast majority of the 236 articles (n=203; 86%) described participants, that is, those who the research was about or from whom data was collected. The most common descriptors for participants were ‘youth’, ‘students’ and ‘community members’. The descriptors varied widely, including Aboriginal children and young people, engineering students, South African grandmothers, families, junior high students, residents living in public housing, members of multi-ethnic communities, Mongolian teachers, college students with incarceration histories, First Nations peoples and violence prevention practitioners. Thirty-two of the 236 articles (n=32; 14%) named partners/ collaborators for their projects. In contrast to participants, partners/collaborators were individuals or groups who participated in the design or implementation of the collaborative change effort described. For instance, 18 older adults took a primary role as co-researchers to conduct interviews and participate in reflection meetings as part of a research project to develop age-friendly communities in Manchester, UK (Buffel 2019). In another article, Yup’ik elders, who were collaborators in the research effort, served as co-authors for the resulting publication (Ayunerak et al. 2014).
This organizational design and change project was conceived and executed by numerous people. Richard Flynn and John Weber represented the business throughout. Mark DeTroia, the GRC CIO, provided the vision and the guiding hand in the change and its execution. Joe McMorris, Linda Linz, and Jonathan Dale joined the initial CIO leadership team and helped with planning and key decisions and analysis. David Gardner represented the CTO community. Other key contributors included the BU leaders, the BU CTOs, Lisa Glover, and Jennifer Wolfe. The communications and change planning was governed by Elissa Salter. Additionally, our HR partners Melinda Papagni and Amanda Shirk provided key inputs and review throughout. The GBS leadership team played a key role in assisting the change process and the final organization design especially Andres Sadler and AJ Lang. Finally, special thanks go to all the staff who enthusiastically endorsed the changes once they were presented to them and as a result made the overall effort successful.
For small utilities, it may be challenging to have adequate engineering resources to know by themselves, in sufficient detail, the design they operate and all the reasons behind the design choices made by the vendor and the responsible designers. However they should have developed sufficient knowledge of the design to be a ‘knowledgeable customer’ and to know what is important to operate their plant safely. This is where the relationship between the utility and the original vendor becomes important in order to take advantage of the vendor’s own ‘Design Authority’ capability; this would require long-term agreements with commercial implications. When several utilities are operating similar units in one country (as is the case in Japan, Germany and the US), they work with the same regulator, and it is beneficial for them to define common positions on safety issues. VGB in Germany and NEI and owners’ groups in the US are organizations that play this role of bringing the utilities together to develop a common solution to the same safety/regulatory issue, which in itself contributes to keeping the units similar. In the context of new build, several US utilities have applied for combined Construction and Operating Licenses (COL) to build the same few designs. The NEI New Plant Working Group was set up in order to facilitate and speed up the licensing process, which in itself supports standardization. Having achieved standardization at the licensing stage, utilities should be encouraged to continue this kind of cooperation during the life of their plants and this is also a potential role for owners’ groups (Candu owners’ group plays this role for some common issues – see Section 6).
Chair of Graphic Design Art Center College of Design Nik Hafermaas is an international award-winning artist, designer, and educational leader. As the Graphic Design Department Chair at Art Center College of Design, he leads a faculty of over 40 professional designers and 300 students, Nik has created a new curriculum, fusing print and packaging, motion and interaction design into Transmedia Design. This innovative program works across both emerging and traditional media — from data visualization to interactive spatial installations— to create an emotionally powerful experience. His Los Angeles based artist platform Uberall International produces data-driven art installations converging digital media and spatial experiences, including the data-driven sculptures eCloud for San Jose International Airport and AirField for Atlanta International Airport. As former principal and Chief Creative Officer of Triad Berlin he created pavilions for the World Expo2000 and for the Swiss Expo02.
analysing texts about the building.) The phenomenological approach is concerned with the individual response of people engaging physically with the building and the impact on the individual of the design and physical manifestation of the building. For example, in his study of the library in Seattle Seamon is concerned with assessing the first impressions that people have of the external design of the building, the words people would use to describe the building and what the design implies about the use of the building. He then goes onto to explore how the users of the building engage with the physicality of the design as they enter the building. Most significantly, the phenomenological approaches are concerned with how individuals make meaning of the building they are encountering from an ontological perspective. While this is relevant to the research focus of this thesis in as much as individuals within the institutions in the examples selected for study were actively engaging with the buildings, an exclusively phenomenological approach would not necessarily explore the aspects of the building that might lead to an understanding of how buildings can influence institutional change.
To test the above climate change simulation framework and workflow, we have conducted a case study of a green building on the Sheffield University campus. Designed and engineered as a naturally cross-ventilated office building without an air- conditioning system, the Interdisciplinary Centre of the Social Sciences (ICoSS) has a south-facing atrium creating a thermal stack with supply of replacement air via openings on the north façade (Figure 3.a-c). The fully-glazed south façade is equipped with a series of automated roller blinds to moderate solar gains for different weather conditions and internal patterns of use. In addition, night time cooling is operated by a Building Management System (BEMS). In the following subsections, we present our ICoSS neighbourhood outdoor and building indoor coupled climate change simulations in five steps: (A) ENVI-met microclimate modelling of the
The approach nevertheless rests on a controversial assumption. Rotamer sequences are threaded onto the target structure, and the sequence with the lowest energy (as determined by the potential function) is reported as the best sequence for that structure. It is conceivable, though, that in some circumstances this sequence will not adopt the desired ground-state structure. An extreme example is provided by imagining that the true potential function is one that only benefits hydrophobic contacts (and hydrophobic-polar and polar-polar interactions contribute zero energy) (Lau & Dill, 1989). Then, for any target structure, an all-hydrophobic sequence must be one of the best sequences. This sequence, of course, is not likely to fold specifically to the target structure — some polar residues ought to be included to characterize the surface of the molecule. Overcoming this problem involves introducing non-thermodynamic considerations to the design procedure, collectively known as "negative design" (Hellinga, 1997).
Abstract: The idea of cities as complex systems in constant adaptive change is finally engaging urban thinking. However, we are still far from having this idea guide practice. UN- Habitat recognised this challenge in the “New Urban Agenda”, establishing the link between configuration of places and their performance. However, we lag behind in understanding how urban places work from a resilience perspective, and urban planning and design are not ready to give directions for successful place-making, that works for people, the environment and the economy. We are in desperate need for something practical and yet theoretically new to answer to this challenge. The work presented in this short paper is our answer, and is based on joining the realms of design to that of resilience, an achievement possible only when treating urban form as a complex adaptive system per se. On these basis, we introduce an innovative approach to place-making - “masterplanning for change” which, learning from the rules that generated adaptive and successful places in history to date, calls for an urban design practice that designs places much less and much better, with implications for policy- making. Far from being an ideological manifesto, our approach is: 1) evidenced based: having learned to identify the recurrent successes of resilience from the observation of cities in history up to our days, it uses them to design the city of the future. 2) practical: it advocates a reformed process of place-making, and provides the tools to deliver it, making it an essential reference for designers and policy-makers.
In 2006, Morris and Bell  used 71 paired patient and surgeon questionnaires from 100 consecutive appointments, to examine the appropriateness and socio-economical im- pact of paediatric fracture clinic appointments in Sheffield, UK. From the surgeon’s questionnaire data, it was sug- gested that (i) the clinic appointment was appropriate in 93%, (ii) the treatment plan was changed in 25%, (iii) the cast was changed or removed in 50%, (iv) a radiograph was made in 28%, and (v) a further referral was made in 10%. Our cohort (much larger and with a complete data- set) had a similar ‘appropriate’ attendee rate. It becomes awkward to make direct comparisons of other outcomes because our cohort had both inappropriate elective and fracture attendees. Taking the 200 ‘appropriate attendees’ as the denominator, we had a higher treatment plan alter- ation rate (34% v. 25%), a similar cast change rate (44% v. 50%), a dramatically higher radiography rate (77% v. 28%), and a lower further referral rate (4% v. 10%). Morris and Bell stated that ‘The use of and adherence [to] protocols to minimise clinic attendance is essential. An understanding of the natural history of fractures in children is needed to facilitate production of protocols to allow a safe reduction in clinic appointments’ . Whilst this statement empha- sises the importance of efficiency in paediatric fracture clinic design, reductions in their clinic load would rely on the assumption that the requirement for x-ray could have been made prior to assessment in the clinic . It is Table 1 Inappropriate attendances at fracture clinic
The ILC contains spaces to support the creative design cycle – imagining, creating, playing, sharing, and reflecting … an iterative, Möbius strip of design thinking. The ILC has both a physical and virtual space. The virtual space will continue to morph and grow, and currently exists as a blog (http://blogs.ubc.ca/centre/) and a Twitter account (#UBCILC). Apart from the learning studio, there is a breakout room that accommodates up to eight people and can be used to host meetings and collaborative sessions with industry and education colleagues. Additional space is required for storage of IT equipment as the success of the ILC is its ability to be “off the grid” of the university’s network regulations and standardized software and hardware requirements. While the learning lab incorporates spaces to support the design cycle (see Figure 1), it is recognized that users of this space will work where they feel most comfortable and the most appropriate tools are available. To paraphrase Sullivan’s notion, form follows function and the thinking behind the design of the ILC suggests physical spaces can invite creativity and imagination. Based on comments from users of ILC at UBC, the physical space does encourage changes practices, but individual instructors are the gatekeepers. Surveys have been given to groups using the ILC for the last six months. The majority of instructors / facilitators have embraced the affordances provided within the ILC, and one instructor has wrestled to re-arrange the furnishings to resemble what she termed “a real classroom.” A significant finding from this initial study of 300 users is access to the space must be voluntary, as instructors assigned to the space may not be prepared to change their practices to function within a studio-based environment. What was confirmed by the survey findings was that an entirely different pedagogical approach needed to be developed to encourage risk taking and creativity and create learning opportunities that fostered the creative design cycle illustrated in Figure 1. In December 2012, the design for a second ILC, situated in Aga Khan University - Institute of Education Development (AKU,IED) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, was proposed. This paper reports on the design and development of the two ILC spaces, focusing on the Tanzanian model and will share initial thoughts as to how the ILC might support academic, education, and industry partners leapfrogging current practices and develop learning innovations to encourage pedagogical change in challenging contexts.
Figure 5. From the first exploration to a sustainable EDL that can last for 6 months, which allowed the design research team to explore several Experiential Probes (EP) and the resulting emerging behaviour. When introducing the EP, the design team subsequently observes, interviews and questions the people in the EDL. This way, the design research team acquired data that helped in finding or addressing specific examples of behaviour and learning more about why people express this behaviour. By means of the EDL architecture the design research team could acquire multimodal data 24/7 on people’s possible changing or emergent behaviour on the Social Stairs. By saving the event logs of the steps, the design research team could keep track of which steps were taken (or not) by people and check if there were any interesting deviating behavioural patterns. Simultaneously, through the concealed miniature camera, the design research team could regularly check or real-time tap into the video to see what was going on in the Social Stairs. To gain a deeper understanding of why people were behaving in certain ways, interviews were held on the stairs as well (Figure 6 ). Aside from these interviews, doing maintenance and iterations on the stairs also proved to be a valuable way of gaining more insight, as people on the stairs approached the design research to share their experiences and thoughts, resulting in a more natural and spur-of-the moment user participation. On the basis of these insights the design research team could take decisions on how to iterate the current EP, or come up with a new probe.
In Kahneman and Frederick’s explanation (2002, p.51), “System 1 quickly proposes intuitive answers to judgment problems as they arise, and System 2 monitors the quality of those proposals, which it may endorse, correct, or override. The judgments that are eventually expressed are called intuitive if they retain the hypothesized initial proposal without much modification.” The distinction between System 1 and System 2 also seems to have significant parallels with Petty and Cacioppo’s peripheral and central route persuasion (1981; see Lockton, 2012a for its relevance to design). Sloman (2002, p.380-3) suggests analogies with different kinds of computational principles: “Roughly, one system  is associative and its computations reflect similarity and temporal structure; the other system  is symbolic and its computations reflect a rule structure. . . When a response is produced solely by the associative system , we are conscious only of the result of the computation, not the process. In contrast, we are aware of both the result and the process in a rule-based computation .”