Design of Multiband Microstrip Patch Antennas

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Design of Compact Dual-band and Tri-band Microstrip Patch Antennas

Design of Compact Dual-band and Tri-band Microstrip Patch Antennas

Abstract Three multiband microstrip patch antennas (MPAs) to operate at (3.5/5.5 GHz) WiMAX, upper (5.2/5.8 GHz) WLAN and C frequency bands are presented in this paper. The proposed antenna structures are mainly constructed from the fork-shaped monopole antenna. These three antennas (Ant.1-3) are namely mender fork-shaped antenna (MFA), spiral fork-shaped antenna (SFA) and double SFA (DSFA). All antennas are fed by coplanar waveguide (CPW) structure and printed on the front side of FR substrate with surface area of . A new approach is presented for designing the proposed antennas to resonate at the specified operating frequency bands. Initially, a conventional MPA fed by microstrip-line is designed to operate at 5.8-GHz WLAN band. Then, intermediate antenna prototype structures are obtained during the design process until achieving the desired antennas. The Ant.1 and Ant.3 gives dual-band characteristic covering 5.2/5.8 GHz-WLAN band including 5.150–5.875 GHz and 3.5/5.5 GHz-WiMAX including 3.4–3.7 GHz and 5.25–5.85 GHz, respectively. The Ant.2 gives tri-band covering the aforementioned dual-band besides to C-band 7.25 GHz (6.84 – 7.50 GHz). An electromagnetic simulator CST MWS ver. 2018 was used to analyze the designed antennas. The simulated results demonstrate that a dual- and tri-band operation can be easily provided by these antennas as well they have good dipole-like and omnidirectional radiation characteristics, stable gain and high-radiation efficiency indicating that the proposed antennas are candidate for WLAN/WiMAX applications.
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Analysis of Triangular Slot Microstrip Patch Antenna for Multiband Applications

Analysis of Triangular Slot Microstrip Patch Antenna for Multiband Applications

Two microstrip patch antennas (MPAs) are presented, one is conventional MPA and another is metamaterial based MPA which is made by introducing three dual isosceles triangular slots on the copper patch of the conventional MPA. Metamaterial properties of the designed and proposed isosceles triangular slotted structure are investigated and proved as metamaterial by using Nicolson Ross Weir (NRW) approach. The proposed slotted structure exhibits double negative (DNG) property of metamaterial and the proposed metamaterial antenna shows improved bandwidth, greater directivity, lower return loss, comparatively more suitable VSWR than the conventional MPA.[1]. Microstrip patch antennas have made a great progress in the recent years. Compared with the conventional antennas, microstrip patch antennas have more advantages and better prospects. A microstrip patch design of a probe- fed antenna is presented for simultaneously Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN).The growth of wireless systems and booming demand for a variety of new wireless applications such as WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network), it is important to design broadband and high gain antennas to cover a wide frequency range. The design of an efficient wide band small size antenna, for recent wireless applications, is a major challenge. In applications like high performance aircraft, satellite, missile, mobile radio and wireless communications small size, low-cost fabrication, low profile, conformability and ease of installation and integration with feed networks are the main constraints.
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DESIGNING OF U SHAPE SQUARE   FRACTAL MICROSTRIP PATCH   ANTENNAS

DESIGNING OF U SHAPE SQUARE FRACTAL MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNAS

The inimitable features of fractals such as self-similarity and space filling properties enable the realization of antennas with interesting feature such as multi-band operation and miniaturization. A self-sowed set is one that consists of scaled down copies of itself. This property of self-similarity of the irregular fragment geometry [11] aids in the design of fractal antennas with multiband feature. The self-sown current distribution on these antennas is expected to cause its multiband characteristics. The space-filling characteristics of fractals tends to fill the area occupied by the antenna as the order of iteration is increased. Higher order fractal antennas feat the space-filling property and enable miniaturization of antennas. Fractal antennas and arrays also display lower side-lobe levels. Fractals have been applied successfully for miniaturization and multi-band operations of simple antennas generally dipole, loops and patch antennas. It has been observed that such as approach result in decrease of the input impedance bandwidth[9].
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Design of a Multiband Stacked Microstrip Patch Antenna for Satellite Communications Application

Design of a Multiband Stacked Microstrip Patch Antenna for Satellite Communications Application

Moreover, in [25] and [26], the idea of the DGS has been investigated. Defective Ground Structure can be used in order to improve and reduce the antenna size. It is considered a unique way of reducing the antenna size by etching the ground plane. In the work [25], be varying the size of the defect, its location and shape the desired resonance frequency can be obtained. In addition, the DGS can be used in increasing the efficiency of the antenna, reducing the cross polarization, mutual coupling reduction, and suppression of higher order harmonics [25]. Furthermore, in [25] cavity backed structure has been used in order to avoid surface wave propagation and hence increasing the efficiency of the antenna. Fig.50 represents the antenna with the DGS and the cavity structure of the antenna [25]. Similarly, in the work [26] DGS has been used in order to improve the properties of the designed antenna. However, in [26] the antenna is an array antenna with two patches next to each other. Three DGS have been used in order to improve the antenna size and reduce the mutual coupling between the two antennas [26]. Two DGSs have been used underneath the for the antenna size reduction. However, “the
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A Rectangular Ring Slot Microstrip Patch Antenna for Multiband Applications

A Rectangular Ring Slot Microstrip Patch Antenna for Multiband Applications

In present days it is required that the antenna which will be operated at various frequencies for various applications. There are many advantages of using multiband antennas. One of them is prevents additional usage of bandwidth. There are many techniques for obtaining multiband antennas. Defected ground structure can be opted to obtain two and more bands with circular polarization abilities [1]. There are various other multiband antenna techniques. A rectangular micro strip antenna is used for various applications because of their attractive properties of light in weight, simple to fabrication, compact in size, economic in cost [2]. For these reasons patch antenna is used in this design. Micro strip line feeding technique is used in this design. In this paper rectangular slot is used on the patch to achieve multiband antenna characteristics. The resonating frequencies useful for wireless applications, military and satellite applications, and remote sensing applications.
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Design of Microstrip Patch Antenna with Koch Snowflake Geometry for Multiband Applications

Design of Microstrip Patch Antenna with Koch Snowflake Geometry for Multiband Applications

Nowadays due to tremendous development in both the military as well as the commercial area, there is great demand for antenna design that possesses some highly desirable features such as compact size, low profile, conformal and multiband or broadband. There are a variety of approaches that have been developed over that year, which can be utilized to achieve one or more of these design objectives. The fractal geometry plays an important role for achieving these requirements. Basically fractal means, broken or irregular fragment. Fractal was first defined by Benoit Mandelbrot in 1975 as a way of classifying structures whose dimensions were not whole numbers. A fractal is a rough or fragmented geometric shape that can be subdivided in parts, each of which is (at least approximately) a reduced-size copy of the whole. In nature there are many mathematical structures that are fractals; such as clouds, mountains, turbulence, and coastlines that do not correspond to simple geometric shapes. The use of fractal geometry is a very good solution to reduce the size of antenna. Fractal shaped antennas show some interesting features which results from their geometrical properties. Self similarity and space filling properties are the unique features of fractals which enable the realization of antennas having some interesting characteristics such as multi-band operation and miniaturization.
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EFFECT OF EXCITATION TECHNIQUES ON THE RADIATION PARAMETERS OF MULTIBAND MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA: DESIGN AND ANALYSIS

EFFECT OF EXCITATION TECHNIQUES ON THE RADIATION PARAMETERS OF MULTIBAND MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA: DESIGN AND ANALYSIS

Recently, the demand for antennas with compact size and multiband operation has increased because such antennas are important for integrating more than one communication standard in a single system to effectively improve the portability of modern wireless devices. This multi functionality provides users the options of connecting different kinds of wireless services for different purposes at different times. A number of approaches have been reported to obtain multiband microstrip antenna such as loading of rectangular, circular and triangular patches by shorting pins, crossed slot, fractal structures and the use of pin diodes, varacter diodes [1]. The excitation technique of patch antenna also affects the radiation characteristics of radiating element, hence while designing an antenna care must taken while deciding the proper feed [2]. Many theoretical studies on microstrip antenna have been published [3]-[6]. In [7] multiband PIFA is designed with slotted ground plane to improve the bandwidth at both low and high frequencies without increasing the volume of the antenna. In [8]
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DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF MULTIBAND MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA FOR WIRELESS 2 GHz TO 12 GHz BANDAPPLICATIONS WITH MICROSTRIP LINE FEEDING TECHNIQUE

DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF MULTIBAND MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA FOR WIRELESS 2 GHz TO 12 GHz BANDAPPLICATIONS WITH MICROSTRIP LINE FEEDING TECHNIQUE

From a systems point of view, the response of the antenna should cover the entire operating bandwidth, and the antenna should be non-responsive to signals outside the specified band [5]. UWB have wide applications in short range and high speed wireless systems, such as ground penetrating radars, medical imaging system, high data rate wireless local area networks (WLAN), communication systems for military and short pulse radars for automotive even or robotics. The antenna is one of the crucial components, which determine the performance of UWB system [6]. In the past, one serious limitation of the micro strip antenna was its narrow bandwidth characteristics, being 15 to 50% that of commonly used antenna elements such as dipoles, slots, and waveguides horns [7]. This limitation was successfully removed achieving a matching impedance bandwidth ratio it was necessary to increase the size, height, volume or feeding and matching techniques [8] Generally, UWB communication antennas require low voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR<2), constant phase center, constant group delay, and constant gain over entire operating frequency band [1].
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Title: DESIGN OF MULTIBAND MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA FOR WIRELESS 1 GHz TO 5 GHz BAND APPLICATIONS WITH MICROSTRIP LINE FEEDING TECHNIQUE

Title: DESIGN OF MULTIBAND MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA FOR WIRELESS 1 GHz TO 5 GHz BAND APPLICATIONS WITH MICROSTRIP LINE FEEDING TECHNIQUE

The unique features of fractals such as self-similarity and space filling properties enable the realization of antennas with interesting characteristics such as multi-band operation and miniaturization. A self-similar set is one that consists of scaled down copies of itself. This property of self-similarity of the fractal geometry [11] aids in the design of fractal antennas with multiband characteristics. The self-similar current distribution on these antennas is expected to cause its multiband characteristics. The space-filling property of fractals tends to fill the area occupied by the antenna as the order of iteration is increased. Higher order fractal antennas exploit the space-filling property and enable miniaturization of antennas. Fractal antennas and arrays also exhibit lower side-lobe levels. Fractals have been applied successfully for miniaturization and multi-band operations of simple antennas mainly dipole, loops and patch antennas. It has been observed that such as approach result in reduction of the input impedance bandwidth [9].
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Design Of Multiband Microstrip Patch Antenna For Wlan,Wimax And X-Band                      Applications

Design Of Multiband Microstrip Patch Antenna For Wlan,Wimax And X-Band Applications

Circular polarized microstrip patch antennas were widely used in many applications such as satellite technology, radar systems and global positioning (GPS) systems because they have many advantages such as lightweight, low profile, low cost and ease of manufacturing[2]. Circularly polarized microstrip antenna (CPMA) enables the transmission of signal regardless of the direction of the receiving antenna with respect to the transmitting antenna and also has the ability to suppress the interference of multipaths. They do suffer from narrow impedance and axialratio(AR) bandwidths, however, usually mostly 5% or less for impedance and 3 dB for AR values. Circularly polarized radiation is generated by exciting two orthogonal modes of the same amplitude. Using thick structures, square slot methods, defective ground structures, bandwidth enhancement can be accomplished. The structure of the microstrip patch antenna where only one patch is fed and other patches are parasitically coupled. By using a small gap between them, the connection between the parasite patch and the resonating patch is understood. Two parasitic patches of the same width are placed along both sides of the fed patch with small gap between them. By adding parasitic patch along the fed patch, bandwidth increases as well as an antenna gain. This also increased the size of the antenna. The antenna single and dual feeds help to miniaturize the antenna size and to maximize the bandwidth of a RIS antenna system. The two-dimensional square metal patches are made of the RIS antenna model. On the underside of the main patch substructure, a set of uniform square patches with equal distances are made. The RIS also reduces the interaction between the ground plane and the built antenna structure. Therefore, it offers wide bandwidth, compact size, and improoved radiation efficiency when RIS structure is built in antenna. The X-band corresponds to a frequency band in the electro-magnetic spectrum microwave radio field. The frequency range of the X band is in some cases quite indefinitely set at about 7.0–11.2 GHz, for instance in communication technology. For radar technology, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers determines the frequency range. The wireless local area network (WLAN) is usually used with antennas.The little model makes it ideal for wardriving for mobile applications.Antennas could be used to increase the range of cellular telephones, improve coverage and increasing the
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Design of Multiband Microstrip Antenna

Design of Multiband Microstrip Antenna

Abstract—The advantages of microstrip antennas have made them a perfect choice for use in the wireless local area network (WLAN) applications. Though bound by certain disadvantages, Microstrip patch antennas can be tailored to be used in the new high speed broadband WLAN systems. This paper concentrates on design ofmicrostrip patch antennas for the 2.4 GHz ISM band. The aim of this paper is to present, a coaxial feed compact rectangular antenna with slots, with linear polarization for multibandband operation.A rectangular antenna is loaded with a square slots and U-slot to obtain multiband band operation. The resulted antenna can be simulated using IE3D software which uses a numerical technique called method of moments. By properly selecting the dimensions of the slots, a four band resonance operation of the antenna at 2.23 GHz, 4.1GHz. 4.9GHz and 5.3GHz are achieved. The coaxial feed for this rectangular patch antenna is placed along the x-axis for 50 ohms impedance matching. All the four resonant bands have moderate bandwidth, acceptable radiation characteristics and efficiency. Different parameters of antenna like return loss, efficiency, 2 dimensional and 3 dimensional radiation patterns are simulated using IE3D software.
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Design of rectangular microstrip patch antenna using stepped cut at four 
		corners for broadband/ multiband application

Design of rectangular microstrip patch antenna using stepped cut at four corners for broadband/ multiband application

Antenna is the interface of the wireless communication systems to the channel which is the most sensitive part [1] Patch antennas (Microstrip antennas) are one of the most popular antennas due to their low profile, conformable, easy, inexpensive, small size and versatile in terms of realization and are thus been widely used in a various useful applications [2], [3]. In contrast microstrip patch antenna (MPA) has some disadvantages such as low gain and narrow band. Most bandwidth Figure-1 shows the rectangular microstrip patch antenna (RMPA) configuration, including a dielectric substrate located between a radiating patch and a ground plane. Generally, the patch is prepared of conducting material such or copper in any shape. Most of the previous contributions in this research area were to increase the BW of MPAs [4] by increasing the substrate thickness [5]. Array microstrip antenna which has been proved to successfully increase
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Design and Analysis of Compact Triple Band Microstrip Patch Antenna for Multiband Applications

Design and Analysis of Compact Triple Band Microstrip Patch Antenna for Multiband Applications

The research study of multiband antenna can be categorized into: PIFAs, wire Antennas and defected patch and ground antennas [6].Authors of [7,8] have put forward few designs for PIFA with multi communication bands. Introduction of parasitic patches to the conventional microstrip patch antenna is also one of the technique for getting multiband characteristics, where in the main radiating patch works at lower frequency band while the parasitic patches are introduced to work at higher frequencies [9].Authors of [10] have achieved quadruple bands is single planer monopole radiator with low substrate height achieving four communication frequencies and that of [11] have proposed a loop structure mixed with monopole to achieve multi bands for communications.
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A Novel Approach To Design CPW-Fed Multiband Microstrip Patch Antenna for WLAN/WiMAX applications

A Novel Approach To Design CPW-Fed Multiband Microstrip Patch Antenna for WLAN/WiMAX applications

In this paper, a novel approach to achieve a multiband antenna is introduced. The geometry of the proposed antenna is composed of the rectangular patch with two cross slot, T-cut shape slots and a small rectangle strip placed on the radiating sides of the antenna. The addition of the increases the upper edge frequency significantly resulting in a bandwidth of 1.6. The paper is organized as follows. The, section 2 presents the printed slot antenna for multiband operation and its radiation performances. After that, design and parameter study of the printed slot antennas with a cross-slotted structure and T-shape slot structure are described in Section 3. Finally paper summarized in Section 4.
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Design of Compact Microstrip Patch Antenna for Multiband Operations

Design of Compact Microstrip Patch Antenna for Multiband Operations

As wireless communication systems develop rapidly, reconfigurable antennas have received much attention. This is because they can after a diversity of performance related to operating frequency, polarization and radiation pattern to improve the communication quality and capacity. Nowadays, multifunctional applications are becoming increasingly popular, and such applications are integrating more and more services [1].One possible solution to this demand is to use reconfigurable antenna that tune to different frequency bands. Such an antenna would not cover all bands simultaneously, but provides narrow instantaneous bandwidths that are dynamically selectable at higher efficiency than conventional antennas [2].
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A Multiband MIMO Microstrip Patch Antenna for Wireless Applications

A Multiband MIMO Microstrip Patch Antenna for Wireless Applications

Multiple transmit and multiple receive antennas has emerged as one of the most significant technical breakthroughs in next generation wireless communications. MIMO is the use of multiple antennas at both the transmitter and receiver to improve communication performance. MIMO technology has attracted attention in wireless communications, because it offers significant increases in data throughput and link range without requiring additional bandwidth or transmit power, higher spectral efficiency and reduced fading. Because of these properties, MIMO is an important part of modern wireless communication standards such as IEEE 802.11n (Wifi), IEEE 802.16e (WiMAX), 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE), 3GPP HSPA+, 4G and 5G systems to come. In today’s environment, technology demands antennas which can operate on different wireless bands and should have different features like low cost, minimal weight, low profile and are capable of maintaining high performance over a large spectrum of frequencies. In this paper microstrip patch antenna array are used, because of its attractive features of low profile, light weight, small size, low cost, easy fabrication [1]. Two modified rectangular shaped radiating patch element are arranged perpendicularly to each other on one side of the substrate, other side on which some rectangular defective ground structure[5-8] and their 2x1 MIMO implementation proposed which can be operated frequency range 7.14-7.42GHz, 7.6-8.2GHz, 8.2-8.6GHz, 9.8-10.2GHz frequencies for VSWR≤2, ECC less than 0.01; Mutual coupling is less than -10 dB. The antenna design is simulated using the CST microwave suit 2015. In section 2, the proposed antenna geometry is presented and in Section 3 the results are presented. The final conclusion of the paper is given in Section 4.
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Design and Simulation of Compact Multiband Microstrip Fractal Patch Antenna for C Band Applications

Design and Simulation of Compact Multiband Microstrip Fractal Patch Antenna for C Band Applications

ABSTRACT: In recent years multiband fractal patch antennas have their own capability because of their multiband operation. This paper presents a rectangular shaped fractal antenna, which resonates at 4.18GHz, 5.02GHz, 6.45GHz,7.08GHz.Three iterations has been applied to basic rectangular patch in terms of rectangular slots to obtain multiband. This antenna finds the application in the area of military and defense applications. The proposed multiband antenna operates in C (4 to 8GHz) band, where it can be used for Radar and secure communication. The antenna is designed in IE3D simulation software. The results are analyzed in terms of return loss, VSWR and gain of the antenna with radiation pattern.
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Subsequently 90 Repositioned Triple E Shaped Microstrip Patch Antenna Design for Multiband Application

Subsequently 90 Repositioned Triple E Shaped Microstrip Patch Antenna Design for Multiband Application

The contemporary theory of electromagnetic wave properties has come from one of the greatest pioneer in history Science: James Clerk Maxwell. His famous equations enabled us to take leaps in the field of electromagnetism resulting wireless technology to grow exponentially over decades to come. Numerous ranges of frequency band for diverse communication system are present in the modern time and are allocated to use in various purposes. Therefore integration of multiband‟ in wireless communication devices became more dependable in most social, scientific, commercial and other contexts. To enable multiband operation, antenna should have the option to transmit and receive multiple frequencies. Among all the different types of antennas [1 & 2], Microstrip Patch Antenna (MPA) has become well accepted around the world. The fundamental structure is made up of a conducting patch of any non-planar or planar geometry on one side of a dielectric substrate and a ground plane on other side [3]. It has higher multilateral lead for planer profile, capacity to function in microwave frequency range, economic to manufacture and simple to construct in integrated circuit technology when contrasted with conventional antenna. Due to their light weight, low volume and low fabrication cost, they can be produced in huge quantities [4-6].
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Comparative Analysis of Microstrip Patch Antennas of different Feeding Techniques

Comparative Analysis of Microstrip Patch Antennas of different Feeding Techniques

The use of microstrip patch antenna has been much increased these days in various applications such as satellite, spacecraft, mobile radio, wireless communication and missile applications as it fulfills the certain requirements or specifications such as small size, low weight, low cost.[1] Basically Microstrip patch antenna is a low profile antenna with low weight, low fabrication cost, also it is conformal to the surface of objects, easy of fabrication and installation and capable of multiband frequency operations [8] and it is well suited for the applications like WLAN, Wi MAX, Bluetooth etc.[6] Apart from these advantages, the microstrip patch antenna has various limitations, for example, low power handling capacity, low gain, narrow impedance bandwidth, etc.[5] There are various possible methods that can be implemented to enhance the impedance bandwidth of microstrip patch antenna,for example, slotted patch [7], increasing the height of substrate and stacking [1], defected ground surface.[5] However, the implementation of the above listed techniques can make the antenna design complex and sophisticated.[5]
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A Microstrip Monopole Antenna with C-shaped Patch for Multiband Applications

A Microstrip Monopole Antenna with C-shaped Patch for Multiband Applications

In the past few years, the demand for multi-band antennas has increased as a result of the rapid development of telecommunications systems and wireless devices. Therefore, wireless systems should be expanded [1, 2]. A microstrip monopole antenna is a good candidate for multi-band operations Because it has wide bandwidth impedance, small size, light weight [3-5]. Because wireless local area network (WLAN) and worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) technologies are the most widely used in wireless telecommunications devices requires multi-band antenna to fit multiple services in one device. The operating bands for these technologies as assigned by IEEE 802.11 are (WLAN: 2.4–2.484, 5.15–5.35 and 5.725–5.85 GHz) and (WiMAX: 2.5–2.69, 3.4–3.69 and 5.25–5.85 GHz) [1, 3, 6-8]. GSM (900–1800 MHz), CDMA (870– 890 MHz), PCS (1900 MHz), DCS (1710–1880 MHz), WLAN (2.45/5.8 GHz) and LTE-E/LTE-D (2300– 2800 MHz) [9]. The slots are one of the common processes of miniaturization of antennas while enabling multiband operation, which allow shifting of resonant modes towards lower frequencies [10]. Using the famous printed monopole antenna technology, multi-band resonance antennas have been designed [9]. It is necessary to design ultra-wide antennas with band rejection or multiband characteristics and reconfiguration the ability although many systems do not need to work in all frequency bands [2, 7]. Despite the wide frequency ranges of Ultra Wide Band systems, which give many advantages but cause interference with existing wireless communication systems such as (W LAN) operated at 5–6 GHz and C band systems in 3.7– 4.2 GHz [3, 8]. In this study, a small microstrip antenna was introduced for multiband applications. The proposed structure includes C-shaped and inverted C-shaped as a basic radiating patch above the substrate layer and rectangular ground plane on the beneath of substrate layer. The bandwidth of the provided antenna is 8.96 GHz at VSWR < 2. The presented multiband antenna has great return loss and accepted radiation characteristics.
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