Abstract—This paper presents a set of interconnect perfor- mance estimation models for designplanning with consideration of various effective interconnect layout optimization techniques, including optimal wire sizing, simultaneous driver and wire sizing, and simultaneous buffer insertion/sizing and wire sizing. These models are extremely efficient, yet provide high degree of accuracy. They have been tested on a wide range of parameters and shown to have over 90% accuracy on average compared to running best-available interconnect layout optimization algo- rithms directly. As a result, these fast yet accurate models can be used efficiently during high-level design space exploration, interconnect-driven designplanning/synthesis, and timing-driven placement to ensure design convergence for deep submicrometer designs.
The review of DSM techniques led to the production of a specification of a matrix analysis tool to suit the characteristics of the design process in a construction project. This specification is not presented here due to its commercial sensitivity, however it contained details of essential and desirable features of the tool. Following the review of existing programmes, it was decided that a DSM tool that could work effectively in the ADePT environment should be developed because although PSM and DeMAID/GA are effective at analysing certain design problems and contain a range of features, a tool that could analyse large-scale problems with enhanced graphical output, incorporating the essential features in the specification was necessary. Accordingly, the Algorithmic Matrix Manipulation Program (AMMP) has been developed, although to date some of the desirable features identified in the specification have not been incorporated. The program employs the same matrix manipulation algorithm as PSM. It can be seen from Fig. 8 that the program's output is clear, indicating information dependencies with a coloured mark annotated with an A, B or C and highlighting iterative loops of tasks. Also, dependencies that are modified following the production of a matrix are highlighted differently, allowing them and their effects to be easily monitored.
Beyond this convergence of GIS and VRML or solid modelling, we can also embrace techniques which are currently browser oriented in order to solve planning and design problems. By taking our digital geographical data and placing it within a multi-user world we can, again, help planners plan and designers design. If an accurate, realistic context can be set the design/ planning process can become more digital and also more democratic in terms of its ability to be digitally distributed (over the WWW or via a Planning department’s Intranet). The web browser facilitates what we have been discussing in that it can enable GIS, VRML, Multi-user worlds when these applications are brought together we are presented with the ability to interact with objects and information in a more interactive manner than if the applications were in isolation. This holistic approach may result in an object-oriented database being created within a given urban environment, which populates the virtual space with both structures (plus or minus building textures) and attribute information. Avatars can then be introduced, as in the Virtual Design Arenas discussed in Section 2.5. Information could be obtained by ‘touching’ building polygons or by crossing into various land parcels where the data is served through a web hotlink or from an underlying data store. Whilst true virtual cities are really still in an embryonic stage, the ability to simulate urban interaction within a
This study aims to develop a design support model for site plans by using fuzzy mathematics to evaluate housing units’ locational quality. Fuzzy logic is preferred as the most appropriate soft computing method which can replicate designers’ way of thinking while maintaining a certain satisfaction level for each residential unit. With predefined parameters and if-then control rules, fuzzy model calculates the value of housing locations on a site plan, and lists them from the most advantageous to the least. The model, as an analysis tool, can be used to assess an existing built- up site plan, which is useful for new regulations and operational development. However, the main objective of further research is to use the model in the preliminary design stage; to generate layouts with satisfaction values for location of houses. Later, optimum site plans can be produced by keeping all houses above a defined lower limit value or by assigning a value distribution ratio to the settlement. From this perspective, the proposed model can be useful for students and practitioners of urban design, planning, architecture and landscape; or whoever is in the position of decision making for land usage.
Removal of large portion of slimes requires high sewage velocities. It has been found that 85% or more of the sulphide producing slimes are removed when the grade of the sewer is 2.5 times of that for sediment cleansing. In many instances, it may not be practical to design a sewer to achieve such velocities due to the excessive cost of constructing such a deep and steep sewer. Although increasing the velocity up to the critical velocity will increase the amount of slime being sloughed off, the rate of sulphide production remains substantially unaffected by the thinner slime layer. Therefore, the selection of steep gradient to achieve velocities for full slime stripping is not a design requirement.
FIGURE 4: CELLULAR OFFICES - 1980S AND EARLY 1990S FIGURE 5: EARLY 2000
A more modern approach to a heavily cellular space which also supports some open plan desking would put offices and meeting rooms in toward the centre of the building allowing most of the natural light to flood through the open plan space around the perimeter, as shown in Figure 5. Moving through the late 1990s and early noughties, this office design begins to adapt a more open plan environment for staff. Partly driven by the requirement to fit more desking into offices and to encourage knowledge sharing and interaction between employees.
Please be advised that on April 20, 2015, the Council of Grove City, Ohio approved Resolution CR-18-15, in principal, the Preliminary Development plan for The Village at Gantz Meadows located at 2066 Home Road, Grove City, Ohio. A copy of this Resolution is enclosed for your records, which also reflects the recommendations of Planning Commission.
An analyst is very much like a detective (and business users sometimes are like elu- sive suspects). He or she knows that there is a problem to be solved and therefore must look for clues that uncover the solution. Unfortunately, the clues are not always obvious (and often missed), so the analyst needs to notice details, talk with witnesses, and follow leads just as Sherlock Holmes would have done. The best analysts will thoroughly gather requirements using a variety of techniques and make sure that the current business processes and the needs for the new system are well understood before moving into design. You don’t want to discover later that you have key require- ments wrong—surprises like this late in the SDLC can cause all kinds of problems. S uppose you are the analyst charged with developing a new Web site for a local car dealer who wants to be very innovative and try new things. What analysis techniques would you recommend? Why?
whether planning is sectoral in scope or aims to be comprehensive (Reimer et al. 2014). Many of these differences reflect the prevailing social and economic conditions, the organization of the state and the social culture in which planning is embedded. However, planning systems, practices and cultures are not static and fixed; they evolve and change under the influence of many factors, such as changing socio- economic circumstances, emerging political ideas, and the migration of planning ideas between planning systems, cultures and practices (Sanyal 2005, Waterhout et al. 2013, Healey 2012). This makes it worth sharing and exchanging concepts and innovations across planning cultures and practices. While this essay focuses on Dutch regional planning and design practice, our conclusions may be applicable to other geographical and political contexts. Sharing concepts, experiences and ideas from different contexts can be, as we believe, valuable for developing innovative planning and design approaches. Academics frequently discuss and dispute the relationship between planning and designing (e.g. Steiner 2011, Gunder 2011, Anselin et al. 2011, Von Haaren et al. 2014, Van Assche et al. 2013). Their differences of opinion seem to have their origins in the differences among geographic and political contexts, between planning and design cultures, their conceptions of what planning and designing are, and the kind of design or planning discipline they have in mind. However, there often is less dispute or discussion between planning and design practitioners. In regional planning arenas, they closely work together on the ‘making’ of the region. In the Dutch context, spatial planning is about deliberately adapting the spatial organization of the physical environment to meet society’s needs (Van der Valk and Van Dijk 2009), implying a significant overlap between planning and designing. Planners and designers have different – complementary – aims, activities and competencies in this shared realm (De Jonge 2009). Regional planners tend to aim for democratic legitimacy, justice and the realisation of public goals, whereas designers focus on change, renewal and spatial quality. The activities and competencies of planners relate to formulating goals and direction, describing problems and solutions and programming activities and instruments. Regional designers shape, create and envision regional futures, order information and search for coherence and connections.
Bendigo city council proposed a plan called the Bendigo 2020 Strategy in 1990 (Loddon- Campaspe Regional Planning Authority, 1990). The plan addressed several concerns relevant to liveability and safety such as residential, commercial development, office development, and transport and accessibility aspects. The plan encouraged a range of housing options such as smaller multi-unit houses and small lot sizes. The plan stressed the importance of CBD in relation to retail activities while emphasising the need for expansion of existing activity centres in new residential areas. This plan proposed to expand the office floor space in the CBD area through re-establishing new office buildings and re-using existing buildings including those with heritage value. It also proposed efficient public transport system and pedestrian friendly walkways. Although these strategies have not fully materialised, some of these ideas were incorporated into the later CBD development plans such as Bendigo 2030 Residential Development Strategy and Bendigo CBD Development Plan 2005.
STAAD for windows is comprehensive structural engineering software that addresses all aspects of engineering-model development, analysis, design, verification and visualization. Staad for windows is based on the principles of finite element analysis and is available in a “concurrent engineering” profile. It is capable of analyzing and designing structures consisting of both frames and shell elements. Following are the main options available from the concurrent graphics environment.
The load on beams from slabs from slabs has been considered as uniformly distributed on the entire span. This loading was arrived at by considering equivalent uniformly distributed load from the triangular or trapezoidal pattern in the case of one-way slabs. In this case dead load, live load, wind load and their combination has been considered. The load cases 1, 2 and 3 correspond to dead load, live load and wind load respectively. Load cases 4 and 5 correspond to combination of dead load and live load, dead load and wind load. The intensities of wind load are calculated from the IS: 875(Part-3). The whole structure was analyzed for these 6 different loading conditions and the design was carried out based on the most critical loading condition.
A column is an important component of RC structure. A column, in general, may be defined as a member carrying direct axial load which causes compressive stresses of such magnitude. Columns are of two types. A column may be considered as short when the slenderness ratios is less than 12, otherwise it is a long column. Design of columns were done using IS 456:2000 and SP 16:198. M30 concrete and Fe 415 steel are adopted for design. The bending moments and axial forces from analysis results are used for the design.
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Importantly, GMP’s Design for Security Consultants are all civilian staff—not police officers— and all have a background in the development industry. As a result, the Consultant 'speaks the same language' and is more able to act as a ‘critical friend’ to the architect, highlighting potential vulnerabilities associated with a design proposal and outlining principles for improving safety and security. GMP’s Design for Security Consultants are equipped to respond to the demands and requirements of the planning process in Greater Manchester. They are, for example, entirely dedicated to the role and able to review designs submitted for planning permission within a specified time—currently 21 days. Unlike police Architectural Liaison Officers in other forces, the Consultants are not diverted from this important role by the need to perform other police duties (Wootton and Davey, 2016).
An Administrative building is mainly adopted to provide a separate space for administrative staff and an auditorium is used to satisfy the technical and recreational needs of the institution. The administrative block planning consists of Administrative area, Office room, Examination cell, Placement cell, Indoor Auditorium. Office room is having different sections for the Academic and Financial functions of the institute and is planned to have different sections like server room, dispatch section, administrative officer room, superintendent room, store room, account section, fee collection counters, establishment section, scholarship section and academic section. Administrative staff are the heads of the institute and consists of director, chairman and correspondent. Placement cell consists of training & placement department which works for the benefit of students of the institute. Auditorium is used for the technical, recreational and academic purposes. Auditorium is designed for 1000 seating capacity on the first floor of administrative block.