context of the Internet of Things (IOT). The evolution of business perspectives to the IOT is driven by two underlying trends: i) the change of focus from viewing the IOT primarily as a technology platform to viewing it as a business ecosystem; and ii) the shift from focusing on the business model of a firm to designing ecosystem business models. An ecosystem busi- ness model is a business model composed of value pillars anchored in ecosystems and fo- cuses on both the firm's method of creating and capturing value as well as any part of the ecosystem's method of creating and capturing value. The article highlights three major chal- lenges of designing ecosystem business models for the IOT, including the diversity of ob- jects, the immaturity of innovation, and the unstructured ecosystems. Diversity refers to the difficulty of designingbusiness models for the IOT due to a multitude of different types of connected objects combined with only modest standardization of interfaces. Immaturity suggests that quintessential IOT technologies and innovations are not yet products and ser- vices but a "mess that runs deep". The unstructured ecosystems mean that it is too early to tell who the participants will be and which roles they will have in the evolving ecosystems. The study argues that managers can overcome these challenges by using a business model design tool that takes into account the ecosystemic nature of the IOT. The study concludes by proposing the grounds for a new design tool for ecosystem business models and suggest- ing that "value design" might be a more appropriate term when talking about business models in ecosystems.
Abstract. Designingbusiness processes in a creative way is an impor- tant requirement for implementing process-aware information systems. In this article we investigate how process modeling competence and in- dividual creativity style and capacity influence creativity in a business process redesign task. We explore these relationships with a laboratory experiment with 48 business students. Our preliminary results showed that process modeling competence is positively associated with the cre- ative quality of a business process redesign, while individual creativity style and capacity measured by well-known creativity inventories seem to be less relevant. The findings underline the importance of training in pro- cess modeling to enable employees to realize their full creative potential when redesigning process models in process improvement projects. Key words: creativity, business process redesign, process modeling
Since our theory’s material artifact is a business model for PaaS solutions, the main construct our theory is based on is business models. In recent years, several studies – such as Ballon (2007); Chesbrough (2007); Johnson et al. (2008); Mahadevan (2000); Morris et al. (2005); Osterwalder et al. (2005); Timmers (1998); Zott et al. (2011) – have noted the importance of actively analyzing and designingbusiness models. As noted, PaaS business models need to get and keep on board two or more distinct customer groups. To consider different customer segments and their needs, we applied the business model framework of Johnson et al. (2008), according to whom a business model consists of four interlocking elements – customer value proposition, profit formula, key resources, and key processes – that, taken together, create and deliver value. Besides the definition of business models, Pateli and Giaglis (2004) distinguish seven additional business model research areas: components/fundamental constructs, taxonomies used for categorizations of business models, conceptual models, design methods and tools, adoption factors, evaluation models, and change methodologies. We aim to develop a design theory for PaaS business models. Hence, we focus on the fourth research field: design methods and tools, that is, “building methods and developing tools for designingbusiness models” (Pateli and Giaglis 2004).
Conceptual Design: Creating the Application Model
The OOHDM conceptual schema models the application domain without considering specific use-cases. It uses UML as the base modeling language.
Figure 1 shows a part of the conceptual schema for a CD electronic store with a customer, shopping cart, CD, order and other domain object classes. The business process „checkout“ is defined as a method of the class Shopping Cart. When the customer initiates the checkout process, the checkout method (which is called from the ShoppingCart node, see navigation design, section 3) creates an order object with the CDs in the shopping cart. An order will contain a set of items, the shipping address, delivery and payment options, etc. When an order is created, these data are obtained from the user.
termine whether both good model properties and solution requirements are represented in the artifact, and to refine accordingly. In a nutshell, we find the artifact as is well performing in both regards for IoT business models across industries. How- ever, we see some limitations concerning the criteria "level of detail": In the present state the dimension "Why" allows only for a rough picture on each collaborators ben- efit, which restricts the artifact to solely manual use. To serve as basis for a business model software solution, as requested , the dimension needs to be further enhanced e.g. by an underlying metric. Moreover, the artifact works well as tool to depict busi- ness models in IoT, yet would benefit from a complementary method to facilitate its application. Furthermore, we tested the artifact so far in ecosystems involving IoT. We yet assume the artifact likewise applicable to digital ecosystems in general, which is another area of future research.
The long-standing debate about the purpose and role of business firms has recently regained momentum. Business firms face growing pressure to pursue social goals and benefit corporation statutes proliferate across many U.S. states. This trend is largely based on the idea that firms increase long-term shareholder value when they contribute (or appear to contribute) to society. Contrary to this trend, this Article argues that the pressing issue is whether policies to create social impact actually generate value for third-party beneficiaries—rather than for shareholders. Because it is difficult to measure social impact with precision, the design of legal forms for firms that pursue social missions should incorporate organizational structures that generate both the incentives and competence to pursue such missions effectively. Specifically, firms that have a commitment to transacting with different types of disadvantaged groups demonstrate these attributes and should thus serve as the basis for designing legal forms.
So far, this paper has addressed the value offered by implementing business continuity training and awareness processes and a development methodology that provides efficiency and lower costs. Table two introduces a number of solutions (some strategic, some very simple and tactical) that your organization can consider when looking to generate knowledge and awareness amongst all program stakeholders. Some of these solutions are time-intensive to implement and can be expensive, where others require very little work or cost. Training and awareness often implies a curriculum including presentations, classes and hands-on learning. This is true, but passive learning mechanisms and reminders are important as well. Together, anything that increases knowledge and readiness is a form of training and awareness.
With this overwhelming success, it would seem VisionSpring had perfected and proven its business model. However, as VisionSpring attempted to scale they noticed some challenges. Many of the women were effective at selling for only 18- 24 months, after which they tended to exhaust their social networks. In addition, VisionSpring priced glasses at very low price points ($4 or less a pair on average compared to $15-20 in optical shops). At this price point, designed for maximum affordability for the poorest of customers, the Vision Entrepreneurs were having trouble making a sustainable living.
Companies often look at web and sales analytics before and after they change their websites to estimate the business value of their usability improvements [6, 11]. Similarly, we looked at the website traffic and transaction volume of the e-commerce site before and after it was optimized to see if there were any changes in consumer behavior. In order to measure web traffic, we looked at Unique Page Views and Bounce Rate. The former represents the aggregated page views of a single user during the same session. The latter refers to the percentage of visits in which the user views only one page on the website before exiting the site. Lower levels of Unique Page Views and/or higher levels of Bounce Rate could indicate a lack of engagement with the site. We also looked at Quantity Sold, which refers to the total number of items sold for a product.
As a task for conducting the experiment, participants followed an imaginary scenario in which they played the role of sales manager of a company. They were told about a meeting with the CEO of the company at the next day and have to answer questions regarding the sales data. Therefore, they were told to scan the information on the given sales dashboard to make themselves familiar with the visualized data and trends based on the last report. Moreover, as eye-tracking devices were used for designing the visual attention feedback, these devices were calibrated with the standard Tobii 9-point calibration process before conducting the scanning task. When the calibration is done, the participants were asked to start the scanning task, and after a short period, a pop-up window showed up on the dashboard. It instructed the participants to switch to the desk on their left side and conduct an irrelevant task. This step counts as an interruption as the printed version of a news article with two paragraphs and irrelevant content was given to all participants. Changing the task also shifts the working sphere of the dashboard user, therefore, the context of the interrupted task has to be restored at task resumption. In the next step, the participants were asked to go back to their monitor and resume the primary scanning task. The dashboard recognizes the presence of the user and the experimental group received the previously explained visual feedback upon task resumption. The participants finished the scanning task based on their assessment by clicking on a “finish”-button on the BI&A dashboard. In the next step, a recognition test was conducted by showing some charts and investigating if they can recognized them or not. Thereby, it is ensured that the participants undertaken the scanning task properly before clicking on the finish button. As the last step, the participants had to answer a questionnaire includes demographic as well as their experience in working with dashboards.
may also send a message without specifying the recipient; the content-based routing of these messages being performed by a facilitator. However, this content-based rout- ing of inter-agent messages removes the agent’s control over who receives a particular message. During negotiation, agents require secure communication between the partic- ipants. Although the federation architecture supports direct communication, other func- tions such as reporting events that are of interest to a third party that are supported by a facilitator must be suppressed in such cases. Therefore, it may be necessary for fa- cilitators to make valued judgments about whether or not a particular event should be reported and whether this conflicts with other interests it is representing. At present the federation architecture has only been used for the inter-operation of purely cooperative agents (e.g. SHADE and PACT ). Note that agent inter-operation through coopera- tion only is not a good model if the business process involves more than one organisa- tion. An additional difficulty with the federation architecture is that it does not support the encapsulation of services. The ability to model both peer and hierarchical structures in ADEPT is founded on organisational models where an enterprise is logically divided into a collection of services. The agent-agency concept in ADEPT draws on this prin- ciple to group services within the system where it makes pragmatic sense; a flexibility that is not available in the federation architecture.
In recent years, business analytics has emerged as one of the hottest topics in both research and practice. With stories praising the opportunities of data analysis being omnipresent, it is not surprising that scholars from diverse fields explore how data can be exploited to improve business understanding and decision making. In business process management (BPM), a research discipline called process mining has emerged that deals with analyzing historical data about instances of business processes . The data usually comes in form of event logs, which are collections of sequences of events that have been collected while executing a business process. Events are of different types. The type describes the nature of an event. For instance, an event could represent an activity that was performed or a decision that was made.
• Understand the “total ecosystem” of a business and ensure this is reflected in the business model, for example, through higher transparency of the interactions between the various phases of the product life cycles; and strive toward better collection and cycling systems.
On the aspect of game designing, apart from retaining the mechanism of traditional game of monopoly, it becomes more necessary to achieve the teaching purposes applied by the different courses. Therefore, we shall take the “ Monopoly of Real Estates”as the theme for our foundation, explaining how the fun game learning can be closer to the real-world situation, such that students playing this game may feel situating in the real situations and make suitable investment decisions. We further hope that the solutions to the design issues described below may easily achieve the purpose of the theme of other game contents to attract the teacher’ s adoption through the simple engine of the monopoly-mechanism platform. This following subsection introduces the solutions of the seven design issues, including the mechanism of business cycle, the points and numbers of the dices, the upgrade of the properties, the chance and destiny model, the mechanism of buy-and-sell, the mechanism of mortgage and auction. In every design issue, we initially point out the reasons for the necessary alterations to be taken into account, and then propose the solutions for the design, and sometimes even illustrate the solutions with the graphical pictures to give a clearer expression of the design.
Designers’ responsibilities have gone beyond merely creating functional and eye-catching artefacts. Design has become an important instrument for building business and social strategies to bring about great cultural and economic changes. Ezio Manzini & Coad (2015) stated that: “Cultural activists, grassroots organizations, and design activists are converging towards a range of initiatives whose purpose is not to offer immediate solutions to problems, but to spark in- terest in these areas and show, often paradoxically or provocatively, that there are different ways of seeing and resolving them. (p. 46)”. Bernardo Calzadil- la-Sarmiento, Director of United Nations Industrial Development Organiza- tion’s Department of Trade, Investment and Innovation, also pointed out: “In- dustrial design, through innovation and creativity, is essential to attain the objec- tives of the 2030 Development Agenda and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals, and especially Goal 9 on infrastructure, innovation, and sustainable industrializa- tion.” (UNIDO, 2019).
Organizations define business processes in order to specify how employees should execute their daily work (Davenport and Short 1990; Jones 2013). Adhering to the definitions of business processes is considered process compliance (Schaefer et al. 2013). In order to ensure high quality business process outcomes and to prevent expensive mistakes, organizations request that their employees be process compliant. Aiming to support employees in being process compliant, organizations make huge investments in the implementation of large-scale information systems (IS) to integrate data and business processes across an organization’s functional areas (Devadoss and Pan 2007). Such systems are also referred to as Enterprise Systems (ES) (Markus et al. 2000) and are built on packaged software such as Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) or leverage platform technology in the form of Business Process Management (BPM) systems. A user's business process compliance reflects the behavior of the user while executing the business process in accordance with the business process definition. There are many reasons, why employees do not comply with business processes. For example, individuals might not understand business process models defined by their organizations and hence, perceive them as less efficient (Strong and Volkoff 2004). This results in the creation of non-compliant short cuts. Furthermore, employees may not understand how to properly use the existing ES or, even worse, may not know that there is a defined business process for their current work at all. In our case company, we observed the following practical example demonstrating the negative effects of non-compliant process execution: In order to prepare a shipment for a sales order, an employee used an outdated customs document. Thus, her actions were not compliant to the business process definition. Such mistakes can lead to a shipment delay and in turn, can result in a delayed payment or even in the cancelation of the order.
Extending the metaphor of buildings to Web sites, we propose that Web sites that belong to distinct business domains may vary significantly, depending on the busi- ness goals and operational characteristics of the domain. For example, government Web sites might be designed for public information dissemination as their prime motive, whereas commercial Web sites might focus on achieving marketing and sales objec- tives. Empirical studies have also reported differences in customer expectations across Web sites. For example, in a survey of user perceptions on Web site quality, Zhang and von Dran  report that users’ expectations across Web sites in educational, financial, governmental, entertainment, and health services domains are significantly different. Whereas content ranks high in financial and health services contexts, struc- ture (or navigation) is more important in educational and governmental contexts. It is important to consider such potential variance in the relationship between Web site design elements and customer behavior across business domains.
Spatial analysis in business marketing (respectively Geomarketing) can be defined as “planning, coordination control and visualization of customer-oriented market activity with the help of intelligent GIS, statistic-software and data mining systems. It is a spatial data mining process that uses company intern and extern data to structure and derive spatial correlations and patterns and to analyze and to visualize these data. The purpose is to support decision making in the divisions of marketing, sale, organization and logistics” (Feix, 2007). Another definition is: “marketing focused on certain locations or regions with knowledge of regional spatial structures” (Frühling & Steingrube 1995). The first definition includes a very wide field of applications while the second focuses only on the field of marketing. Both definitions may be used, but both definitions cause different questions and different methods that need to be included in the profile. The first aspect that has to be considered while generating a WPS application profile is defining the scope of the profile exactly. It has to be stated which demands have to be satisfied by the profile. On the one hand it has to serve enough functions to satisfy a range of users. On the other hand, serving to many functions leads to an unclear set of functions non-experts users cannot set in context. In this paper, the topic of spatial business analysis shall be reduced to three basic themes that are to be included:
ADBCs are the proper characteristics in e-government procurement, which encapsulates the process and func- tions that is regulated by law and cannot be modified. They build the system frame to integrate other BCs. PCs is the set of meta-process which can describe concrete section of business process, while ECs is the set of meta-function which can realize some function of the system. ACBCs and BCBCs is the organic combination of ECs and PCs. The difference is that ACBCs is a kind of general BC, that means the attributes and functions it provides are common and can be reused not only in e-government procurement domain but also in other do- main such as OA or distribution system, and inherit [15,16] mechanism is used to realize that general BC, but BCBC considers the reusable in the same domain, it ab- stracts the common properties of several similar proc- esses in the same domain and encapsulates those proper- ties into a BCBC, it has several parameters, and it can switch to different process by re-configuring the pa- rameters. By using IoC [16,17] mechanism, the parame- ters can directly point out which template model should be applied. So when changes happen, we just modify the parameters in service layer, then the rest work can be done automatically by using IoC mechanism. CCBMs emphasize the requirement of customers and design the business components that can satisfy the specific de- mands of customers.