Designing of Solar Car

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Designing, Building of Solar Race Car for the World Solar Challenge (Phase I)

Designing, Building of Solar Race Car for the World Solar Challenge (Phase I)

The cars require intensive support teams similar in size to professional motor racing teams. This is especially the case with the World Solar Challenge where sections of the race run through very remote country. The solar car will travel escorted by a small caravan of support cars. In a long distance race each solar car will be preceded by a lead car that can identify problems or obstacles ahead of the race car. Behind the solar car there will be a mission control vehicle from which the race pace is controlled [2]. Here tactical decisions are made based on information from the solar car and environmental information about the weather and terrain. Behind the mission control there might be one or more other vehicles carrying replacement drivers and maintenance support as well as supplies and camping equipment for the entire team [3].
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Design and analysis of space frame chassis for solar car challenge

Design and analysis of space frame chassis for solar car challenge

The chassis undergoes various kinds of forces during locomotion, it has to stay intact without yielding, and it should be stiff to absorb vibrations, also resist high temperatures. The material property of the chassis is an important criterion while designing of the solar car. Different chassis materials can reduce the weight of the vehicle, improving the vehicle power to weight ratio. Material selection can also provide advantages by reducing member deflection, increasing chassis strength and can determine the amount of reinforcement required. The materials which used to build the space frame chassis in this project are aluminium and fiberglass.
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A Study and Design Based Simulation of Hybrid Solar Car

A Study and Design Based Simulation of Hybrid Solar Car

A. Hybrid solar car Components -Electric vehicle was first designing and developing by the Baker Motor Company since 1990s. A main advantage of EV over the internal combustion engine can thus be exploited in terms of no carbon emissions occurred due to only use the electric motor to drive the engine [10]. Generally, the electric car and hybrid solar car is consisted of six main parts: PV panel, electric motor, electric Generator, battery bank, IC engine and electronic controlling unit (ECU) respectively. A diagram of the hybrid solar car can thus be illustrated in Fig. 1.
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Evaluation of a large dish type concentrator solar lighting system for underground car park

Evaluation of a large dish type concentrator solar lighting system for underground car park

Abstract: To utilize solar energy more efficiently and reduce lighting power consumption in underground public spaces such as car park, a large dish-type concentrator solar lighting system is put forward along with its evaluation, which is a unique design to apply a laminated layer of beam split thin film coating and thin film solar cells onto the dish reflector. The collected sunlight is split into two parts, one being reflected into a fibre optical bundle (FOB) and transmitted for daylighting while the rest being absorbed by solar cells for electricity generation as other way to replenish daylighting. A set of four solar lighting system using 3.28m diameter dish are designed to meet the lighting requirement in a 1771 m 2 underground car park. A mathematical model is adopted to calculate the output power and conversion efficiency of solar cells distributed on the parabolic dish surface. The indoor illuminance distribution is given by lighting simulation. The results indicate that the average daylight illuminance in the car park can vary between 62.7 lx and 284 lx on 25 February 2016, and between 62.7 lx and 353 lx on 17 August 2016 for two chosen days respectively. For the presented design, the electricity produced by solar cells is just enough to power light emitting diodes (LEDs) for lighting meeting a criterion at night. Considering about 19% conversion efficiency of solar cells and the efficacy of 129.5 lm/W of LEDs, the hybrid solar lighting system can have about 40% utilization ratio of solar energy, so it can be concluded that a sufficient lighting provision can be provided by the proposed large dish-type concentrator solar lighting system for applications in underground car park.
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ENERGY DEMAND OF DECENTRALIZED STP AND APPLICATION OF SOLAR PV MODULES

ENERGY DEMAND OF DECENTRALIZED STP AND APPLICATION OF SOLAR PV MODULES

One of the major sectors, which need to be looked upon for the use of renewable energy, is sewage treatment systems. Sewage treatment systems are growing at a rapid pace due to population growth and not so proper sanitation facilities with low coverage. Above this, there is no proper inventory for the forms of energy used for the treatment of wastewater at sewage treatment plants (STPs). There is need to decide on substitute energy source before we exhaust our natural resources. The wastewater treatment consumes huge amount of electrical energy (60-70%) of the total energy consumed [5]. If this conventional electrical energy could be substituted by solar energy, the indirect CO 2 emission would significantly reduce and dependence on the grid electricity would
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Designing a Dual-Axis Solar Tracking System for increasing efficiency of a Solar Panel

Designing a Dual-Axis Solar Tracking System for increasing efficiency of a Solar Panel

ABSTRACT: This paper shows the potential system benefits of simple tracking solar system. The main objective of this project is to present development of an automatic solar tracking system in which solar panels will keep aligned with the Sunlight in order to maximize in harvesting solar power and also to display the voltage generating from the solar panel. The system focuses on the controller design where the system is able to track the maximum intensity of Sunlight. When the intensity of Sunlight is decreasing, this system automatically changes its direction to get maximum intensity of Sunlight. LDR acts as a sensor is used to trace the coordinate of the Sunlight by detecting brightness level of the Sunlight. To control the appropriate position of the panel, a DC motor is used. The system is controlled by a microcontroller as a main processor. This project is designed for low power and residential usage applications. From the hardware testing, the system is able to track and follow the Sunlight intensity in order to get maximum solar power at the output. This project is designed with AT89S52 Microcontroller unit. Depending upon the light falls on LDR the data will be read by the Microcontroller and the direction of the motor will be changed. With this direction the Solar panel which is attached to the motor also rotates to gain the maximum sun rays. A solar tracking system is designed, implemented and experimentally tested. The design details and the experimental results are shown.
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Designing of Solar Based Inverter for Rural Area Application

Designing of Solar Based Inverter for Rural Area Application

The basis of this work is to provide electricity to villages and rural areas where there are fewer facilities for power transfer. The power transfer costs high which the rural area people cannot afford. To reduce this problem to some extent we can make use of renewable energy (solar energy). The solar panels produce DC power which we will convert to AC power using inverter operation. But present generation Inverters produce only square pulse or Sinusoidal wave with many harmonics and less efficient. This power may damage the inductor loads and reduce the efficiency. To overcome this problem lots of money needs to be invested which is not always affordable for the people who live in villages. In this work we are designing different inverters using with SG3525A PWM IC, ARDUINO for providing proper switching pulses to the MOSFETs to get maximum efficient output from inverter and this also helps in increasing the life cycle of the inverter. The cost of this inverter is less and the villagers can efficient make use of it for at least 20 years by installing this system.
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Battery Charging of an Electric Car Using Solar Panel

Battery Charging of an Electric Car Using Solar Panel

Batteries are used to store the excess charge developed during the day time electricity generation which can be used later in the non-sun shine hours. The rechargeable batteries used are lead acid battery, Li-ion battery, Nickel Cadmium battery, etc. The storage battery is such battery where electrical energy can be stored as chemical energy and this chemical energy is converted into electrical energy as when required. In this project it is proposed to use Lead acid battery because it offers longest life cycle, offers good performance at low and high temperature, require less maintenance and its charging time is less. They are known for delivering higher flow of currents and lower internal impedance. Lead-Acid Batteries are not as highly reactive as Lithium Batteries, ad require an easier circuit connection to be charged by Solar Panels. Lead-Acid batteries use a chemical reaction to do work on charge and produce a voltage between their output terminals. This project will be using four Lead-Acid batteries with a voltage of 12 V each and AH (Ampere Hour) capacity of 100 AH. The batteries will be connected in series to deliver more voltage and thus more power. Fig. 3 shows the four batteries connected in series, giving a power pack of 48 V. it is proposed to use 4 lead acid batteries (12V each) in series to obtain 48V, which is the required voltage to run our DC Motor in this project.
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Design, Analysis and Manufarturing of New Technology Solar Car

Design, Analysis and Manufarturing of New Technology Solar Car

A solar vehicle is an electric vehicle powered completely or significantly by direct solar energy. Usually, photovoltaic (PV) cells contained in solar panels convert the suns energy directly into electric energy. The term "solar vehicle" usually implies that solar energy is used to power all or part of a vehicle's propulsion. Solar power may be also used to provide power for communications or controls or other auxiliary functions.

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Eco Friendly Car Using Solar and Electrical Energy

Eco Friendly Car Using Solar and Electrical Energy

solar and electrical powered car. The greater community on alternative energy and its applications, as well as to build a practical solar and electrical powered car that could have real world applications upon further technological advances. This project has a strong desire to innovate and use local technology and resources. When sunlight falls on the solar panel then solar energy gets converted into electrical energy and stored in the battery, Dynamos are employed that will convert mechanical energy into electrical energy, regenerated energy from a dynamos stored in a supplement batteries and controller supplies required power to the motor .Since petrol and diesel is not required it uses solar energy which is abundant in nature. Sunlight is now-a-days considered to be a source of energy which is implemented in various day to day applications. Solar energy is being used to produce electricity through sunlight. With the help of this technology we aim to make solar and electrical energy (using dynamo) powered car. Preliminarily our objective would be to implement our idea on a remote control toy car and afterwards with help of this prototype we can extend our future work on building an actual car powered by the solar and electrical energy which is both cost effective and of course environment friendly.
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Analysis of the car ventilation system and enhancement using solar power

Analysis of the car ventilation system and enhancement using solar power

The Sun powers Earth’s climate, radiating energy at very short wavelengths, predominately in the visible or near-visible (e.g., ultraviolet) part of the spectrum. Approximately one-third of the solar energy that hits the upper side of Earth’s air is reflected straight back into space. The remaining two-thirds are occupied by the surface and, to a lesser extent, by the atmosphere. To balance the absorbed incoming energy, the Earth must, on average, radiate the same amount of energy back to space. Because the Earth is a lot more frigid than the Sun, it radiates at much longer wavelengths, primarily in the infrared portion of the spectrum. Much of this thermal radiation emitted by the land and ocean is absorbed by the atmosphere, including clouds, and reradiated back to Earth. This phenomenon is called the greenhouse effect. The glass walls in a greenhouse reduce airflow and increase the temperature of the air inside. Analogously, but through a different physical process, the Earth’s greenhouse effect warms the surface of the planet. Without the natural greenhouse effect, the average temperature at Earth’s surface would be beneath the freezing point of water. Thus, Earth’s natural greenhouse effect makes life as we know it possible. However, human activities, primarily the burning of fossil fuels and clearing of forests, have greatly intensified the natural greenhouse effect, causing global warming.
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Combining Wind and Solar Energy to Meet Demands in Somali Region of Ethiopia (A Case of Dembel District)

Combining Wind and Solar Energy to Meet Demands in Somali Region of Ethiopia (A Case of Dembel District)

of renewable energy such as solar, wind, micro/mini- hydropower and biomass with other technologies such as batteries and diesel generator [8, 15-30]. The hybrid system studied in this work is one combining solar PV and wind turbine with diesel generator(s) and bank of batteries, which are included for backup purposes. Power conditioning units, such as inverters, are also part of the supply system. Hybrid wind turbine and PV modules, offer greater reliability than any one of them alone because the energy supply does not depend entirely on any one source [31-34]. Figure 5 shows the schematic diagram representing the scheme as implemented in the HOMER simulation tool.
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Parametric Study of Solar Energy Desalination System

Parametric Study of Solar Energy Desalination System

The effect of water level in the basin on the water productivity in the solar still has been studied and discussed during May 2015. The depths of water in the basin for states 1, 2, and 3 were 1, 2.5 and 4 cm respectively. Also, the other design parameters were considered as constants for all the states. The amounts of water productivity from the state 1 during July 2015 were recorded as shown in figure (3). The amounts of water productivity from the solar still have fluctuated during the period due to the intensity of solar radiation, air temperature and wind velocity. These parameters were variable from time to time through the month of May, as well as, the appearance of some clouds in the sky during some days, which affected water productivity. From figure (3) it can be noticed that the highest productivity was on the 21 st of July.
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V2G Based Solar Electric Vehicle Drive Train

V2G Based Solar Electric Vehicle Drive Train

ABSTRACT: In India, after 2030 all conventional vehicles are going to be replaced with electric vehicles. This work aims at to make an electric vehicle and also bringing Vehicle to Grid (V2G) concept to support the grid during different requirements. This paper proposes a proper method for the certain calculation of the V2G based solar powered electric vehicle transmission unit. Based on the vehicle’s desired performances, the electric motor power, torque and output can be calculated. The liability of the mechanical parameters such as road load resistance, gear ratio, weight of the car, tractive efforts, wheel diameter, motor gear box coupling efficiency and many more plays a very decisive role in the calculation consideration of electrical vehicle.
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Homology Modeling of the Calcium Sensing Receptor Extracellular Domain

Homology Modeling of the Calcium Sensing Receptor Extracellular Domain

The extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) on the parathyroid cell surface negatively regulates secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH). CaR has an important rule in diseases. Cinacalcet hydrochloride, an allosteric agonist of this receptor was approved by FDA in 2004 for treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Cinacalcet is indicated for the treatment of hypercalcemia in patients with parathyroid carcinoma or for secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with chronic kidney disease who require dialysis. This drug is an allosteric agonist which is bind to transmembrane domain of CaR. Studies showed that the ligand binding region of CaR, as expected, is located at the amino-terminal domain (extracellular domain). There is no crystal structure or model is available for this domain of CaR so we constructed the model and found putative ligand binding site. This model will be useful for finding new CaR orthosteric ligands and designing new drugs.
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Securing personal distributed environments

Securing personal distributed environments

Wireless World Research Forum WWRF security in existing systems but network operators and service providers are unlikely to share these and designing devices to accept multiple smart car[r]

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Vehicle Accident Prevention System

Vehicle Accident Prevention System

Our system is designed in such a way that the ignition circuit is controlled by interfacing set of sensors,logic circuit and node mcu. we know that the ignition key of vehicle has to be turned in two steps, one for switching ON the electrical circuit and second step for cranking the engine. as per our design, exhaled air reaches the sensor unit where it is checked for alcohol i.e whether the person is drunk or not, depending on the output of the node mcu controls the ignition process. If the person is drunk then ignition will be locked automatically and car will not start and through gsm module message will be sent to his /her family members. If the person is not drunk then car engine will be turned ON.
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The Usage Of Solar Energy To Reduce The Warm Temperature In The Car

The Usage Of Solar Energy To Reduce The Warm Temperature In The Car

This project has been carried out to reduce the hot stuffy air on scorching unbearable days. It should reduce the interior temperature, protecting and prolonging the life of the cars interior and equipment such as the stereo system. The heat also makes passengers not comfortable to sit in the car. Normally lot’s of power is wasted as the driver would switch the air cont to a high level to get rid of the hot air.

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Modelling and Simulation of a Solar Racing Car under MATLAB Simulink

Modelling and Simulation of a Solar Racing Car under MATLAB Simulink

ABSTRACT: in this article we present the dimensioning the modelling and a simulation study of a solar car race with its traction chain and its energy system. The most important components in addition to the chassis and the body of the vehicle are the motor drive system and the on-board power supply. The management of the energy flows is an important task to guarantee the best possible autonomy. The solar system with the MPPT technique and the storage battery are modelled to power a DC motor. Simulations are made for different loads and speed profiles.
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Solar Powered Electric Car with Regenerative Braking and Wireless Charging

Solar Powered Electric Car with Regenerative Braking and Wireless Charging

on hydraulic braking technology. However, this traditional braking methodology causes a lot of energy wastage since it produces unwanted heat during braking. Thus, the invention of regenerative braking in electric car has overcome these disadvantages moreover it helps to save energy and provides higher efficiency for a car. In regenerative mode, the braking uses a generator; it transfers the kinetic to electrical energy to restore the batteries. The excessive energy from the rotational force that can be converted into electricity and fed back into the batteries during regenerative mode. The merits of regenerative braking over traditional braking are energy conservation, wear reduction, fuel consumption and more efficient transportation. Solar power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity using photovoltaic (PV). A vehicle powered significantly by light energy has a very large number of advantages. Nowadays, the brilliant technology in automotive industry towards regenerative braking and solar power is improving. In this paper, the working principle of regenerative braking have been studied to promote the efficiency and realization of energy saving in the electric vehicle along with the application of photovoltaics in them.
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