Determinants of Brain Drain

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Determinants Of Brain Drain In Johor Bahru

Determinants Of Brain Drain In Johor Bahru

Brain drain is the movement of high-skilled individuals from developing country to developed country. The issue of brain drain is nothing new in Malaysia. The negative of net migration rate in Malaysia has deprives country’s human capital and negatively affect to the country’s economic performance and growth prospect. This research aims to investigate the determinants that urge high-educated Malaysians emigrate from Malaysia and causes brain drain in Johor Bahru. From the descriptive research design in this research, quantitative method was used to collect data through questionnaire survey. In this research, 160 high-educated respondents’ data were used as they fulfilled the basic requirement of “brain drain” for the analysis of the questionnaires survey. The respondents in Johor Bahru area were mainly focused and chosen randomly through simple random sampling technique. From the data analysis, the findings of the result showed that income factor, employment and education opportunities were positively impact to people’s intention to emigrate whereas better employment opportunities overseas was the most influencing factors towards brain drain. As a conclusion, this research was important and useful to the government of Malaysia to retain talented Malaysia professionals by doing necessary improvements and transformation, and raise the awareness of Malaysia citizens to the issue of brain drain.
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Investigating determinants of brain drain of health care
professionals in developing countries: A review

Investigating determinants of brain drain of health care professionals in developing countries: A review

Empirical studies on determinants of brain drain have placed particular emphasis on different factors. For instance, Kangasniemi et al. (2007), Robinson (2008), Gibson and McKenzie (2011) state that advancing career and financial advantages are important incentives in the home country. However, Hall (2005) argues that problems of access to research and weak institutional support structures are additional key factors besides higher income that motivate researchers and scientists to move abroad. In sub-Saharan Africa, factors such as better employment opportunities, low wages and better conditions, greater work loads (Stillwell et al., 2004; Mensah et al., 2005; Muula and Maseko, 2006; Dodani and LaPorte, 2005; Buchan, 2006; Dovlo, 2007; Kainth, 2009; Lofters, 2012; Dimaya et al., 2012; Ngoma and Ismail, 2013) low level of development, political instability, policies, lack of training (Chibango, 2013) religious or ethnic fractionalization, geographical distance, former colonial links and linguistic proximity between countries of origin and destination are factors driving highly skilled migration (Docquier et al., 2007; Marfouk, 2007). The main contributing factors of brain drain are economic (Beine et al., 2008; World Bank, 2011); political, social and educational in nature (Akpokari, 1998; Adepoju, 1991; Takyi, 2002). However, the study has noted that push factors in developing countries are of organizational in nature for instance ambiguous career opportunities, low salaries, greater workloads, poor working conditions, lack of equipment and lack of training.
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Investigating the determinants of brain drain of healthcare professionals in developing countries: the case of registered nurses in Malawi health sector

Investigating the determinants of brain drain of healthcare professionals in developing countries: the case of registered nurses in Malawi health sector

Brain drain is one of the most serious challenges that health systems face in many developing countries. Malawi is not an exception. The determinants of brain drain phenomenon vary across regions and the brain drain of nurses is assuming an increasingly important role in the developing world. This issue has received great attention in recent years. Brain drain studies mostly in developing countries have fallen short of investigating determinants of brain drain from a source country perspective because the focus is mainly on the nurses who have already migrated. In this regard, this research fills the gap by adding to the understanding of major determinants of brain drain among registered nurses in the Malawi health sector. The problem with the knowledge gap is that it makes various stakeholders and experts fail to come up with strategies and measures in an informed, well-focused and systematic manner. The study employed a qualitative approach and implemented in six public hospitals in rural and urban settings in Malawi to determine the factors of brain drain of registered nurses. The qualitative data were elicited from registered nurses and key informants using semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions. 18 nurses, 9 key informants and 3 focus group discussions of nurses were targeted to provide empirical evidence of determinants of brain drain in the Malawi health sector. The data were analysed using content analysis. Content analysis involved transcribing and reading thoroughly all interviews before identifying themes that were more recurring than others. This allowed compressing many words of text into fewer categories.
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Quantifying the Malaysian Brain Drain and an Investigation of its Key Determinants

Quantifying the Malaysian Brain Drain and an Investigation of its Key Determinants

Looking at destination country characteristics, this study reveals that religious diversity, high Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita (adjusted for Purchasing Power Parity, PPP), proximity to home country, and English language usage are significantly associated with the brain drain out of Malaysia. In a separate model specification, it is found that livability, as proxied by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU’s) Quality of Life index, is also a significant explanatory variable. This issue of high-skilled migration has generated substantial interest and concern among Malaysians. Given the government’s commitment to elevate the country to high-income and developed status by 2020, the loss of skilled workers abroad is often perceived as a limiting factor to this aspiration. With Vision 2020 rapidly approaching,
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Physicians’ brain drain - a gravity model of migration flows

Physicians’ brain drain - a gravity model of migration flows

Our paper’s contribution to the literature is threefold. First, while many studies document the effects of phys- ician emigration on various health and socio-economic outcomes in the sending countries [6, 10–12], a much smaller subset focus on the determinants of the direc- tion of migration flows for medical doctors. In one of very few studies which analyse the migration of medical physicians from 144 origin countries to 18 destination countries over the period 1995–2004, Yakovlev and Steinkopf [13] show that physicians are most attracted to countries characterised by greater economic freedom, a lower share of public health expenditures, and higher health spending per capita. Employing the same estima- tion strategy, our paper is most closely related to Moul- lan [14], who uses the data of Bhargava et al. [6] to study bilateral flows of foreign-trained medical doctors for the years 1991 – 2004. He finds that one of the main drivers is the healthcare market. Inflows of foreign- trained doctors are higher in OECD countries with a low
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Brain Drain or Brain Gain? The case of Moroccan Students in France

Brain Drain or Brain Gain? The case of Moroccan Students in France

Our findings provide important lessons and offer additional insights about the migration determinants for both origin and host countries. If the Moroccan authorities turned a blind eye on the issue of return of migrant students, as if they implicitly encourage their migration regardless of their return, considering them as a common source of foreign exchange (via remittances); the French authorities are also satisfied with the current situation, given the number of Moroccan graduates and researchers who settle in France permanently. The question posed by this paper is very important and makes reference to ethical debate in the context of brain drain. It is heavily difficult to accept that the best trained human resources in the poor countries migrate to rich countries without any consideration. Especially when, France decide to implement a new immigration policy (June 2006) to encourage more talented foreign students graduated from a French institution of higher education to still in France (“ Migration choisie ”) . One of the important measures of this policy is the three-year residence permit for highly-qualified students in order to enhance the development and attractiveness of France as leading research country. “ To sweeten the pill ” and counterbalance the negative effects of the brain drain, the French authorities have implemented mechanisms to assist the return of students and facilitate the movement of “ brains ” , which were brought into the “ original ” concept of co-development . In preamble, it is noteworthy to pinpoint that the co-development policy is not efficient and operational, since it focuses on circular migration but returns actually are very scarce so that return migration is a total failure. It is important to acknowledge that the reason behind individual return migration is usually tied to economic opportunities. However, in the origin countries, a phase of increased growth rate did not benefit to all agents and could hit some workers so that inequality increases and reinforces the migration propensity. In other words, accelerating growth in the South provides no guarantee that migration will slow down. On the contrary it is quite possible that it speeds up, whereas a massive migration of skilled workers from Southern countries will slow down their growth rate.
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The ‘Brain Drain’ Academic and Skilled Migration to the UK and its Impacts on Africa

The ‘Brain Drain’ Academic and Skilled Migration to the UK and its Impacts on Africa

Dependency ideas shaped early analyses of the impact of high-skilled labour migration. A more modern definition of dependency would consider the relative dependence of developing countries’ capacity to innovate and create skills domestically, under conditions fully accountable to domestic populations. For instance, one of the benefits which is often attributed to attracting Foreign Direct Investment is that this will create technology and knowledge transfer to host economies, thereby contributing to overcoming dependence over the longer-term. However, one of the main determinants of whether these positive effects take place is the absorptive capacity of the existing business and skills stock. Where the host economy is characterised by low skills, for instance, it is unlikely that technology and knowledge transfer will take place (Girma and Gorg, 2002). Further, if these benefits are to be transferred in a relatively equitable fashion, then higher level skills would need to be broad based to prevent economic benefits being absorbed only by elite domestic firms operating in tandem with a separate FDI economy. The loss of high skilled labour, especially where produced through publicly financed education, would fit within the general schema of capital (in this case human capital) transfers to developed countries. As such, the Brain Drain might be seen as the latest phase in neo-colonialism. Where previous phases of neo- colonialism have centred on the unequal exchange of raw materials and manufactured goods between developed and developing countries, so the latest phase includes the unequal transfer of the prized resource of the modern economy – skilled labour.
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The Brain Drain Cycle in Malaysia: Rethinking Migration, Diaspora and Talent

The Brain Drain Cycle in Malaysia: Rethinking Migration, Diaspora and Talent

migrants. Therefore Foo’s paper attempts to fill this gap by presenting an estimate of the stocks and flows of Malaysian-born migrants throughout the world. The author’s high-low estimate dataset demonstrates that there is a clear upward trend of overall migrant stock, with Singapore accounting for one out of every three high-skilled migrant who decides to leave Malaysia. Interestingly, the numbers generated by Foo seem to indicate that the brain drain may not be as acute as popularly believed. One constant, however, is that Singapore remains the destination of choice for ambitious, adventurous or disillusioned Malaysians. This is partially a consequence of natural factors such as close historical and geographical links, and partially the result of deliberate strategies to target and court Malaysia’s best and brightest with promises of academic scholarships and attractive career prospects. By exploring the key determinants of high-skilled migration, the author finds that high income levels in destination countries, livability and religious diversity, proximity, and the English language are associated with higher emigration rates. Of the 194 Malaysian migrants surveyed by Foo, 70 per cent were unsure whether they would return home, while 80 per cent felt that their professional goals had been met through migration. The longer migrants stay in their host countries, the stronger the social connections they make, the more property they purchase, the more children they have, and the less likely they are to return home.
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Does aid induce brain drain? A panel data analysis

Does aid induce brain drain? A panel data analysis

We also test some specific mechanisms to improve our understanding of the influ- ence of aid on the selection path of emigrants. Relying on the seminal papers of Roy (1951) and Borjas (1987), several authors have studied the determinants of the compos- ition of international migration focusing in particular on the education level of migrants. Chiquiar and Hanson (2005), Fernández-Huertas (2008), (forthcoming) and Grogger and Hanson (2010), for example, find that the major determinants of self se- lection among emigrants (by skill levels) is the distribution of income in host and home country, and the pecuniary and non-pecuniary moving costs. In this framework, it is likely that international cooperation may influence self-selection of emigrants, by help- ing reducing transaction costs (e.g. by providing opportunities for the highly skilled to migrate thanks to the attribution of scholarship grants), or even informational costs (e.g. by providing information on the donor countries to both skilled and unskilled natives). The clear identification of the latter is however difficult as project aid might induce screening of high level professionals (e.g. by creating opportunities for highly qualified native professionals in LDCs). Moreover, aid could help softening the budget constraint of potential migrants by increasing incomes in LDCs. We test for these specific mechanisms in section 5.
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Effective Cost of Brain Drain

Effective Cost of Brain Drain

In this paper, we have analyzed predictions of a two-period model of migration in a context of asymmetric information. A new theoretical result is derived with respect to the previous literature, suggesting that one has to pay close attention to attitudes towards migration return within families when looking at the determinants of remittances. Following a self-interest perspective, migrants make

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The “Brain Drain”: Factors influencing physician migration to Canada

The “Brain Drain”: Factors influencing physician migration to Canada

Context: Higher income countries have an av- erage physician density of 300 physicians per 100,000 people. In stark contrast, lower income countries have an average physician density of 17 physicians per 100,000 people. A major cause of this discrepancy is the migration of health- care professionals from lower income to higher income countries, a phenomenon colloquially known as the “brain drain”. Objective: To ex- plore factors that led International Medical Gra- duate (IMG) physicians to leave their home countries and migrate to Canada. Methods: An anonymous questionnaire with a mix of open- and close-ended questions was sent to 500 randomly selected IMG physicians practicing in Ontario, Canada. Results were analyzed using a mixed-method design utilizing both descriptive statistics and a thematic analysis approach. Re- sults: 39 physicians met inclusion criteria and completed the survey. The majority were 50 years or older, and over 60% were male. The most common reason for emigration from their home country was the socioeconomic and/or political situation, and the most common reason for selecting Canada was family issues. Sug- gestions for how brain drain could be stemmed fell into three broad categories: 1) more accurate information about lack of opportunities in Can- ada, 2) more continuing medical education op- portunities in home countries, and 3) address issues such as safety and quality of life in home countries. Conclusions: This survey provides insights into the reasons for emigration and immigration for international medical graduates.
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A Survey On Reverse Brain Drain And Its Relevance To India

A Survey On Reverse Brain Drain And Its Relevance To India

Brain Circulation can be considered as an extended definition of Brain Gain. Brain Gain occurs when there is sizeable immigration of technically qualified people. In case of Brain Circulation, emphasis is laid on the circulation of human capital across nations in the global market. It refers to the cycle of moving abroad to study, taking a job overseas and returning home later to take advantage of a good opportunity2. This type of migration is expected to occur in the future if the economic disparities between countries continue to decline.
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Brain Drain from Lithuania: the Attitude of Civil Servants

Brain Drain from Lithuania: the Attitude of Civil Servants

R. Marcinkevičienė (2004), while analyzing the migration discourse in the Lithuanian press, provides the linguistic explanation of that concept as the metaphor of the word emigration, which, in the author’s opinion, elucidates the most secret notions of the spoken phenomena and defines concretely their concept. The metaphor “brain drain” arises negative associations and means the vanishing and decay of intellect, abilities, talent, knowledge, and wisdom. Due to such application of the metaphor, the concept “brain drain” in the works of different authors is often understood differently. Some authors (Bosch, 2003; Jucevičienė, Viržintaitė, Jucevičius, 2002; Stankūnienė, 1996) underline the mobility of scientists, doctors of science and scientific employees of various fields; other authors (Cervantes, Guellec, 2002; Ushkalov, Malaha, 2001) distinguish the mobility of professionals in various areas, highly qualified specialists with a higher education (i.e. academic studying young people, scientists, engineers, specialists of health care and information technologies, other highly skilled specialists).
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The Way Back: Brain Drain and Prosperity in the Western Balkans

The Way Back: Brain Drain and Prosperity in the Western Balkans

While it would be counterproductive for the EU to obstruct or end migration from the Western Balkans, the sheer number of people leaving the region – and its effects on local economies[r]

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Lithuanian “Brain Drain” Causes: Push and Pull Factors

Lithuanian “Brain Drain” Causes: Push and Pull Factors

The factor of State academic system and collabora- tion is actually related with the influence of the state education system and the relations in academic society to the migration. The factor average (2.9) and the approba- tion to its statements equal to (68.9%) shows a bit less but still relatively strong weight between other groups of migration causes. It has been also obvious that the sub- stantial acceptance (41.6%) significantly exceeded tem- perate acceptance rate (27.3%). In attempt to disclose the factor consistency the best estimation (3.26) has been given to the open and flexible influence of the education system abroad that acted as the traction factor. But rather significant part of the respondents pointed out the strong influence of the conservative education system of Lithuania, its closure and the authoritarian hierarchical academic relations as the push factors of migration (sub- stantial acceptance 41.0% and 43.8%, accordingly). The discontent with the science and education system in Lithuania has been also reflected in the works of other authors as well (Kuzmickaitė, 2000, Jucevičienė et al, 2002, Viržintaitė and Jucevičienė, 2004, Kalytis, 2004). Unsatisfactory treatment of hierarchical organization of scientific and research activities were strongly empha- sized by other researches of the brain drain phenomenon (see Cervelli in fuga, 2000; Golub, 2003).
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Brain Drain from Central and Eastern Europe

Brain Drain from Central and Eastern Europe

When asking respondents: Do you intend to change your present employer (institution) during this year (1995) if you stay in the Czech Republic ?" (concerning internal brain drain), only 1% (13) answered "definitely yes" and 8% (73) ^probably yes". 39% (363) of respondents said probably no" and almost half of the sample, 49% (456) answered "definitely not". However, when a time horizon was not mentioned, it was indicated that approximately 25% of respondents might leave their present employer sometime in the future, the most frequently mentioned alternatives being private business research units (consultancy firms), another state research institution and public administration. Regarding the potential loss of human capital in the science sector, the situation. Does not seem to be critical. However, the fact that nearly one third of the sector might be on the move to go abroad is worth pondering on. In addition, despite the fact that the above results on the internal mobility of scientists do not confirm huge movements, about one quarter of the respondents do not refuse to change their employer. This would be a loss for the scientific sector.
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Managing Nursing Brain Drain from Pakistan

Managing Nursing Brain Drain from Pakistan

Migration of qualified nurses (nursing brain drain) from developing countries to developed countries is a major public health issue. Brain drain is defined by Lowell and Findlay (2001) “as the mass leaving of competent, qualified people for short or long term durations cannot be compensate by the shift of payment to their country of origin 1 .

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An economic perspective on Malawi's medical "brain drain"

An economic perspective on Malawi's medical "brain drain"

The "brain drain" crisis can also be seen as a process that Malawi can theoretically capitalise on. Virtually all of Malawi's major export sectors are struggling to compete on world markets, yet without any policy effort whatso- ever Malawi has demonstrated its competitiveness in the training (or "production") of doctors and nurses. Such exports allow Malawi to bypass the formal trade facilita- tion challenges (from the World Trade Organisation) that so hamper exports. The remittances from migrants are particularly important aspect of this alternative view. Unfortunately, data on remittances into Malawi is very limited and so it is not possible to measure the scale or impact of remittances from overseas workers, let alone the specific impact of remittances earned by skilled medical personnel working abroad. Therefore we present here international evidence as well.
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Turkey’s brain drain: An interpretative analysis of skilled migrants’ experiences in the Netherlands

Turkey’s brain drain: An interpretative analysis of skilled migrants’ experiences in the Netherlands

The various structural reasons consequently effect individuals’ decisions for leaving. However, not every skilled individual in developing countries migrate, even if their chances to earn additional income or have a better quality of life are higher in a developed country. In addition to that, some scholars have found that individuals assess their mobility on various reasons, rather than simply socio-economic reasons (Gibson and McKenzie 2011; Ansah 2002). For example, Gibson and McKenzie (2011)’s research in New Zealand, Papua New Guinea and Tonga show that career concerns, life style and family reasons are more common reasons for skilled individuals to migrate than better income opportunities. Phillip Abelson (1965) also criticises the income-oriented view of brain drain. He argues that brains do not necessarily go where the money does, but they seek appreciation, better working conditions and challenging environments at the work place. Monteleone and Torrisi (2012) also argue that skilled individuals tend to migrate to countries where they can find more satisfying job opportunities and where they are more appreciated than in their home country.
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The Effects of Brain Drain Phenomenon under the Greek National Health System

The Effects of Brain Drain Phenomenon under the Greek National Health System

The phenomenon of the brain drain is a form of contemporary emigration consisting of the best section of the human capital of the country. The loss of productive dynamism at the highest level stymies the future prospects of the country. The National Health System is damaged immediately by the phenomenon as the country is deprived of talented young physicians, the very staff who comprises the “cadets” of the public health system. Motivation theories and empirical researches and motivation incentives in medical sector, are the basic tools of administration for the treat- ment of the phenomenon. Observing from the perspective of the administration of the hospital, it is understood that there is a wide range of actions that can act as a brake on the exodus of young scientists. A specific incentives package is proposed for implementation from the management.
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