Self-Determination Theory (SDT) is a meta-theory describing human motivation. Central to the theory is the belief humans are inherently growth- oriented, and desire to be self-determined. Self-determination is contingent on the satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs of competence, relatedness, and autonomy. Competence reflects being effective in mastering challenging external processes, such as specific tasks, activities and situations; and an ability to attain specific outcomes (tangible or intangible) associated with the external processes. Relatedness refers to the universal urge to interact and/or feel connected to others, through the establishment of mutually beneficial relationships that provide a feeling of social belongingness and care (Baard, Deci and Ryan 2004). Autonomy reflects the psychological need for personal volition and causality, regarding cognitions and actions.
30 Read more
This research examined the processes underpinning changes in psychological well-being and behavioural regulation in Cardiac Rehabilitation (CR) patients using Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985). A repeated measures design was used to identify the longitudinal relationships between SDT variables, psychological well-being and exercise behaviour during and following a structured CR programme. Participants were 389 cardiac patients (aged 36-84 years; M age = 64 ± 9 years; 34.3% female) referred to a 12 week
26 Read more
Framed by Self-Determination Theory, this investigation explored student experience as they engaged in their Physical Education (PE), Health and Wellbeing curriculum in Scotland for the first time. We aimed to uncover the features of various learning environments that appeared to impact upon student motivation in PE over the period one academic year. We carried out focus group interviews with students from one state secondary school (secondary 1 and 2; ages 12-14) and its feeder primary schools (primary 7; age 11 years) immediately after a selection of PE lessons throughout the year. Furthermore, to provide some additional context for our analysis, the students in each year completed a questionnaire (pre-post) to identify and understand their motivation for PE over time. The results from the interviews indicated that students had a number of positive and negative PE experiences. However, the results from the questionnaire demonstrate that the students’ experiences during the first year of this ‘new’ curriculum had little impact on their motivation for PE. The findings highlight the importance of mixed methods research to provide context-specific account of student experience. This detail may be critical for the development of informed and effective pedagogy that supports student learning, health and wellbeing.
32 Read more
Organizational support theory maintains that when employees perceive support from the organization they become affectively committed to it because they feel obligated to repay the organization for its benevolence (Eisenberger et al., 2001). Based on social exchange theory (Gouldner, 1960), when an organization provides employees with desirable resources such as favorable job conditions, employees feel obligated to reciprocate with behaviors and attitudes that benefit the organization. Examples include maintaining a positive mood at work, expressing a desire to remain with the organization (Rhoades & Eisenberger, 2002) reducing their absenteeism (Eisenberger et al., 1986), and increasing the extent to which they perform conscientiously on the job. The organization may also benefit from employees that are inspired to “give back” to the organization by discovering innovative ways to improve performance on the behalf of the organization (Eisenberger et al., 1990). In support of this explanation, Eisenberger et al. (2001) found that when employees perceived support from their organization they tended to develop higher levels of affective commitment, have higher in-role performance, and exhibit fewer withdrawal behaviors all due to the employee’s felt obligation to repay the organization. The first hypothesis of this study aims to replicate the relationship between perceived organizational support and felt obligation found by previous research.
91 Read more
These motivations, due to their frequent occurrence, are often generic and their use can make it difficult to clearly understand the actual motivational process behind the student’s declaration. So, a similar term may refer to an internal process (such as a personal interest or inter- nal pressure), or an external one (parental influence, peer pressure, situational factors, etc.). Any strategy that want to increase nursing students’ retention and set up efficient learning approaches, has to be based on a deeper under- standing of their motivations. The use of structured ques- tionnaires can help to avoid some inconsistencies. These tools are not very simple to implement, and the interpreta- tion of the results requires a deep knowledge of the theory supporting their creation. Generally, the constructs are rigorously defined and the questions are strictly focused to measure only these factors. On the other hand, the
14 Read more
In China, fewer studies support behavioral research. Zhang (2007)  chose data of 264 listed companies, adopting two indicators the absolute and relative gap to measure wage gap between the general manager and the two other core members. Performance was measured by ROA and EPS, then the result conformed to the predic- tion of behavior theory. Adding the adjustment variable of team collaboration needs, the interaction between relative gap and financial risk had a negative effect on the performance of the two indicators. It was same to rel- ative gap and technical complexity, partially supporting behavior theory. Namely behavioral theory has stronger applicability than tournament theory in the design of core executives compensation. Mainly taking the time dif- ferences of formulation, implementation and influence of compensation plan into account, Zhang (2008)  supposed the incentive of compensation gap was lagging behind, thus carried out an empirical test. There were two kinds of gap, internal management team and executive-employee. Obviously, the former was negatively re- lated to the future performance significantly, while the latter showed negative only when the enterprise was ul- timately under the control of state-owned shares.
As the main strategic decision makers, the top management team plays an important role in the development of the enterprise. High echelon theory provides a theoretical basis for the research of top management team. The original idea of the top management team is cognitive orientation, but the previous researches focus on the demographic characteristics and Hetero- geneity of individual team members, ignore the social characteristics of the top management team as a team. At the same time, the results are unstable and contradictory. Furthermore, the cognitive process of top management team has always been a difficult problem in the academic circles, but has not found an effective way. Based on the upper echelons theory and shared mental model, this paper analyses systematically and summarizes the relevant re- search literatures, and reviews the domestic research literatures about the in- fluence mechanism of TMT on strategic decision making, then proposes the suggestions that develop the Chinese context research and related western theories. In conclusion, the research results have great value to promote do- mestic scholars getting involved in this frontier research field, then keep up with the pace of international related theories development.
10 Read more
A monetarist may find Theorem 4 to be very effective at the first glance. Theorem 3 implies that the quantity theory of money is upheld even in the normal economy, at least mathematically. The superneutrality of money is also supported. Nevertheless, some unusual phenomenon will be observed in this economy. That is, even if the economy possesses idling resources and the marginal cost is constant additional money only raises the price level. In other words, the credibility of money is entirely lost in the economy.
This article is part of a special forum titled “Ethnic Diversity in Music Theory: Voices from the Field.” In a narrative style, it presents the perspective of a mid-career music theorist who identi- fies himself as African American. While this perspective uses personal anecdotes, childhood memories, and a little humor to frame the narrative, issues of diversity, marginality, and race are at the center of the discussion. Also presented are directed calls for the Society for Music Theory to make even greater strides toward engaging teachers and students from HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities) and other institutions that primarily serve people of color. Such engagements would diversify the ranks of our membership and graduate student populations, as ethnically diverse perspectives might compliment our historical, analytical, and critical discourses.
12 Read more
Schumpeter placed emphasis on innovations in dynamic change and regarded them the carriers of economic development. Innovators were the kingpin of his profit theory. Innovating involved risk; it was like swimming against the current, many try but few succeed. Successful innovations give an edge over competitors and generate a surplus over costs - the profit - for the innovators. But Schumpeter soon found that the act of innovating had largely passed from individuals to research teams and institutions; he threw innovational profit into the dust bin of ‘obsolete ideas’. In sum, the search for the source of profit in dynamic change could only lead to rudimentary analyses, not to a unified theory.
From this perspective, female executives might put forward the interests of employees and other stakeholders who have an impact on and are impacted by the company's performance . In fact, female executives' participation would remain a sensible objective even if it does not necessarily lead to improved financial performance. Kahreh, Babania, Tive and Mirmehdi  aimed to examine the role of gender differences on the corporate social responsibility. Based on the data gathered and analyzed, it is demonstrated that there was not significance and meaningful differences between male and female in firm performance. Although there is not a significant relationship between female executives' participation and firm performance, females have more attention in dimensions of corporate social responsibility, they will attract the potential investors and even consumer groups, and further increase the possibility of firm performance's improvement. Hence, even if no significant relationship were found between female executives' participation and financial results, the promotion of females in firms can still be viewed as a good policy. To be sure, valuable social issues such as family life and flexible work arrangements are often given more importance in companies that attract female executives and board members . Hence, some countries like Norway and German recently have enacted laws fostering the presence of women in business organizations.
15 Read more
We recognize that, classically, portfolio problems are analysed in the context of the presence and absence of a risk-free asset. We therefore develop both approaches over two periods from both a conic and mean-variance perspective. However, if the holding period is not locked in, then fixed income securities are exposed to the risk of movements in interest rates and their return is no longer risk free. Many fixed- income investments are spread over multiple maturities with exposure to interest rate risk making them no longer risk-free and then also correlated with equity returns. The more reasonable and economically relevant perspective is then that for the absence of a risk-free asset. In fact, on recognizing that a credit default swap trades on the debt of the US Treasury leads one to conclude that the US Treasury cannot credibly promise a future dollar. In which case no one can. A risk-free asset is then a fiction that perhaps has outlived its usefulness.
36 Read more
ist-oriented social work. Feminism is born out of social changes, and social work comes from the practice of altruism. The urgent need to solve realistic problems has brought feminism and social work together. The feminist-oriented social work theory was originally focused on the reconstruction of women’s social identity. With the development of practice, this attempt was gradually replaced by a more personalized feminist-oriented social work theory based on the pro- motion of discourse power, realizing the contemporary shift of the feminist so- ciety work. The combination of feminism and social work has many positive ef- fects. From then on, feminism has moved from theoretical research to more ex- tensive practice, which has promoted the development of contemporary protec- tion of women’s rights and interests, and social work has also had new connota- tions and development directions, and is gradually maturing under the guidance of correct theories.
Constrained by the laws of the natural world, human beings perform their activities, including construction work. Much of construction work is observable as the physical movement of bodies and things. Workers lift and carry materials, place them into position, and use tools to fasten and install them. These physical activities constitute our traditional view of work. However, if we observe work only from the perspective of the motions of bodies and things, we will be severely limited in our ability to explain it. We need a richer account of what is happening when human beings work. To complete our understanding, we must place these activities in the context of human concerns. The workers are engaged in building a structure for some human purpose and in doing so, must negotiate their relations with each other as human beings.
11 Read more
The purpose of the paper is, therefore, to further develop the study of pricing by expanding the scope of resource-advantage theory to include the processes and resources that influence how a firm determines prices in return for the customer value it creates. It presents a conceptual model to address the root of the neoclassical limitations whilst providing a more specific conceptualization of R-A theory. Moreover, it proposes a delineation of value creating and value extracting resources, instead of tangible and intangible, as argued by Hunt and Morgan (2003). The structure of the paper is as follows. Firstly, the resource-advantage perspective taken in this study is explained. Its foundational premises are explicated and the theory is linked to pricing concepts derived from conventional price theory. In this way advances in economic science are preserved without denying knowledge of pricing accumulated through other research traditions. Secondly, a conceptual model of resource- advantage pricing is presented to provide a basis for discussion, implications, and directions for future research. The paper ends by suggesting that, due to an increasing velocity of change in markets (Day, 2011), pricing in the real world will become more future-focused, and to improve the pragmatism in the nature of the pricing problems studied by academia, more interaction between strategic management and pricing research is needed to develop knowledge on how to strategically manage pricing and its increasingly complex challenges.
17 Read more
Although there is a broad consensus that complementarity between CSR and CPA matters for firm performance, the association between the two practices and its performance impacts are not yet clear. Studying the two practices in combination may yield unique insights on the value of a first-mover advantage for firms proactively pursuing integrated nonmarket strate- gies, substitution effects between political and social strategies of firms, or the outcomes of integrated nonmarket strategies for other stakeholder groups outside the organization. New perspectives emerging from this strand of inquiries can potentially reshape extant nonmarket strategy research agendas. In addition to the five theoretical lenses, scholars could borrow insights from social movement theory to explain when, how, and why firms implement dif- ferent mixes of private and public politics to engage with social movements and what deter- mines the effectiveness of the overall nonmarket strategy that result from these interactions. For instance, when are firms and social movements more likely to engage in private politics to enact practices consistent with the demands of social movements, and when do they resort to public politics to thwart their demands through CPA? And what are the performance impli- cations thereof?
32 Read more
Lustgarten no. 24, stands out particularly: “As we know, Hassler’s moving melody was later to be used as a chorale; the spirit of J.S. Bach was soon to hover over this melody, in the several settings of it which this master made. So the melody served both secular and liturgical texts. The chorale became, so to speak, a musical article of the Protestant faith...Other settings of Hassler’s upper voice, such as those by J.S. Bach (…) offer only a superficial tribute to the lingering Phrygian system which musicians still believed in” (1979, §251). Schenker suggests here that Bach, whom he calls a “master,” produced Phrygian harmonizations of Hassler’s melody chiefly to comply with contemporaneous liturgical musical practice surrounding chorale singing. In Counterpoint, while discussing the different settings of Gelobet seist du Jesu Christ, Schenker suggests that Bach observed the Mixolydian mode despite his better artistic instincts: “Thus Bach and Bellermann force themselves—just for the sake of theory!—to begin as well as end the chorale harmonically with the triad on G. Even if we admit that under certain circumstances such constructions could perhaps be accounted for by some artistic whim or license—precisely from the standpoint of free compositions, thus not at all by theory alone—, those settings still contain enough stilted and forced features imposed by the Mixolydian system on the otherwise normal melody in major. This ‘forced’ character has not been mitigated by much, even though a J.S. Bach rushed in to support the false system with such artistic voice leading and so many [other] basic devices that make the setting
294 Read more
As a result, of these efforts, economists aspired by the different variants of neoclassical approach claim that they have reached a consensus and the approach naturally came to be known as New Consensus Macroeconomics, where the word consensus is used rather as a euphemism for the current state of macroeconomics. The consensus for the core model without trade 9 , refers to the IS curve which is derived through the use of the output gap determined by previous and expected output gaps as well as the difference between nominal interest rate and expected inflation; the Phillips curve, where current inflation is determined by past and expected inflation as well as the current output gap; and, finally, the Taylor rule, where the current interest rate, the major (monetary) policy tool nowadays is determined by the output gap, the differences between current and target inflation rate as well as the normal interest rate. To our view, this model is not far away from the neoclassical approach according to which the economy can come back to its growth path with some fixes and in these fixes, the rate of interest becomes the crucial variable. 10 Besides the “too little, too late” problem of this approach, the issue of the determination of the normal interest rate, the most crucial of the variables of this approach is of dubious theoretical validity. And the use of returns on long-term government bonds as a proxy for the natural interest rate is questionable even among the users of this approach. Furthermore, as the interest rates of Central Banks have fallen to zero or near zero levels, one may question the validity of policies of controlling interest rate on practical grounds. It seems that the liquidity trap has not only returned but the interest rate is at such a low level that neither Keynes nor Hicks would have ever imagined.
21 Read more
Affective computing research has strong parallels to work on engagement, given the motivation to produce interactive systems with representations of fuzzy states (Beale and Creed 2009). However, engagement has itself also been described as an affective state or emotion. The measurement of en- gagement as an emotional response has been used to support the design of engaging experiences. Defining Affect. Affect is most commonly described as the the experience of emotion, composed of the dimensions of valence and arousal (D’Mello et al. 2010). The 9 × 9 affect and arousal grid, for example, has been directly applied to the measurement of engagement in the context of col- laborative lecturing by human and computer tutors (D’Mello et al. 2010). However, affect has also been annotated as composed of three dimensions, valence, arousal, and power of control (Bianchi- Berthouze et al. 2007), defined as a combination of short-term emotion and longer-term mood (Hart et al. 2012) and examined using appraisal theory (Turner 2010). An alternative view posi- tions engagement (as attention) as a moderator of affect, filtering information as it is perceived. One study, in the context of art viewing, found that “momentary engagement overrides the effect of mood on ambient/focal attention” (Biele et al. 2013).
39 Read more
104. The popularity of self-determination declined as the prevalence for colonial states decreased dramatically after the 1970’s. Id. at 13-14. In fact, Professor Van Nanda, a leading scholar in the self-determination debate, has argued that claims to self-deter- mination by non-colonial groups would rise quickly, so the international community should propose a new method of determining the right to self-determination. See, e.g., Ved. P. Nanda, Self-Determination in International Law – The Tragic Tale of Two Cities – Islamabad (West Pakistan) and Dacca (East Pakistan), 66 A M . J. I NT ’ L L. 321, 322 (1972).
29 Read more