The shift in the funding architecture of global health has had a profound impact on how the health of women is understood in developmentpolicy and practice. Despite a wealth of knowledge and analysis of gender equality in health, it is clear that the influences emerging from some of the private foundations and private sector actors are reducing the understanding of women’s health to more instrumentalized notions of maternal and reproductive health. Whilst in some cases this may have led to a reduction in particular indicators such as maternal mortality, it does restrict how women’s health is understood, separating it from broader and more complex ideas that govern how women (particularly poor and marginalized women) are able to access health care throughout their lives. Health systems must be understood as social institutions, and women’s ability to access health systems will be based not only on the rather abstracted notions of women’s rights to health contained within UN documents, but also on how women’s empowerment and citizenship can be negotiated in each context.
Preparatory works for the establishment of a National School of Government are in advanced stages. The school will focus on on-job performance improvement training that is essential for new techniques, re- orientation and attitudinal change for Public Officers to keep them up to date with the changing demands of the Public Service. The training activities at the school will include mandatory induction courses for new recruits, leadership and management development courses at various management levels, cross cutting training programmes to address new initiatives in the Public service and any other training that may be found necessary. The school will collaborate with local and international training institutions, undertake research in pertinent areas of concern to Public Service Management, and any other human resource development activities that may be necessary. The training centre shall focus on in- service training needs that are practical as opposed to being theoretical so that learning is directly translated into the workplace for performance improvement. Much of the training shall be facilitated by experienced practitioners who share their experiences thus providing relevant lessons to civil servants for performance improvement. The focus for the training will be on developing job competences other than achieving academic qualifications. In summary, the National School of government will target civil servants from entry to exit.
Abstract The UC San Diego Library has been collecting and providing access to archived
web content since 2007. Initial collections were created on an ad hoc basis, with no high- level plan to identify websites and content of interest, and there was little documentation of how early collection decisions were made. As time passed, the library’s web archiving efforts increased in scale, and outgrew this informal approach. Efforts were made to standardise web archiving processes and policies via collection request forms and standardised metadata, eventually culminating in the creation of a web archive collection developmentpolicy, and collection and quality control workflows and tracking. This article outlines the process of creating these tools, including establishing institutional needs and concerns, evaluating the wider landscape of web archiving policies and norms, and considering sustainable use of available resources. The article also discusses future areas of work to ensure that web content of research and historical interest is captured in full, preserved responsibly, and made accessible even when the original websites have changed or disappeared.
To help enforce the Schar School policy on plagiarism, all written work submitted in partial fulfillment of course or degree requirements must be available in electronic form so that it can be compared with electronic databases, as well as submitted to any commercial services to which the School might subscribe. Faculty may at any time submit student’s work without prior permission from the student. Individual instructors may require that written work be submitted in electronic as well as printed form. The Schar School policy on plagiarism is supplementary to the George Mason University Honor Code; it is not intended to replace it or substitute for it. (http://www.gmu.edu/facstaff/handbook/aD.html)
Thai society expects that education institution will cultivate and socialize the students to have high moral and ethics as a major force in the development of society and the country in the future. This article investigated the knowledge derived from four research reports from 2007 to 2012 on the issue of "Development of moral and ethics: from policy to practice" and proposed guidelines for future research as well.
So why not target the price level? The conventional answer is that to return prices to their target level in the period following an initial shock would imply significant volatility of output. That is true. But why not select an optimal horizon over which the price level is brought back to some desired pre-determined path. And in the public eye there is a much less clear distinction between price level and inflation targeting than in the academic literature. Let me give a simple example. As I have explained, the Bank of England's Monetary Policy Committee has an inflation target of 2.5% a year. Members of the Committee are held accountable for their votes on interest rates by Parliament. At the end of our terms of office, Parliament might well ask what the average inflation rate had been during that period. Had we met our inflation target over our terms of office? But by asking that question the implicit criterion would in fact be price level targeting. The Committee would be asking whether the price level at the end of the period was close to its desired pre-determined path implied by the objective that prices should rise by 2.5% a year.
By the time the Year in Review Conference convenes, it appears that Joe Jordan will have stepped down as Administrator for the Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP). OMB informally summarized his tenure, noting that he was “a driving force behind administration procure- ment initiatives, including eliminating inefficiencies and buying smarter through strategic sourcing and shared services; improving contractor ac- countability and fighting waste, fraud, and abuse through the increased use of suspensions and debarments; stopping the excessive reimburse- ment for contractor executives; and making it easier for small businesses to contract with the federal government.” Jason Miller, OFPP’s Jordan
necessarily being a part of the solution, directly conflicts with the aim of the legislation to place families at the centre of the decision-making process regarding children.
Rimene’s (1993) Masters thesis provides a discussion of Maori whanau (families) and their experiences of being involved with CYFS after having been identified as having care and protection issues. Her primary interest was in the services that CYFS delivered to whanau and whether or not these services reflected the principles set out in the CYPF Act. Rimene interviewed five Maori whanau who had dealt with CYFS for a variety for reasons, as well as interviewing all of the staff at one CYFS office in Lower Hutt in Wellington. Looking at the Family Group Conference process, Rimene argues that the principles of the legislation are not being incorporated into practice by CYFS social workers for a number of reasons. She suggests that many of the whanau involved in the research felt isolated and overwhelmed by the power of the CYFS social workers, and that because of the many different professionals involved in a care and protection case, whanau felt that their voices were being drowned out (ibid.: 70). In addition to this, Rimene points out that CYFS social workers have the power of veto over any decisions that are made by the whanau, and because CYFS social workers always have a ‘bottom line’ that must be met 15 , whanau involved in the Family Group Conference process did not always feel that the decision that was made was their own.
ers in the northwest and southwest regions, measure- ments of current agricultural infrastructure and support (including pricing and financial systems), and an exami- nation of soil conditions and their impact on agricultural production. A program of interest is the HarvestPlus Pro- gram of the Consultative Group on International Agricul- tural Research (CGIAR). This program's research is geared toward rural farm areas and has examined the impact of plant breeding on enhancements of micronutrient levels in Southeast Asian diets. IFPRI's research has revealed that important parts of successful agricultural efforts are gov- ernment investment, educational assistance, and techni- cal expertise. If this program were to be introduced into China, the most cost-effective ways to reduce rural poverty and increase the growth of the Chinese agricultural sector may be to increase public-sector investments in educa- tion, agricultural research and development, and road- building programs. Governments can encourage private- sector investment in the agricultural sector by improving individual farmer-level access to financial capital, equip- ment and infrastructure, agricultural education, and tech- nical expertise .
The Social Services & Well-being (Wales) Act 2014 provides a wide-ranging single Act bringing together the duties and functions of local authorities with the aim of improving the ‘well-being’ of all people who need care and support, and carers who need support. The NI Department of Health is currently taking forward a three stage Reform of Adult Care and Support. The project is currently at stage two with the Department working to develop proposals for change to adult care and support for consultation in April 2017. Issues facing carers are the impact on their own health; detriment to their own life outside of their caring role; difficulties in balancing caring with paid work often leading to financial difficulties or outright poverty; for young carers, the impact on development of social skills, family relationships, and education/career prospects.
Hence the BoJ continued to keep the total outstanding amount of JGBs, on average, at or below the volume of banknotes in circulation (Chart 4 above) (see Maeda et al. 2005, p.10). Concerning the maturity of open market operations under the QE policy, both short-term and long-term (i.e. JGBs) market operations converged somewhat: In the MPM of May 18, 2001, the policy board decided to expand the maturity-spectrum eligible for outright purchases of JGBs to include not only 10- and 20-year but also 2-, 4- and 6-year government securities (Chart 23 and for comparison Chart 3 above). On the other hand, the BoJ increased the maturity for many of its short-term funds supplying operations in order to make bidding more attractive since a longer time horizon of short-term operations enables counterparties to better secure their future liquidity needs. For instance, the maturity of outright purchases of bills was extended from six month to one year (see Bank of Japan 2002, p. 4 and Bank of Japan 2009d). Apart from modifications of the maturity spectrum, there were also changes regarding the number of counterparties as well as the range of eligible collateral. Concerning the first, the number of banks and other financial institutions that are allowed to engage in transactions with the BoJ had been raised from 30-50 to nearly 150 (as of 2004), also including foreign banks. The main motivation behind this was warranting smooth functioning of open market operations. With respect to the latter, the BoJ decided at its MPMs of December 17, 2002 and April 30, 2003 to accept loans on deeds with original maturities from five to ten years, asset backed commercial papers (ABCP) and loans on deeds to the “Industrial Revitalization Corporation of Japan (IRCJ)”, which is a government-backed agency created to rehabilitate heavily indebted but viable companies, as eligible collateral. Since eligibility criteria for collateral are stated in the “Guidelines on Eligible Collateral” that also formulate the range of eligible collateral that can be used by financial institutions to obtain funds through the discount window, these amendments to the “Guidelines on Eligible Collateral” made discount window borrowing less difficult as well. The inclusion of these products was intended to make it easier for counterparties to refinance them and, in the case of ABCP, to foster the development of the markets for securitized products (see minutes of the MPM on 12/17/2002 and 04/30/2002, Maeda et al. 2005, p. 6, Bank of Japan 2004a, p. 305 and Bank of Japan 2009e).
The following section includes four tables that compare New Village to Edgar Moses on the four criteria against which charter schools have historically been judged. These criteria are paraphrased from research conducted by Deal & Hentschke (2004). Two criteria sound as if they are coming from a critical TSP: “charter schools were supposed to be innovative”; and “charter schools were supposed to improve academic performance.” Two of the criteria seem to reflect the political perspectives already discussed; one Democratic: “charter schools will not serve the same distribution of class and race as public schools”; and one Republican: “charter schools get more out of a dollar” (Deal & Hentschke, 2004). As was stated earlier by policy analyst Toby Dixon, charter schools were associated with innovation by Republicans who hoped that the market-based competition model would inspire entrepreneurial ideas. The idea that charter schools disturb social cohesion goes back to the Democratic fear that charter schools would potentially result in “white flight.”
evidence, what should be included. We have Her Majesty’s Inspectors (HMI) as the one agency that looks right across education, and they have now taken on looking at provision outwith colleges, in a wider way. So we share Her Majesty’s Inspectors with the schools, community learning and development, but now also with Jobcentre Plus, and prisons. In any inspection you would have a lead officer, but in my college I’ll have a number of people who are associate inspectors, who work for the inspector, and I will agree to their release...and they go away for a week to do an inspection and then they come back. Every college in Scotland has some associates in it. In the beginning they were concentrated in a small number of colleges. But everyone started to see that associates were helping to develop a greater understanding, so it was a positive thing. Those are selected by HMI, and on the panel there would also be a Principal.
2. POLICY AND PRACTICE
2.1. Th e Netherlands
2.1.1. Overview of Sources and Legislation
Th e procurement market in the Netherlands is said to be worth € 60 billion per year. 23 According to OECD data the Netherlands spent over 20.8% of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on public procurement transactions in 2013; 44% of total Dutch government expenditure and the highest procurement spend of any of the OECD countries. 24 Th ough procurement spend remains high in the Netherlands, Van de Meent and Manunza report an increase since 2010 in the number of intra- public sector collaborations for the provision of public services (rather than public- private arrangements). 25 According to Van de Meent and Manunza this increase in internalisation can be explained ‘by a growing belief that market performance, and competition, are not always able to provide the desired outcome for certain services.’ 26 Th ere is some evidence in the current Dutch government’s coalition agreement that internalisation has been motivated partly by a desire to improve terms and conditions of employment in some of the most precarious sectors of the labour market. 27 Since October 2012, Dutch municipalities have been exempted from the obligation to tender for social support service contracts, most notably for elderly and disabled persons. 28
This is overlooked in the current policy wherein land access is dealt with through sale and leasing (Agrarian Policy 1.1.). It further identifies land as economic in function (Agrarian Policy 1.4) and prioritizes ‘productive infrastructure’ (Agrarian Policy 1.5). Although these and other policy points addressed in Axis I: Land Access of the Agrarian Policy are important marks of contention, especially regarding women’s land access, a human rights approach to land tenure would be one that is rooted in the sort of rights-based language that we see throughout the Tenure Guidelines. These human rights aspects are clearly outlined in the sections of the Tenure Guidelines that speak to: human dignity (1.) with an emphasis on human rights, equality, and justice (2.) as it empowers highly marginalized populations; rule of law (7.) in relation to the past failure of institutions such as FONTIERRAS and RIC to follow through on promises to those who currently have access to land and resources; and finally, in that vein, accountability (8.) to hold all parties accountable to rule of law and other connected principles). In contrast, the language in the Agrarian Policy is not rights-based, but rather vision-based, perhaps in order to avoid infringement responsibility. It underscores economic potential (therefore, threatening the rights of those who may stand in the way), and moves away from a genuine discussion of ‘legitimate holders of tenure rights’ (that when identified, must be protected by all measures including international rights treaties to which the state is held accountable or bound).
I found, over time, that space for the development of professional dialogue was created, often because of unexpected factors. One such factor was collaboration with other schools through the ‘Improving Quality Schools for All Project (IQSA)’ aimed at developing more inclusive practice in the school, based on self evaluation processes and driven by a set of inclusive values in the form of indicators (Booth and Ainscow 2002; Grimes, Sayarath et al. 2007). Teachers appeared to be learning in this context because they were driving the agenda for change and development. Schools were supported by a team of advisors who were learning about the process in collaboration with the teachers. There was a sense of ownership among the teachers, and the concept of ‘active learning’ which they had been trying to develop in classrooms was being enacted in their workshop sessions and in their work in school. Self-evaluation and other mechanisms of accountability are part of a global agenda which has been pushed by external multilateral agencies , and so it is questionable how much ownership a country such as Lao PDR takes in such initiatives (King, 2007, p.377). However, my data indicates that such initiatives have locally created a greater space for teachers to question existing structures and systems. Through an increased emphasis on stakeholder / school community involvement, the teachers at Bhoung Phao were enabled to make broader connections between different educational initiatives. For example, in the IQSA Project they had to work in equal partnership with teachers from other schools, local and national advisors. In this process, the teachers began to experience a range of different viewpoints about what constituted an effective or inclusive school. My observations of them during this period suggested that these collaborative practices supported the development of their reflective practice. They started to ask critical questions about so called ‘correct’ or ‘expected’ models of policy and practice. In addition, they were working in partnership with advisors who were experiencing a
Metro City Council then had to decide how to implement this recommendation. As a first step it adopted a Fair Employment Code of Practice that encouraged its own direct and business partners (contractors and schools) in Metro City to report who is paying a living wage. The Fair Employment policy was an aspirational goal. In practical terms it led to the Council implementing a Living Wage Supplement for its low paid employees. This affected 257 Metro City Council employees and influenced indirectly sub-contracted 1,646 employees in schools (such as catering and cleaners workers many of them part-time) 100 apprentices and 171 casual workers. The lowest wages were raised by 14 per cent, the average increase being £27-77 per week (Metro City, 2013). Paying the increase as a supplement limited the financial implication of the Council’s decision as it was not then included in calculation of other benefits such as overtime or holiday pay. It was also an annual payment, not an ongoing commitment, though the supplement has been reviewed and paid each year since.
Case studies such as this can be limited due to a lack of generalisation of findings. However, the primary factors affecting whether and how research evidence is translated into policy that have been highlighted in the present study are congruent with other findings. Another shortcoming is that the process has been described from the perspective of two main stakeholders; the researcher and the policy maker. Perspectives of others, particularly from those more external to the process, may provide additional insights.
In this final analysis chapter, I explore how the academic literacy practices around student assignments are constructed in interviews with students and lecturers. As I discussed in Chapter 3, I drew on Lillis’ (2001) talk around the text approach to conduct the interviews. The results of this chapter emerge from discussing the assignments with their writers and main readers to understand how they view them. I argue that while students write a wide range of assignments (7.2) for different purposes, the labels they and their lecturers use to refer to some of them (especially essays) are not necessarily compatible with the definitions of assignment genres described in existing scholarly literature. For instance, Education students write what they call ensayos (essays), but this can refer to three different types of assignments. There is a lot of variability and confusion around what labels to use for different assignments, and I explore this further using data from the interviews, but also the contextual knowledge I gained from reviewing syllabi and assignment briefs, as well as the students’ assignments themselves. Writing for class discussion reflects a common practice in Mexico in which students read on the topic assigned and then write a text that is used to discuss in class (7.3). Furthermore, writing for
The researchers concluded that based on this evidence, there should be a current guideline in place for practice that recommends the use of pressure-relieving devices for all participants with pressure ulcers. Although not all of the RCTs met the inclusion criteria presented, and some areas of evidence indicated further research is needed, it is still highly recommended to incorporate this intervention into practice to aid in the healing and prevention of ulcers. The above evidence supports the recommended policy of pressure ulcer prevention and the incorporation of pressure-relieving devices to those patients at risk in the facility mentioned above. Based on this evidence, this intervention can largely aid in the treatment of existing pressure ulcers, as well as in the prevention of pressure ulcers to those individuals at greatest risk.