With this diagnostic method, thermal differences in the exam- ined region are usually compared to the same reference region on the opposite side of the body. For an accurate diagnosis, it is essential to get a comprehensive medical history, which includes sufficient time to allow the patients to complete their opening statement. As with all chronic pain, a pain history should include: a psychological assessment, family history (eg, temporomandibular disorders [TMDs] have a genetic predis- position), social history, and significant life events. It is also useful to determine which health care professionals the patients have consulted for their problem, including complementary and alternative medicine practitioners. A full pharmacologic history is important as well as a past and present medical history. 15 Red flags include giant cell arthritis, which must
transformer. It also reduces the transformer’s ability to withstand the mechanical and electrical stresses that oc- cur in operation additionally, high levels of moisture can effectively reduce the dielectric strength of the mineral oil. Over time this will result in outages and/or the nec- essary down rating of the transformer and ultimately could result in complete failure. While preparing this study we have used 831 KF Coulometer. The coulometric Karl Fischer titration is as version of the classical water de- termination method by Carl Fischer. The traditional method utilizes a methanoic solution of iodine, sulpher dioxide and a base as buffer. Several reactions run in the titration of water containing sample and can be summarized by the following overall equation:
rK39 ICTs are easy to perform, rapid (10–20 minutes), cheap (around US$1 per test) and give reproducibleresults. They are currently the best available diagnostic tool for VL for use in remote areas, and their wide distribution and use within an appropriate VL diagnostic algorithm should be promoted. The case-management strategy of the VL elimination programme planned for the Indian subcontinent , which is based on the treatment of suspected clinically infected individuals who have positive rK39 ICT results, is supported by solid scientific evidence. Given that several counterfeit VL ICTs have already been found in the Indian subcontinent, the need for rigorous quality standards and regulation of diagnostics should be addressed at the same time .
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In the current study, various radiologic measures avail- able in MDCT were compared to establish a valid method for the prediction of LN metastases. Among the tested CT measures, 2D LAD in axial images showed the best performance for the prediction of LN metasta- ses; notably, 3D reconstruction did not show diagnostic superiority to the 2D measures. Interestingly, although the baseline size of LNs seemed to be larger in right-sided primary tumors, the cut-off values for 2D LAD were similar between the right-sided and left-sided primary tumors (7.15 mm vs. 7.05 mm).
and culture methods were performed simultaneously for the identification of M. synoviae strains. The results showed poultry infection caused by M. Synoviae strains. In this study, 47% of the samples were positive for Mycoplasma genus by PCR, and 25% of the specimens were positive for M. synoviae species, indicating a high prevalence of M. synoviae contamination and a serious warning for rapid and direct identification of this microorganism in industrial poultry farms. This study provided a very fast diagnostic method for M. synoviae, compared to culture method. In this study, three samples were reported as negative by PCR method but positive by culture method. Factors such as inhibitors of proper functioning of Taq
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is among the 10th most common cancer in the world, and the annual incidence of OSCC continues to increase specifically in Western and Asian countries [1, 2]. It is reported 3.29 per 100,000 as incidence rate and 1.49 per 100,000 as mortality rate in China . The survival of OSCC is poor, with a 5-years survival rate of approximately 50% and has not a remarkable improve in the recent decades. The early detection by screening can be considered the best method to improve survival . However the oral cavity is accessible to physical examination, the clinical visual examinations occasionally may delay the diagnosis because the early oral malignant lesions may be clinically indistinguishable from benign or inflammatory diseases . The reliability of visual examination is also question- able and there are insufficient evidence to recommend a visual examination in screening for oral cancer in a low- risk population [5, 6]. The oral biopsy is considered the golden standard of OSCC diagnosis, but it is time con- suming, labor intensive and invasive . So a real-time, accurate and non-invasive diagnostic method is a press- ing need for OSCC detection.
Introduction: Ayurveda as a holistic medicine has a sound philosophical and experimental basis. Rognidan com- prises of knowledge of aetiology and symptomatology both and includes the pathology. Rog Pariksha is one of the process with the help of which we come to the certain conclusion about the nature and localisation of lesion and cause of suffering of a person. Diagnostic methods in Ayurveda rely more on the physician reading of patient signs and symptoms than on diagnostic practise (subjective interpretation). Various diagnostic method has been described in various ayurvedic texts, out of which ‘Trividha pariksha’ i.e. Darshana (Inspection), Sparshana (Palpation, Percussion), Prashana (Questionnaire) forms the basis of all. All the other diagnostic method explains in Ayurveda as well as modern science can be categorised under these basic ‘Trividha pariksha’. In our day to day practise we either directly or in directly use this Trividha pariksha to arrive at certain diagnosis and give proper treatment. So, these Trividha pariksha plays a key role in diagnosis of any disease condition. Aim: To study the application of Trividha pariksha in current clinical practise. Objectives: To study darshan, sparshana, prashana pariksha from ayurvedic texts and its application in clinical practise. Material and Methods: This is a conceptual study for which various ayurvedic and modern texts and published articles and research papers and information available on internet is used. Discussion: Trividha pariksha is root of all the diagnostic methods. Modern diag- nostic methods like x-ray, CT scan, MRI etc are just a medium in form of modern technology. One must be expert in Trividha pariksha for proper interpretation of any disease. Comprehensive and applied knowledge of Trivdha pariksha is needed for perfect diagnosis and treatment i.e. good clinical practise. Result: Trividha pariksha in Ayurveda has a key role in current clinical practise for diagnostic as well as prognostic purpose.
At the moment, co-dependent behavior appears to be one of the most common reason for seeking psychotherapy. While for specialists it becomes relevant to identify reliable diagnostic techniques to study the features of this phenomenon . In this regard, an attempt was made to identify prerequisites of co-dependent behavior using projective techniques, which formed the basis of a comprehensive study of respondents from different regions of the South of the Russian Federation [3; 4].
We used a data set of headache diaries from 165 women attending the City of London Migraine Clinic during the period 1998—1999; details on this data set has been pub- lished previously . Importantly, none of the women were using hormonal contraception, all initial diagnoses of migraine type headache were set by headache experts, and only records with a minimum of three consecutive menstrual cycles were included in our study; other charac- teristics of the migraine episodes (e.g. laterality) were not relevant for the method being developed here, and were not analysed.
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To our knowledge, this is the first systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate CAM and CAM-ICU in comparison to DSM-IV using the bivariate model and Moses-Littenberg method. We appraised all studies with recently revised QUA- DAS-2 to assess quality. However, in the current review, we are only able to compare two of the most popular delirium screening tools. Further studies may be warranted to expand these findings.
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Another form of genetic variation that contributes to genetic heterogeneity and has roles in disease pathogenesis is long contiguous stretches of homozygosity (LCSH). The development of SNP microarray platforms accelerated the characterisation of LCSH in the human genome. Early linkage disequilibrium studies identified an increase of shared haplotypes in the offspring of consanguineous relationships. However the appreciation of the extent of LCSH in the outbred population was in its infancy prior to 2010 (12). Population studies revealed variation of the degree of LCSH and non-random population specific LCSH that reflected the ancestral and cultural background of populations (13-15). Studies of European populations identified variation of the degree of homozygosity consistent with migration patterns, geographic isolation, founder effects and localised consanguinity (14, 15). This was shown to be reflected in the LCSH length and number of events per individual. Characterisation of the degree and properties of LCSH in the Western European, Australian population has not been previously described. An appreciation of background levels of LCSH will assist in the clinical diagnostic laboratory with respect to establishing thresholds for analysis. The knowledge of common population specific LCSH events facilitates the targeted investigation of rare events for candidate genes.
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G astroenteritis stands among the five principal causes of mor- tality by disease and morbidity at all ages worldwide. The most affected population is children under 5 years of age, where it accounts for the second cause of postneonatal death, with approx- imately 2.6 million deceased per year (1). Although the majority of deaths occur in developing countries, diarrheal disease is among the most common causes of illness worldwide, with approxi- mately 4,620 million episodes annually (1). Besides humans, all vertebrate species suffer from enteric diseases. Infections in farm animals can lead to large economic losses, while household pets, such as dogs and cats, are also affected. On the other hand, wild animals, such as deer, monkeys, bats, foxes, wolves, and boars, among others, can act as potential reservoirs for pathogens (2). Gastrointestinal (GI) infections are caused by a variety of patho- gens, including parasites, bacteria, and viruses. The characteriza- tion of pathogens causing GI infections of viral etiology has led to the establishment of a main group of pathogens (Rotavirus A [RV-A], Norwalk virus [NV], Human astrovirus [HAstV], and Hu- man adenovirus F [HAdV-F]) (3) for which specific diagnostic tests were developed (4). Tests for secondary or rare viruses are available but are usually restricted to experimental use. Routine diagnostic methods for viral gastroenteritis are nowadays based on the detection of virus components by immunoassays or by molecular methods (5, 6, 7, 8), with the majority of these tests designed to evaluate only a single pathogen at a time.
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A method of testing serum from swine vaccinated against pseudorabies virus with viral envelope-based subunit vaccines to determine the presence of antibodies to infecting pseudorabies virus in wihch an immunoassay is performed on the swine serum using a pseudorabies virus antigen preparation comprising nucleocapsid proteins of the pseudorabies virus. The universal diagnostic antigen is one or more nucleocapsid proteins having relative molecular weights of approximately 23 k, 34 k, 41 k, 63 k and 140 k.
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Objective: To analyze bronchoscopy as a diagnostic and therapeutic method in patients with tra- cheobronchial foreign body. Methods: We analyzed reports of flexible bronchoscopy with diag- nose of tracheobronchial foreign body performed from 2003 to 2013 in São Salvador Hospital, in Goiania, capital of Goiás. The analysis was based on: sex and age of the patients, airways and for- eign body characteristics, foreign body localization, success rate and rate of bleeding. We calcu- lated the frequencies after analyzing the data. Results: We analyzed 26 reports of the studied pe- riod and found that 57.7% of the patients were male with median age of 58.83 years old (+−13.79). The airways characteristics were normal in most of the cases. Sputum wasn’t found in 57.69% of the cases. Foreign bodies were located in right bronchus in 88.46% of the cases, and the extraction of them was successful in 80.76% of the cases. The absence of bleeding was reported in 96.15% of the cases. Conclusions: Flexible bronchoscopy is a notably successful method in management of tracheobronchial foreign bodies. Airways characteristics aren’t good indicatives of FB’s presence, once they are normal in most of the times.
Variable clinical decision-making has important implica- tions for diagnosis and management. This is particularly important for heart failure in the hospital setting, since junior and middle grade doctors often make diagnostic decisions. While judgement analysis may help explain and quantify diagnostic variation permitting its discus- sion as a quality issue within the clinical team. Findings may subsequently positively shape future clinical guide- lines, in particular identifying areas of variation and con- tention. Rather than the imposition of an external clinical governance agenda, the use of this method represents an opportunity for clinical teams to lead the quality assur- ance process and to differentiate between unacceptable and acceptable variability in care. Judgment analysis use- fully captures the determinants of clinicians’ diagnostic decisions about heart failure. This pilot study demon- strates the potential for the method to facilitate quality assurance within the clinical team by enabling teams to explore variations, reassess educational support, and make appropriate use of (or modify) guidelines. Further adequately-powered research is required to realize this potential and inform clinical management.
S treptococcus pyogenes was one of the first bacterial infections to be treated with sulfur antibacterials in the 1930s (16) and proved to be clinically effective in the treatment and prophylaxis of S. pyogenes infections (10, 16, 23, 29). However, when sulfadi- azine, an early short-acting sulfur antibacterial, was used in mass prophylaxis programs to prevent S. pyogenes tonsillitis and acute rheumatic fever (ARF) in military recruits in the 1940s, the clinical efficacy of this antibacterial was limited due to the presumed de- velopment of resistance (13, 15, 27, 31, 42) among some strains. Initial antibacterial susceptibility testing (AST) of S. pyogenes to sulfur antibacterials using a broth dilution method demonstrated that some strains were resistant (25, 53); however, AST was in its infancy and no standardized reference methods existed at that time. This early experience resulted in the belief that trim- ethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) is ineffective against S. pyo- genes, and its use has been discouraged in clinical practice for decades (35).
As mentioned previously, several studies have been carried out to detect spams and their resources. In one study, user behavior analysis method was used to discover the spammer . In this work, the user performance while posting (including Posting Count, Posting Standard Deviation, Posting Intensity) and click-based features (including total clicks, click per day, effective average clicks, clicks standard deviation, max clicks) were investigated . The advantage of this method is to benefit from simultaneous use of multiple behavioral characteristics. However, the disadvantage of the mentioned method is the lack of availability of the dataset created by the authors. In addition, only one classification algorithm is used in this study and the training set is done manually.
tection System links two techniques, isothermal DNA amplification and real-time bioluminescence detection. This combination increases the sensitiv- ity and specificity of the results. Bst DNA poly- merase used in the LAMP method possess activ- ity exchange of DNA strands but does not have exonuclease activity, thus the resulting product has a very high specificity for the matrix. Subse- quent cycles of extension and strand displacement are carried out using polymerase, and two or three pairs of primers that recognize six or eight differ- ent regions of the bacterial genome of the matrix.
Accurate diagnosis of malaria is key to effective treat- ment and control, and delayed diagnosis increases morbid- ity and mortality . Ideally, the best diagnostic tech- niques should accurately indicate the presence or absence of malaria parasites, identify the infecting species, quanti- fy the parasite count and measure the efficacy of anti- malarial therapy . Because numerous studies have questioned the ability of microscopy (the current gold standard) to correctly perform these functions, the evalua- tion of the ability of alternative methods for the same pur- pose as depicted in this study is considered important.
We performed the estimation of depth profile by using collimator method and γ -ray intensity ratio as shown in Figure 4 (a). Vertical axis is γ -ray intensity ratio based on the 1951 keV as reference γ -ray, and horizontal axis is γ -ray energy. Solid triangle, circle, and rectangle points in Figure 4 are experimental γ -ray intensity ratios at sample position No.1, No.2, and No.3, respectively, obtained from the right side of equation (2). These points are also plotted with error bars associated with peak fitting which include statistics errors. Solid, dashed, and dotted lines are γ -ray intensity ratios derived from calculations using equation (1) and the left side of equation (2).