Gong Yanfeng et al.  used 2-methoxyethyl acetate (MEA) as a new oxygenated additive to decrease exhaust smoke of diesel. In this investigation some fuel blends containing 10%, 15% and 20% MEA were prepared and researchers analysed the effects of MEA on engine’s power, fuel economy, emissions and combustion characteristics on a single cylinder diesel engine. E. Sukjit et al.  assessed the effects on combustion and emissions characteristics of preselected biodiesel components (i.e. methyl esters). In this experimentation, individual fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were added to alcohol blends sequentially to recognize the effect of carbon chain length and degree of unsaturation on combustion and emissions. The effect of alcohol addition on the properties of fuel blends using ethanol and butanol was also studied. Zheng Chen et al.  evaluated the performance and emissions of a passenger-car diesel engine fuelled with butanol- diesel blend as the supplement to the conventional diesel fuel. In this investigation, diesel fuel (Bu00), butanol (20%), ediesel (80%) (by vol.) (Bu20), butanol (30%), ediesel (70%) (Bu30), and butanol (40%), ediesel (60%) (Bu40) fuels were prepared and tested on a high-speed direct injection diesel engine at various loads and at two engine speeds of 2000 r/min and 4000 r/min. Mojtaba Saei Moghaddam et al.  evaluated the performance, combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of a diesel engine using Nitrogenated- Diesel Additives blends fuel. In this investigation, Nitrogenated additives (Nitroethane and Nitromethane) were used to improve combustion performance, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), and reduce exhaust emission from diesel engine. The physiochemical properties of the standard diesel and blended fuel were also studied.
and Emission reduction on Diesel engine using diesel blend is discussed. Biodiesel production nowadays become the modern and technological area for researchers due to constant increase in the prices of petroleum, diesel and environmental advantages. Biodiesel from Jatropha oil was produced by alkali catalyzed transesterification process used for the study on engine performance evaluation. Recently it is being considered as one of the most promising alternative fuels in internal combustion engine. Performance test and exhaust gas analysis was conducted with single cylinder water cooled diesel engine with Jatropha oil as fuel.
Abstract: Exceptional resembling the all around requested utilization of world oil spares, rise the jatropha oil cost and results for normal defilement of extending vapor outpouring there is a desperate prerequisite for sensible alternate fuel for diesel engines. The present examination covers the stage I, these tests are driven on a four stroke single barrel water cooled organize implantation diesel engine with reliable speed by using diesel and basic data is made through fluctuating weights. In second stage, test examination has been done on a comparable engine with same working parameters by using the Jatropha oil methyl esters blend with a degree J30 by extension of Die Ethyl Ether with Ignition improver of 5ml, 10ml to find the output and discharge parameters. The fundamental motivation behind start improver is to enhance the burning procedure and lessen the discharges. The version and discharge parameters got in the above tests were thought about in line fundamental diesel information.The blend J30 with begin improver 10 ml exhibits diminished releases like CO, HC, NOX, smoke thickness and upgraded adequacy like brake warm profitability, BSFC.
Bio-fuels seem to be an ideal alternative to dwindling fossil resources as they are renewable and environmentally safer compared to fossil fuels. Among the feasible alternative fuels, bio-ethanol, biodiesel, diesohol and to a lesser extent pure vegetable oils are considered as most promising bio-fuels. Out of these, biodiesel and diesohol have received much attention in recent years for diesel engines and could be one remedy in many countries to reduce their dependence on fossil oil. Ethanol is used as an alternative fuel, a fuel extender, an oxygenate and an octane enhancer. It is a low cost oxygenated compound with high oxygen content (34.8%). Ethanol is an alcohol most often chosen because of the ease of production, can be obtained from various kinds of biomass such as maize, sugarcane, sugar beet, corn, cassava, red seaweed etc., relatively low-cost and low toxicity [Lapuerta, et al., 2007].
increased. The higher the cetane number the better the good cold start ability for the motor or engine and lower the noise and gives better efficiency and longs the engines life. The cetane number of the blended fuel depends on the amount and type of additive used in the blend. This test explains the determination of cetane number which is an important variable in rating the quality of diesel fuel. The test uses standard single cylinder, four-stroke cycle, variable compression ratio, indirect injected diesel engine. The cetane number ranges from 0 to 100, but common testing ranges from 30 to 65. The objective of this test (equation) is to know the cetane number in another way or to compare the actual cetane number with the cetane index. The equations of the cetane index are tested by the ASTM and published to be used within the testing. The cetane index is also done if there is no testing engine to be used to know the cetane number. The cetane index does not differ from the cetane number it ranges of positive or negative 2 numbers from the cetane number as it measures the cetane range of minimum 30 to maximum 65 or exceeds it depending on the blend or additive used in the test with the diesel. The pour point is defined as the lowest temperature at which the sample will flow. It indicates how easy or difficult it is to pump the diesel fuel, especially in cold weather. It also indicates the aromaticity or the paraffinity of diesel. A lower pour point means that the paraffin content is low. Pour points for the whole diesel boiling above 232 C (450F) are determined by standard tests like ASTM D97. The pour point is one of three crucial points that must be indicated for any sample. The first point to measure is the cloud point. The cloud point is the lowest temperature at which oil becomes cloudy and the first particles of wax crystals are observed as the oil is cooled gradually under standard conditions. Those standard conditions are set for the three points. After the cloud point, the pour point is reached. The pour point is as stated before is the lowest temperature at which the sample flows. Knowing this point is crucial and its importance is discussed in greater detail below. After the pour point the freezing point is reached. From its name, this point is the point where the flow no longer flows and is has frozen. Those three points obviously depend on the type of sample we have. For example, a sample that is naturally heavy would have a harder time to flow thus it would have a high pour point. On the other hand, a sample that is naturally light would need greater cooling to reach its pour point, which would therefore have lower point.
Abstract— This paper provides a comprehensive review of the technical feasibility of DME-Diesel blend as an alternative fuel for compression-ignition engines for automotive applications. DME is a synthetic fuel produced by the conversion of various feedstocks such as natural gas, coal, oil residues and bio-mass. The compatible properties such as high cetane number and low auto-ignition temperature with spray characteristics of DME enable its application to CI engines despite of its easier evaporation and lower density. In addition, simple chemical structure of DME (CH 3 -O-CH 3 )
346 | P a g e formulated, have been found suitable for utilization in diesel engine. Vegetable oils are triglycerides with a no. of branched chains of different lengths. Vegetable oil creates some problem when it is used in engine; these problems are high viscosity, low volatility & polyunsaturated character of neat vegetable oil. Some common problems arising in engine when it run by vegetable oil are coking and trumpet formation on the injectors, carbon deposits, oil ring sticking & thickening & gelling of lubricating oil as a result of contamination by the vegetables oils. Different techniques are used to reduce the viscosity & make them suitable for engine application. Second largest producer of sesame oil is India in the World. 3rdlarghest producer of sesame seeds is India but 2nd largest producer of oil just because of faulty harvesting practices associated with the seed production. Sesame being a sub continental shrub can grow anywhere in waste lands, low laying planes and region with scarcity of water.
Ethanol is a biofuel, which is a renewable energy source obtained from sugarcane (Brazil, India), starch (US). Ethanol can be an alternative fuel.  Many Countries across the world, they are using a blend of ethanol and diesel-like Brazil, U.S.A they are an epicentre in this field. They consume approximately 80% of the world's total ethanol, and the U.S has the aim to use 164 billion litres per year ethanol in the blend by 2022.
The variation of oxides of nitrogen at different loads is shown in Figure 11. The NOx emissions were found to be higher for B20, BDEB5, BDEB10 and BDEB15 at full load when compared to diesel. The percentage of increase of NOx is 3.05%, 5.05%, 7.07% and 12.12% for full load compare to diesel. A number of fuel properties can affect the emission of NOx. If we can create a more completed combustion, we can get higher combustion temperature, which will cause higher NOx formation Srivastava. P.K, Madhumita Verma, (2008). Therefore, adding ethanol to biodiesel as oxygenates can enhance combustion efficiency of the fuel. Another reason for the increase of NOx emissions is the decrease of the cetane number with the addition of ethanol. It is well known that the cetane number influences NOx emissions from diesel engines. A lower cetane number means an increase in the ignition delay and more accumulated fuel/air mixture, which causes a rapid heat release in the beginning of the combustion, resulting in high temperature and high NOx formation.
13 Read more
and performance of C I engine with dual biodiesels – diesel blends as an alternative future fuel (pongamia pinnata and jatropha biodiesels mixture - diesel blend). The main properties such as calorific value, kinematic viscosity and flash point of diesel, mixture of biodiesels and the diesel with biodiesels blend (DPJBD) were determined by using the standard test methods. The results indicate that the calorific value of the blends decrease with an increase in concentration of biodiesels in diesel. The kinematic viscosity and flash point temperature of the dual biodiesel blends are augmented with an increase in concentration of biodiesels in the blends. The viscosity of dual biodiesel blends decreases with an increase in temperature and also reaches the viscosity of diesel at higher temperatures. The specific fuel consumption of dual biodiesel blends was comparable to diesel and provided less HC and CO emissions than diesel.
Abstract- An experimental investigation is conducted to evaluate the effects of using diethyl ether and ethanol as additives to biodiesel/diesel blends on the performance and emissions of a direct injection diesel engine. The test fuels are denoted as DI ( 100%diesel) ,BD (20% biodiesel and 80% diesel in vol.), BDET (15% biodiesel, 80% diesel , and 5% diethyl ether in vol.) and BDE (15% biodiesel ,80% diesel and 5% ethanol, in vol.) respectively. The results indicate that, compared with BD, there is slightly lower brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) for BDET. Drastic reduction in smoke is observed with BDET and BDE at higher engine loads. BDET reflects better engine performance and combustion characteristics than BDE and BD.
Highest brake thermal efficiency is achieved in all the blends of biodiesel. The blends of biodiesel having lesser calorific value as compared to pure diesel. Biodiesel when mass produced is having less cost as compare to pure diesel. Flash and fire point increases with increase in different blends.
The need of various transportation systems is increasing every day in such a fast developing world, and in the result of this, several vehicles and engine are increasing while conventional fuel like diesel and petrol are vanishing gradually with time. So it is need of the hour, we must have the alternative to above conventional fuels. The purpose of this experimental investigation is to study the effect of the blend kerosene oil blend together with conventional fuel on single cylinder diesel engine which is attached with eddy current dynamometer. An experimental analysis was made to check the diesel engine performance using various blends of kerosene with mineral diesel. Different blends of kerosene oil together with diesel in the ratio of 5%, 10% and 15% by volume and investigated under the different load conditions in a CI engine. The outcomes under various parameters were believed to be almost near to that of diesel fuel only. Different engine parameters such as brake power, brake specific fuel consumption, brake mean effective pressure, fuel consumption rate, exhaust gas temperature etc. have been determined and these were compared with diesel fuel.
In present diesel engines, the fuel injectors are designed to maintain very higher injection pressures in order to acquire better performance results .The main intention of this design is to decrease the exhaust emissions and increase the efficiency of the engine .The fuel injection pressure is inversely proportional to the droplet size of the fuel. When the fuel droplets diameter increases at lower injection pressures then the ignition delay period increases during combustion. This further leads to increase in the injection pressure. Engine performance will be reduced since combustion goes to poor condition. When the injection pressure is increased the fuel particle size is decreased. The air and fuel mixture formation becomes better from that complete combustion was done in the cylinder during the period of ignition. When the injection pressure is high the ignition delay period is shorter. The homogeneous mixture leads to increase in combustion efficiency.
An engine which is used to convert heat into work is called heat engine. In this heat is low grade energy and work is high grade energy. Heat engines are either external combustion engines or internal combustion engines .The internal combustion engines are having higher efficiency than the external combustion engines and emits fewer pollutants in this diesel used as a fuel .The main idea of alternative fuels is good reserves in the sector of transportation because they will not only assist to the environment quality but also has distinct positive socioeconomic results. From last century, many number of scientists had suggested that the bio-fuels are good alternatives to fossil fuels. In present research we will introduce Honne oil as an alternative fuel.In present day’s major pollutants from automobiles are Carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), oxides of Nitrogen (NO X ), sulphur compounds, lead compounds and
Abstract: Usage of fossil fuel in conventional engine leads to two major problems, one is the environmental pollution and the other is its availability. Hence it is necessary to find a feasible another source to replace fossil diesel. Waste plastic oil is one such alternative and has dual advantage, its usage as fuel for engine and it reduces the pollution due to plastic waste as it takes almost decades for plastics to decompose. In this present study the extraction and characterization of waste plastic oil (WPO) obtained by pyrolysis has been discussed and later set out to investigate the effects of adding a renewable oxygenated component in the form of 1-hexanol and 1-octanol. Three ternary blends for 1-hexanol and 1-octanol were strategically prepared as D50-WPO40- H10, D50-WPO30-H20, D50-WPO20-H30 and D50-WPO40-O10, D50-WPO30-O20, D50-WPO20-O30 respectively with an objective to replace the usage of diesel by 50%. The performance, combustion and emission characteristics of these blends were analyzed for both alcohols separately in comparison with neat diesel and WPO operation. Experimental results indicated that, n- hexanol addition presented lower smoke and NOX emissions and higher HC emissions when compared to diesel. Addition of 20% n-octanol with ULSD/WPO blend reduced HC and CO emissions favourably when compared to both WPO and ULSD. Brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of the engine decreased with increasing higher alcohols fraction in the blends. But D50-W40- H10 blend shows better BTE and fuel consumption when compared to both WPO and diesel. This blend also enjoys lower peak pressure and presented lower smoke and CO emissions when compared to ULSD. Study revealed that addition of higher alcohols (by up to 20%) to ULSD/WPO blend could viable additive for diesel engines operating with WPO extracted from mixed waste plastic.
10 Read more
The amount of fuel used in the experiment to run the engine is simply known as the specific fuel consumption. In the analysis of the brake specific fuel consumption of the engine, same blend i.e., B30 with different pressure and pure diesel fuels were used in the engine. The analysis of brake specific fuel consumption shown that B30 at 240bar fuel shows higher value of specific fuel consumption as compared to B30 at 220bar and diesel fuel at low load condition. As the load increases, the specific fuel consumption decreases. This is because, as the loads on engine increases, fuel consumption also increases, which make the engine to run at the high limit and increases the proper mixing of the air-fuel ratio.
that use dual fuel concept is more economical with environmental advantage T.Lakshamanan (2011) et.al. Turpentine is a biofuel that is one of the alternative fuel additive to petro fuel because it is a renewable bio-based resource and provides the potential to reduce consumption of the petro fuels and particulate emissions in spark ignition engines. It can be produced from plentiful, domestic, cellulosic biomass resources such as woody plants, agricultural and forestry residues, and a large portion of municipal solid waste and industrial waste streams. Production of turpentine from biomass is one way to reduce consumption and cost of crude oil imported by some countries, and also environmental pollution. The turpentine is an environmentally friendly alternative liquid fuel, which can be used in any spark ignition (SI) engine as an additive to the gasoline. It was used in early engines without any modification. However, abundant availability of petro fuels stopped the usage of turpentine in internal combustion engines.: R. vallinayagam, et al. (2013).A new type of biofuel, pine oil, is introduced in this work for the purpose of fuelling diesel engine. The viscosity, boiling point and flash point of the reported oil are lower, when compared to that of diesel. Also, the calorific value of pine oil biofuel is comparable to diesel. As a result, it can be directly used in diesel engine without trans-esterifying it. Pine oil biofuel and their blends of 25%, 50%, and 75% with diesel were tested in a single cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection diesel engine and the combustion, emissions and performance results were compared with diesel. The results show that at full load condition, 100% pine oil reduces CO (carbon monoxide), HC (hydrocarbon) and smoke emissions by 65%, 30% and 70%, respectively. The brake thermal efficiency and maximum heat release rate increase by 5% and 27%, respectively. However, the NO x (oxides of nitrogen) emission is higher than that of diesel fuel at full load condition. The
The increasing awareness of the depletion of fossil fuel resources and the environmental benefits of vegetable oil fuel has made it more attractive in recent times. Its primary advantages deal with it being one of the most renewable fuels currently available and it is also non-toxic and biodegradable. It can also be used directly in most diesel engines without requiring extensive engine modifications. However, the cost of biodiesel is the major hurdle to its commercialization in comparison to petroleum-based diesel fuel. The high cost is primarily due to the raw material. So in this project both the used and unused cooking oil is used to test the performance of the engine. Therefore the disposal of the waste cooking oil is also avoided. The production of biodiesel from waste vegetable oil offers a triple-facet solution: economic, environmental and waste management. The groundnut oil is most commonly used cooking oil. So in this project groundnut is taken for consideration before and after cooking. The performance of these is also compared.
C. Syed Aalam et al.  conducted experimental investigation to evaluate performance, emission and combustion characteristics of single cylinder CRDI system assisted diesel engine using blend of diesel and zizipus jujube methyl ester blended fuel (ZJME25) along with aluminium oxide nanoparticles (AONP) in mass fraction of 25 ppm and 50 ppm. There was reduction in BSFC with AONP added ZJME25 fuel compare to diesel and ZJME fuel with maximum reduction of 6% observed with 50 ppm AONP concentration ZJME fuel. The brake thermal efficiency increased in comparison with diesel fuel with maximum improvement of 2.5% with 50 ppm AONP concentrated ZJME fuel. Smoke emission reduced by about 15-20% with AONP added ZJME fuel. The HC and CO emission significantly reduced, while NO X emission slightly increased. The heat release rate