Background: The ability of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to determine the digestibleenergy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) content of corn fed to growing pigs was tested. One hundred and seventeen corn samples, comprising different planting regions and varieties were collected from all over China in a three-year period. The samples were randomly split into a calibration set ( n = 88) and a validation set ( n = 29). The actual and calculated DE and ME content of the corn samples was determined by digestion-metabolism experiments and the prediction equations of Noblet and Perez (J Anim Sci. 71:3389 – 98,1993). The samples were then subjected to NIRS scanning and calibrations were performed by the modified partial least square (MPLS) regression method based on 77 different spectral pre-treatments. The NIRS equations based on the actually determined and calculated DE and ME were built separately and then validated using validation samples.
Seventeen barley samples representin g nine varieties were obtained thro ughout New Zealand during the 1 995 harvest. The samples were subjected to chemical analysis and several physical attributes were determ ined. Ten barley samples were selected on the basis of their crude p rotein and fibre contents to cover the range in gross chemical composition and digestibleenergy contents were determined after sampling faecal contents from 30 kg l iveweight pigs, g iven barley as the sole source of energy. In vitro dry matter digestibility of the barley samples was determ ined using a m ulti-enzyme assay.
polysaccharides often called non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). The majority of NSP is often comprised of cellulose, pectins, β-glucans, pentosans, heteroxylans, and xyloglucan  and cannot be broken down by the endogenous enzymes of humans and monogastric animals [2- 4]. These consequently lead to anti-nutritive effects in pigs. One of the established effects of NSP in pig’s nutrition is its influence on prececal digestion and absorption of nutrients and energy. The dietary fiber components that are not digested by endogenous digestive enzymes, serve as substrates for bacterial fermentation in the distal section of the GIT. Hence, diet with high NSP increases hindgut microbial activity, heat increment, and subsequently total tract digestibleenergy (DE) as a result of hindgut fermentation [5,6]. The inability of pigs to efficiently utilize dietary fiber makes the impact of fiber on dietary energy value in pigs important. The effects of dietary fiber on diets and feed ingredient’s DE value, feed intake, gut fill, and water holding capacity of the digesta have been reported . Undigested fibers are rich sources of energy for hindgut microbes and it has been reported that dietary fiber plays an important role in how much energy the pig can extract from its diet. The higher the dietary fiber, the lower the amount of DE that is available to the pig [7,8] and the lower the amount of energy (EN) that is available to the growing pig [9,10]. It has also been reported that with increasing age of a pig, fiber digestibility increases . Furthermore, fiber digestibility increases as the digesta moves from the midgut to the large intestine , however, the extent to which the pig is able to handle fiber from different sources differs.
The cost of feed is 60-70% of the total cost of pig production (Noblet et al., 1 993) , with energy and protein representing t h e major quantitative components of the diet. Thus a proper eval uation of the energy content of feedstuffs and diets is of critical importance. lt is important to be able to estimate the energy val ue of feedstuffs with precision and accu racy. lt is not surprising, therefore, that considerable attention has been directed towards the development of systems for expressing both the energy require ments of animals and the energy val ue of feedstuffs. In the latter respect there has also been considerable emphasis placed on developing methods to rapidly predict the energy val ue of feeds. Several rapid and relatively inexpen sive in vitro methods h ave been developed to allow the prediction of dietary energy digestibil ity in simple-stomached animals. These use either duodenal-jejuna! fl uid or a mixture of commercially avai lable microbial enzymes (Furuya et al., 1 979; G raham et el., 1 989a; Boisen and Eggum, 1 991 ; Babinszky et al., 1 990; Boisen and Fernandez, 1 995). The limited number of
The nutritive value of rangelands in Southern Darfur, Sudan could be improved by introduction and multiplication of nutritious forbs with the objective of increasing livestock production in the area. The present study was conducted to evaluate the nutritive value and palatability of eleven range forbs collected at flowering stage from Gahzal Gawazat, Southern Darfur, Sudan using che- mical analysis. The crude protein (CP) ranged from 6.8% in Oxygonum atriplicifolium with lowest digestible crude protein (DCP) 2.8% to 16.4% in Zornia diphylla with highest DCP 11.73%. The highest and the lowest crude fiber (CF) values were obtained in Commelina spp (56.4%) and Se- samum alatum (25.9%), respectively. NDF and DMI values were maximum and minimum for Zor- nia diphylla (44.9 and 2.67%) and Alysicarpus glumaceus (35.3 and 3.4%), respectively. The total digestible nutrients (TDN) ranged from 57.1% in Blepharis linariifolia to 69.3% in Tribulus terre- stris with highest digestibleenergy (DE) in later while the lowest DE was obtained in Commelina spp (2.4%). The calculated in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) was highest for the Cana- valia ensiformis (50.27%) and lowest value (43.17%) for Commelina spp. Zornia diphylla, Tribulus terrestris and Sesamum alatum showed highest nutritive value, while Alysicarpus glumaceus, Ol- denlandia senegalensis and Chrozophora brocchiana showed highest palatability. It is concluded that these rangeland forbs are palatable and their CP and energy contents are sufficient to support different classes of livestock in South Darfur, Sudan.
Rice bran contains the pericarp and aleurone layers of brown rice that is removed before polished rice is produced. Rice bran contains approximately 25 % neutral detergent fiber and 25 to 30 % starch. Rice bran has a greater concentration of P than most other plant ingredients, but 75 to 90 % of the P is bound in phytate. Inclusion of microbial phytase in the diets is, therefore, necessary if rice bran is used. Rice bran may contain 15 to 24 % fat, but it may also have been defatted in which case the fat concentration is less than 5 %. Concentrations of digestibleenergy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) are slightly less in full fat rice bran than in corn, but defatted rice bran contains less than 75 % of the DE and ME in corn. The concentration of crude protein is 15 to 18 % in rice bran and the protein has a high biological value and most amino acids are well digested by pigs. Inclusion of rice bran in diets fed to pigs has yielded variable results and based on current research it is recommended that inclusion levels are less than 25 to 30 % in diets for growing-finishing pigs, and less than 20 % in diets for weanling pigs. However, there is a need for additional research to determine the inclusion rates that may be used for both full fat and defatted rice bran.
corn-soybean blend, which was then extruded. This product containing the co-extruded 60:40 corn-soybean blend was commercially developed and is used extensively in swine diets in southwest Minnesota. GE of dietary treatments were determined by isoperibol bomb calorimetry. Twelve barrows (59.9 ± 1.4 kg), were used to determine the digestible and metabolizable energy of the extruded product. DE of treatments was determined by subtracting fecal energy from GE provided to barrows by each respective treatment. ME was determined by subtracting urinary energy from calculated digestibleenergy. Sixty-three sows were used for the lactation trial. Three dietary treatments were utilized: CONTROL (an industry standard diet); PRODUCT (contained the product, vitamins and minerals); OIL (matched the lysine:ME ratio of PRODUCT by addition of soy oil). Sow weight, backfat thickness at the right and left last ribs, body condition score, number of piglets, and litter weights were recorded on the date of farrowing (d 0), (d 9), and at weaning. Blood and milk samples were obtained at weaning, and blood was analyzed for plasma urea nitrogen (PUN), milk was analyzed for total protein and fat content.
Previous studies have been conducted using variable ratios of lysine to energy . Cho et al.  observed that the best lysine to digestibleenergy (DE) ratio for maxi- mum amino acid digestibility of the pig is 2.4 g total lysine/Mcal DE for barrows (Landrace × Yorshire × Duroc; 64 kg). Chang et al.  showed that the optimal lysine to DE ratios were 3.2 and 3.8 g total lysine/Mcal DE for barrows and gilts (Landrace × Yorshire × Duroc; 16 to 57 kg), respectively. Bikker et al.  suggested that 2.5 g apparent ileal lysine/Mcal DE was required to optimize performance for lean gilts (20 to 45 kg). Factors which are responsible for the variation include environment and
During the experimental period, the pigs received one of the experimental diets (Table 3). The diets were for- mulated using maize as the sole source of dietary protein. To avoid the effect of the level of the diet- ary protein on protein apparent digestibility , maize starch was used to ensure that the experimental diets consisted of the same protein level despite the different protein levels of the maize. All experimental diets con- tained calcium carbonate, dicalcium phosphate, and salt. To reduce dust, 20 g/kg of maize oil was included. Vita- mins and minerals exceeded the NRC  requirements. Chromic oxide (3 g/kg of feed) was included as an indi- gestible marker. The feed intake of the pigs was 2.5 times their digestibleenergy (DE) requirement for mainten- ance, 460 kJ/kg BW 0.75 . The animals had free access to water.
The costs associated with feeds and feeding typically constitute the largest proportion of operating expenses in the production of fish in intensive culture. Sub- optimal feeds and inefficient feeding regimes result in direct economic losses through food wastage and sub-optimal growth, deterioration of water quality and increased environmental pressures from excessive waste production. The formulation of cost- effective, nutritionally optimal diets are therefore imperative to maximising profitability and reducing waste output on marine fish farms. Recent interest by industry in New South Wales and South Australia has focused on mulloway culture; however, little information exists on the protein and energy requirements for this species. Prior to the commencement of this research there were no published data on the requirements for digestible protein (DP) and digestibleenergy (DE) for mulloway and, as a consequence, no specific diet formulations or feeding standards were available.
Mulloway, Argyrosomus japonicus (Pisces: Sciaenidae), are a euryhaline, gregarious, fast growing and highly fecund species that are easily reproduced in captivity. Mulloway have a wide distribution covering the east, western and southern seaboards of Australia (Silberschneider and Gray 2008) and can be grown successfully in different culture systems including sea cages, ponds and recirculating aquaculture systems (Quartararo 1996; Fielder et al. 1999; O'Sullivan and Ryan 2001; Doroudi et al. 2006). Aquaculture of mulloway is relatively new in Australia beginning in the mid 1990’s (Gooley et al. 2000). As such the industry is in its relative infancy although there has been a steady increase in production in recent years. Production of mulloway in Australia for 2004/05 was 558.4 t (O'Sullivan et al. 2007), up from 6.8 t in 1997/98 (O'Sullivan and Roberts 2000). Development of the industry is currently restricted by a lack of knowledge of the nutritional requirements of mulloway. To date there is no published information on the requirements for digestible protein (DP) and digestibleenergy (DE) for mulloway and, as a consequence, no specific diet formulations are available. As a carnivorous species it is expected that mulloway will have a high requirement for DP and this is reflected in the current practice by industry of feeding mulloway commercial diets formulated for other carnivorous species such as barramundi (Lates calcarifer) or more generic ‘marine fish’ formulations.
Trout production is a growing activity in recent years but requires new alternative sources of feed to be sustainable over time. The objective of this research was to determine the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and digestibleenergy (DE) of kañiwa (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen), kiwicha (Amaranthus caudatus L), quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), sacha inchi, (Plukenetia volubilis L) and jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) meal in juvenile rainbow trout. The experimental diets were composed of a 70% basal diet and 30% of any raw materials. The ADC was determined by the indirect method using insoluble ash as a non-digestible marker. Jumbo squid, sacha inchi and quinoa showed the highest values of ADC (%) of DM (84.5, 73.5 and 69.7), OM (89.1, 78.4 and 72.9), CP (93.2, 98.0 and 90.3), and DE (4.57, 4.15 and 2.95 Mcal/kg DM), respectively. The ADC values for kañiwa, kiwicha and bean were significantly lower. In conclusion, quinoa meal and jumbo squid meal have an acceptable digestibility but sacha inchi meal is a potential alternative for rainbow trout feeding in the future.
By potentially ignoring inherent variation in nutrient content and digestibility, the grading methods used to evaluate corn, such as bulk weight, may be poor estima- tors of feeding value [8,9]. Furthermore, prediction equations for digestibleenergy (DE) and metabolisable energy (ME) in feed ingredients based on chemical com- position can be a useful tool in feed ingredient evalu- ation, but such equations are currently available only for barley , DDGS [10,11], wheat , and complete diets . To our knowledge, there is a lack of peer-reviewed information regarding the combination of these tech- niques to predict nutrient digestibility of diverse samples of corn in pigs. The objectives of the present study were to characterize the nature of the variation in the energy content of corn and to develop a system(s) that accu- rately estimates the DE and ME levels in individual corn samples.
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the nutrient and energy levels of red clover and lucerne forage. Investigation of forage at different maturity stages of three growths was carried out by chemical analysis, in vitro and in vivo digestibility methods. Generally, maturation caused a significant increase in fibre fractions. With the increasing maturity of forage samples the in vivo, in vitro, and calculated in vivo (in vivo calcul ) digestibilities of organic matter (OM) linearly decreased. The in vitro and in vivo calcul digestibilities of OM averaged 0.754 and 0.708 for red clover and 0.717 and 0.667 for lucerne, respectively. The in vivo OM digestibility averaged 0.710 for red clover and 0.666 for lucerne. Gross energy (GE), digestibleenergy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME), net energy for lactation (NEL), and net energy for growth (NEG) averaged 18.12, 12.41, 9.60, 5.67, 5.50 and 18.09, 11.56, 9.01, 5.26, 4.99 MJ/kg of dry matter for red clover and lucerne, respectively. The effect of a vegetative stage on energy values of both forages was diverged for various growth times. When data were pooled across the estimated season, seven cutting-specific equations for descriptions of GE, DE, ME, NEL, NEG, in vitro, and in vivo OM digestibilities were obtained for red clover and lucerne, separately. The red clover model expression gave similar prediction equations for lucerne. It was possible to predict cutting-specific equations with coefficients of determination R 2 > 0.719 for red clover and R 2 >
area. Results: We demonstrated that in 255 min 20% ± 3% (mean ± SD) of the milk protein was oxidized compared to 18% ± 1% of 30 g glucose. Postprandial kinetics of oxidation of whey (ra- pidly digestible protein) and casein (slowly digestible protein) derived from our breath test were comparable to literature data regarding the kinetics of appearance of amino acids in blood. Oxida- tion of milk proteins was faster than that of milk lipids (peak oxidation 120 and 290 minutes, re- spectively). After a 3-day protein restricted diet (~10 g of protein/day) a decrease of 31% ± 18% in milk protein oxidation was observed compared to a normal diet. Conclusions: Protein oxidation, which can be easily monitored in breath, is a significant factor in protein metabolism. With our technique we are able to characterize changes in overall protein oxidation under various meta- bolic conditions such as a protein restricted diet, which could be relevant for defining optimal protein intake under various conditions. Measuring protein oxidation in new-born might be rele- vant to establish its contribution to the protein status and its age-dependent development.
Sow body weight loss was minimized at 3.25 Mcal/kg of ME for the overall sow cohort used in Exp. 2. At this energy level, the body weight losses observed in sows during lactation were related to a reduced SID-Lys:ME ratio suggesting that diets with a low SID-Lys:ME ratio may not meet the sow’s nutrient requirements for main- tenance and milk production. Previous studies reported that an increased lysine intake can minimize body weight loss of lactating sows [19-21]. Sows did not mobilize body tissue as their nutrient intake increased and a lysine intake of 74 g/d did not affect sow body weight change .
No work has been published on the effect of processing on amylose content and the various starch compositions in gari, despite its being a low-moisture food product which continues to increase as ethnic diet in the West. There are literatures suggesting that ethnic groups may become vulnerable to diet-related diseases compared to obesity, cardiovascular disease and diabetes affecting some mainstream populations due to indiscriminate diet consumption (Gilbert & Khokhar, 2008., Stunkard, 1996). Incomplete and fragmented information on the composition of ethnic foods in Europe may exacerbate the poor state of diet-related diseases amongst ethnic groups. Therefore, it is necessary that food composition databases are extended to include important ethnic foods that are consumed by both mainstream and ethnic populations. This study has been undertaken to determine effect of processing on amylose content in cassava-mash whilst enzyme extracts of the fermenting mash were analysed for pH and amylase activity. The particle size, digestion profile in relation to resistant starch contents (RS 2 , RS 3 ), rapidly-digestible-starch