Digital Forensics, Cyber crimes

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Digital Forensonomics the Economics of Digital Forensics

Digital Forensonomics the Economics of Digital Forensics

bility of exploit kits, which tends to result in a preponderance of lookalike cyber- crimes. In order to exploit this observation, it is necessary to develop cost-effective template patterns for the forensic investigation of these frequently occurring cyber- crimes (FOCs). Such templates are constructed by defining, for each FOC, the antici- pated digital evidential traces that would need to be recovered in order to make a criminal case with a realistic chance of securing a conviction at trial. For each eviden- tial trace the associated resource implications for its recovery, analysis and interpreta- tion, measured in terms of investigator-hours and specialised equipment utilisation (where appropriate), are itemised, together with an estimate of its probative value (or evidential weight) to the case. In general, by no means all evidential traces contribute the same probative value to a case. For example, the evidence that the seized com- puter was connected to the internet at the material time, whilst essential to enable the launch of a DDoS attack, would not of itself be of high probative value since virtually all computers are internet-connected most of the time. On the other hand, evidence that computer contained DDoS command and control (C&C) launch software at the material time would be of high probative value if the forensic investigation concerned a suspected DDoS attack.
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A Case Study of the Challenges of Cyber Forensics Analysis of Digital Evidence in a Child Pornography Trial

A Case Study of the Challenges of Cyber Forensics Analysis of Digital Evidence in a Child Pornography Trial

Perfunctory case analysis, lack of evidence validation, and an inability or unwillingness to present understandable analysis reports adversely affect the outcome course of legal trials reliant on digital evidence. These issues have serious consequences for defendants facing heavy penalties or imprisonment yet expect their defence counsel to have clear understanding of the evidence. Poorly reasoned, validated and presented digital evidence can result in conviction of the innocent as well as acquittal of the guilty. A possession of child pornography Case Study highlights the issues that appear to plague case analysis and presentation of digital evidence relied on in these odious crimes; crimes increasingly consuming the time, resources and expertise of law enforcement and the legal fraternity. The necessity to raise the standard and formalise examinations of digital evidence used in child pornography seems timely. The case study shows how structured analysis and presentation processes can enhance examinations. The case study emphasises the urgency to integrate vigorous validation processes into cyber forensics examinations to meet acceptable standard of cyber forensics examinations. The processes proposed in this Case Study enhance clarity in case management and ensure digital evidence is correctly analysed, contextualised and validated. This will benefit the examiner preparing the case evidence and help legal teams better understand the technical complexities involved.
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6th International Conference on ICDF2C. Digital Forensics & Cyber Crime CO-HOSTED WITH THE

6th International Conference on ICDF2C. Digital Forensics & Cyber Crime CO-HOSTED WITH THE

Dr. Henry C. Lee is one of the world’s foremost forensic scientists. Dr. Lee’s work has made him a landmark in modern-day forensic sciences. He has been a prominent player in many of the most challenging cases of the last 40 years. Dr. Lee has worked with law enforcement agencies in helping to solve more than 6000 cases. In recent years, his travels have taken him to England, Bosnia, China, Brunei, and other locations around the world. Dr. Henry Lee’s testimony figured prominently in the O. J. Simpson trial, and in convictions of the “Woodchipper” murderer as well as hundreds of other murder cases. Dr. Lee has assisted local and state police in their investigations of other famous crimes, such as the murder of JonBenét Ramsey in Boulder, Colorado, the 1993 suicide of White House Counsel Vincent Foster, and the reinvestiga- tion of the Kennedy assassination.
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Types of Cyber Crimes and Prevention Measures

Types of Cyber Crimes and Prevention Measures

Negligence is very closely connected with human conduct. It is therefore very probable that while protecting the computer system there might be any negligence, which in turn provides a cyber criminal to gain access and control over the computer system. This negligence is usually a property of under resourced IT security provisions and the improvement of security barriers within software packages and network structures could lead to improved security.

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Invading privacy: Cyber crimes on the rise

Invading privacy: Cyber crimes on the rise

Social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn might not be the real source of cyber crime, but criminals can use them effectively (phishing attacks). For example, they may use these techniques to collect information on a target (also known as ‘spear phishing’), research members of staff, or install malware on the target’s computer, very easily. Credit cards have always been one of the biggest targets for cyber criminals; the most common form of credit card frauds involves skimming. With the rapid increase in the use of plastic money, India is witnessing a tide of skimming frauds.
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A Study on Cyber Crimes, Cyber Criminals and Major Security Breaches

A Study on Cyber Crimes, Cyber Criminals and Major Security Breaches

The WannaCry cyber attack is perhaps the most devastating hack seen so far. WannaCry is a ransomware worm that spread rapidly through across a number of computer networks in May 2017 and shutdown computer system completely. The hackers than an offer to unblock the system for the price and this blackmail was on a global scale. WannaCry affected 300,000 systems in over 150 countries. Hackers demanded 600 dollars with cryptocurrency for each computer which was blocked. The WannaCry ransomware arrives on the infected computer in the form of a dropper, a self-contained program that extracts the other application components inserted within it. Once launched, WannaCry tries to access a hard-coded URL if it can’t, it proceeds to search for and encrypt files in a bunch of important formats, ranging from Microsoft Office files to MKVs and MP3s, leaving them unavailable to the user. It then displays a ransom notice, demanding 300 dollars in Bitcoin to decrypt the files. WannaCry spread very quickly using a tool that security experts believe was created by the NSA.
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AN INTRODUCTION TO CYBER CRIMES AND ROLE OF CYBER-SECURITY IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

AN INTRODUCTION TO CYBER CRIMES AND ROLE OF CYBER-SECURITY IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

"in‟ areas and 10 million or more registered space names. Because of increment in internet use and cyberspace activities, there is additionally increment in Cyber-crimes or mechanical crimes in the nation. Alongside this lack of teaching from users, insufficient computer, and system framework protection, lack of Cyber-crime cyber security management and the mysterious utilization of ICT – enabling users to shroud their personality and furthermore conceal their tracks of crime. Information Technology Act 2000 is a legitimate system made and actualized to anticipate Cyber-crime and alterations have likewise occurred for it yet at the same time enhancements are required. Today Indian cyberspace has an increment in spam and phishing activities, spread of botnets; infection, worms, and malignant code are additionally on rising. It additionally had security approaches in which different nations could collaborate to forestall Cyber-crime. Later the alteration act additionally appeared to defeat some security issues not considered in before Act alongside some new options of security aversion and lawful treatment of Cyber-crime. The government has IT Act, National Cyber Security Policy is a strategy structure given by Department of Electronics and Information Technology (DeitY), Ministry of Communication and Information Technology, Government of India [9].
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AN EMPERICAL EXTRAPOLATIONS OF CYBER CRIMES IN NIGERIA

AN EMPERICAL EXTRAPOLATIONS OF CYBER CRIMES IN NIGERIA

A guaze into professor Emeagwalis future society, suggests that cyber crime in future will involve hacking into people’s mind or head to steal their pieces of thought or influence their behavior. For instance, a hired assassin may save his bullet by hackling into the head of his target’s doctor and cause him to kill his patient through wrong medications. Even, a political party may hack into people’s head and swap their voting plans to their favour.

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Computer Forensics Tracking the Cyber vandals

Computer Forensics Tracking the Cyber vandals

• fls – display file and directory entries that have been deleted (use with –d option will list the names of all the deleted files on the disk). • find_file –determine which file has a[r]

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Internet Governance & Cyber Crimes In UAE

Internet Governance & Cyber Crimes In UAE

immediately. Therefore, Hasbini (2014) says that the most dangerous had attack on user is bank malware in UAE. In this case, Most of them don't aware the cyber fraudulent activities when it comes online payment and e-services, because of the wide smartphones availability of unprotected that has tented to target users with malware and phishing attacks affecting all types of devices. In Emirates 247 (2015) has identify the internal procedures, and implementing training and awareness programs. In order to solve this problem UAE police have established cybercrime and organizational security units, also they have computer forensics teams who specialize in examining and presenting electronic evidence that store on computers or on other electronic devices. Were their roles includes "investigating all types of crimes committed against and by means of computer data and systems”. (Emirates 247, 2015). Also, Moyenorient3 (2014) says that they have a specialists use a cyber-police power to oversee the Internet, including its use by human rights activists. Abu Dhabi‟s State Security Apparatus and the Department of Anti-Electronic Crimes has also been created within the Criminal Investigation Department of the Dubai police, has created a unit specialized in cyber crime to spy in the internet and its users. As Berger (2012) according to his words, is an important to change the policy of any company, which they need to change their technology always to make sure the company system is secure tightly. In addition, GaskellPublished (2015) mention that the user must also be aware of threats aimed at exploiting mobile games, some games carried within it spyware functionality to record sounds, process calls and steal SMS information. According to Wam (2012) article, the “Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al
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How To Write An Forensics Framework For Cyber Crimes

How To Write An Forensics Framework For Cyber Crimes

short in size but usually contain rich information as an e-mail normally consists of header, subject, body and attachments. More formally, a cyber forensic investigator attempts to determine the author of a disputed anonymous e-mail a, and who has to be one of the suspects {S 1 , . , S n }. The main issue here is to precisely identify the most plausible author from the suspects {S 1 , ., S n } and present the findings in a court of law. In current literature ( Teng et al., 2004; Zheng et al., 2006 ), authorship identification is considered as a text classification problem. The process starts by extracting the writing style features from the previously known e-mails of a person. Using these features, a classifier is trained; then, the developed model is applied to the anonymous e-mail to identify its conceivable author. The authorship attribution technique has been successful in resolving ownership disputes over literary and historic documents. However, due to the special charac- teristics of an e-mail dataset, its application to e-mail is more challenging. The commonly used features in the field of e-mail authorship analysis ( Corney et al., 2002; Zheng et al., 2006 ) are lexical, syntactical, structural, content-specific attributes and idiosyncratic features (see Section 2.3.1 ).
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Computer Forensics: An Essential Ingredient for Cyber Security

Computer Forensics: An Essential Ingredient for Cyber Security

A Computer Forensic Specialist (CFS) must follow a rigid set of methods to ensure that computer evidence is correctly obtained. These steps are outlined in Table 1, which also introduces two critical terms: unallocated file space and file slack. The examination of unallocated file space is vital during a computer forensics investigation. When data is written to a storage device, data clusters from the File Allocation Table are allocated to store the data. But when the file is deleted by the user, the data is not erased. A ‘delete’ operation will incite these data clusters to become unallocated, but they will still hold onto the old data until the operating system reallocates these data clusters at a later time. The data residing in this unallocated file space can potentially contain fragments of files and subdirectories, as well as temporary files used by the application programs or operating systems. All of these types of data may contain sensitive information that can prove to be valuable during an investigation, and so it is necessary to uncover as much data from the unallocated file space as possible. Many criminals fail to recognize that the deletion process does not truly erase the sensitive data, and this is often where incriminating evidence will be discovered.
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The University of Alabama Cyber Research Initiatives. Cyber Forensics Research Cyber Security Research

The University of Alabama Cyber Research Initiatives. Cyber Forensics Research Cyber Security Research

(1) RFID/Sensor security: Proposed low-cost, low-energy security schemes to protect the data access to the tiny RFID readers/tags and wireless micro-sensors. Example publication: Fei H[r]

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Overview of Digital Forensics

Overview of Digital Forensics

reasoning and the items to be seized. Regardless of the country, enterprises should understand and follow local and country jurisdiction laws before seizing materials. After digital media are acquired, an exact duplicate image (the forensic image) of the original media evidence is created and validated with hash values that have been calculated for the original digital media and the duplicate image. A hashing function, e.g., MD5, SHA-1 and SHA- 256, applies a mathematical algorithm to the digital data and returns a fixed-size bit string hash value. Any change to the data will change the hash value. Data with the same hash value are identical. The hash value validates that the evidence is still in the original state. The original media evidence is write blocked and stored to prevent any further possible alteration. Hashing may not always be possible. Mobile devices and memory, in particular, may have to be treated differently to maintain evidence.
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Reviewed Study On Financial Cyber Crimes And Frauds

Reviewed Study On Financial Cyber Crimes And Frauds

quickly extending field of cyber crime. IC3 acknowledges online Internet crime grumblings from either the individual who trusts they were defrauded or from an outsider to the complainant. Amid 2008, non-conveyance of stock as well as installment was by a wide margin the most revealed offense, involving 32.9% of alluded crime dissensions. This speaks to a 32.1% expansion from the 2007 levels of non-conveyance of stock as well as installment answered to IC3. Moreover, amid 2008, closeout fraud spoke to 25.5% of grumblings (down 28.6% from 2007), and credit and check card fraud made up an extra 9.0% of objections. Certainty fraud, for example, Ponzi plans, PC fraud, and check fraud dissensions spoke to 19.5% of all alluded grumblings. Other protest classes, for example, Nigerian letter fraud, data fraud, money related establishments’ fraud, and risk protestations together spoke to under 9.7% of all objections (See Figure 2).
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Cyber security and related crimes in indian scenario

Cyber security and related crimes in indian scenario

and by means of such conduct causes or is likely to cause death or injuries to persons or damage to or destruction of property or disrupts or knowing that it is likely to cause damage or disruption of supplies or services essential to the life of the community or adversely affect the critical information infrastructure specified under section 70, or (B) knowingly or intentionally penetrates or accesses a computer resource without authorisation or exceeding authorized access, and by means of such conduct obtains access to information, data or computer database that is restricted for reasons of the security of the State or foreign relations; or any restricted information, data or computer database, with reasons to believe that such information, data or computer database so obtained may be used to cause or likely to cause injury to the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India, the security of the State, friendly relations with foreign States, public order, decency or morality, or in relation to contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offence, or to the advantage of any foreign nation, group of individuals or otherwise, commits the offence of cyber terrorism.
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Digital and Cloud Forensics

Digital and Cloud Forensics

• Authenticity - refers to the ability to confirm the integrity of information; for example that the imaged media matches the original evidence. The ease with which digital media can be modified means that documenting the chain of custody from the crime scene, through analysis and, ultimately, to the court, is important to establish the authenticity of evidence.

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Automated Digital Forensics

Automated Digital Forensics

The increase in data has led to a vast increase in workload for forensic examiners, in particular in the law enforcement arena, meaning that backlogs are now present, in instances up to 3 years (James & Gladyshev, 2013) and many with 6 months to 1 year (Casey et al., 2009). Not only does a backlog impact on the criminal justice system of any country, it also negatively impacts on the life of the individual under investigation; in multiple instances such delays in an investigation, and the fact an accusation was publicly made, has led to suspects committing suicide even though some were proven to be innocent when their devices were later analysed (Palmer, 2009). Law enforcement organisations are looking to reduce this backlog by outsourcing to specialist digital forensic providers: as way of example, Dyfed Powys Police spent £128,000 outsourcing mobile phone examinations in 2012/13 (Dyfed Powys Police, 2014) and Northumbria Police £45,340.30 in 2010/11 (Police, 2010). The costs have, in the past, spiralled out of control, as in the case of Vogon International Limited and The Serious Fraud Office in which the estimated bill of work performed was £22,500 but the final invoice was £314,375 - leading to complex legal disputes (ACPO, 2011). The process of outsourcing is a difficult one, there are many questions to be asked of the contracted company as to their expertise, quality of work and the continuity of the evidence.
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AN INTRODUCTION TO CYBER CRIMES AND ROLE OF CYBER-SECURITY IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

AN INTRODUCTION TO CYBER CRIMES AND ROLE OF CYBER-SECURITY IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

critical perspective that should be considered. As indicated by Department of Electronics and Information Technology, the internet is an effective apparatus that ought to be utilized for advancement of society and development of the economy [4]. The Internet is a key component of national foundation.Most of the internet users use internet without understanding the dangers associated with it. As per the technological changes the internet users need to update themselves frequently. Along with individual responsibility the government needs to take efforts for cyber security management and protecting the cyber space. In today’s scenario the major factors for Cyber-crime and threats are lack of awareness, lacunas on technological aspects, poor management of cyber security, and lack of cyber security knowledge and careless attitude. 3. ICT INITIATIVES IN SMART CITIES Smart Cities are new ideas that are developing everywhere throughout the world. IBM began with the idea of a smart city in their venture Smarter Planet Initiative in 2008, and gradually all country began thinking on a similar line. The greater part of the created countries began looking into for smart cities and contributed intensely to it. ICT has a vital impact on usage of smart cities. Smart cities make utilization of various technologies, for example, Wi-Fi, sensor technology, anyplace whenever communication and savvy frameworks to deal with the administrations required and to take care of the issues. It
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Digital image forensics

Digital image forensics

Signal processing tools such as wavelet transform, hidden Markov models and statistical moments are used in various different techniques for both tampering detection and double JPEG c[r]

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