Abstract: Machines for direct digitalinkjetprinting on cylindrical containers are a new technology out on the market. Their commercialization in the industrial sector has been affected by their high precision. This leads to the use of mechanisms with narrow manufacturing tolerances and to the search for topologies that have the least accumulated error without affecting quality. Machines with topologies to work on flat substrates have printing and productivity problems working on cylindrical substrates. This research paper presents the qualitative design of a direct digitalinkjet printer working over cylindrical substrates comparing five mechanical topologies; three topologies with radial distribution and two topologies with parallel distribution. The aim of these topologies is to find the precision, quality and efficiency of the printer taking into account the restrictions present in its construction. Each topology has separate constitutive mechanisms, it is analyzed the tolerance ranges between the print head and the substrate whose cumulative error maximizes the inkjet print resolution to determine precision. From five Topologies, number 1,2 and 5 meet the requirements. the topology 2 meets the requirements but it is not able to be developed due to current technological limitations.
The primary research question was to determine expert response to inkjet digitally printed jacquard woven base cloths. Twenty-two textile industry experts from areas of work such as woven fabric design; woven fabric product development; woven fabric research and development; textile screen printing; digitalinkjet textile printing; yarn design; textile consultation, color matching, and additional fields were involved in the assessment and completed the accompanying survey. The participants had either worked in the textile industry or were faculty members. Among the fifteen participants who were involved in fabric line decisions, six participants had been evaluating fabric samples for over 20 years. Sixty-four percent of the participants were involved in fabric line decisions at least once week. The expert participants responded to questions from the survey which included both predetermined variables and free response sections. Having both types of responses allowed the participants to add insight to both the predetermined variables and additional concepts which may have not been covered. Due to both types of responses, valuable insight was gained.
compound with the desired properties. Usually this involves synthesizing very small quantities of a large number of compounds. Secondly, once a lead compound with the desired properties has been found, combinatorial chemistry can focus analogue synthesis to improve the potency, efficacy, and selectivity of the compound. In this particular project, we are searching for novel chemicals with superior technical properties that will enable digitalinkjetprinting on multiple substrates; these chemicals must also exhibit little or no adverse genotoxic behavior.
Since most people ask for where to get training, which books to read, we have the following suggestions. First, check the index of every FLAAR site for Book Reviews, for Magazines (trade magazines), and for Training. The key six A to Z indices (of six different FLAAR sites) are hot-linked at the bottom of every single page of all those sites, way down at the very bottom. Every site is different. The time you spend checking out our indices will save you umteen times the amount of time you will loose ﬂoundering in color management, ICC color proﬁles, and all the other digital pitfalls that await you (don’t worry, just do some reading, some basic practice, get an easy-to-use and very forgiving printer such as an HP DesignJet and you will be producing museum quality prints).
Barberán S.A was one of the first developers of Single.Pass application systems and create its own technologies in mechanics, electronics and software. Aside from this fact, Barberan owes also a large experience in the treatment of surfaces, being able to achieve an optimum printing quality on any type of substrate (melamine, MDF, particleboard, etc.). Thus Barberan does not offer just a printing machine but a complete solution for each one of the processes involved in a printing line.
viscosity and the surface tension, thus improving the spatial resolution of the designed pattern and providing an enhanced ink printability which prevents satellite drops ejection. In Figure 4, FESEM images of the silver NPs synthesized with the two inks typologies are com- pared (corresponding image analysis is presented in Table 2). For the same nominal inkjetprinting parame- ters, larger and surface-smoothed NPs are synthesized using the WE ink, whereas sharper edges and smaller sizes are obtained printing the WDE mixture.
Again, using conventional approaches to achieve the desired compositional control for many different components is labo- rious. And, because of the signifi cant effort needed to pro- duce a given device structure, the rapid design and testing of different material confi gurations with varied shapes, sizes, and compositions has not been possible, hampering development for applications. Recent attempts to establish alternative routes for swimming device manufacture recognized these challenges, and deployed screen printing to manufacture platinum pow- ered swimming devices with a range of shapes and sizes. [ 18,19 ]
Inkjetprinting has been used to introduce an organic system that demonstrates thermally activated self healing in composites. The organic system is composed of monomers that, when polymerised, are capable of thermally activated self healing through a reversible Diels Alder mechanism. After being synthesised the monomers were formulated into inks and inkjet printed on to carbon fibre epoxy prepreg. The polymers were co cured with the prepreg into composite laminates and the effect on the interlaminar
3D printing of electronic components and circuitries are key target areas of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies. Taking electronics outside the traditional two-sided or limited layers printed circuit boards (PCB) into the 3 rd dimension will enable various new electronic applications. Similar to 3D integrated circuits (3DIC), compact and flexible electronics are amongst those applications that 3D technologies could enable, where conductive tracks can move in a volumetric manner rather than a 2D surface allowing more freedom of track routing [1-3]. Antenna design is another area that has benefited from 3D technologies where conductive tracks printed on 3D surfaces showed better performance and higher efficiency antenna than conventional fabrication methods[4, 5].
A photocrosslinkable PCL-based ink that is suitable for 3D inkjetprinting to produce biocompatible 3D structures has been demonstrated for the ﬁrst time. In this article, PCLDMA: PEGDA (70:30) was chosen and observed to be printable from a Dimatix DMP-2830 at 608C. The prepared ink could be cured sufﬁciently to retain structures during printing, and stable products were produced. Differences in hardness and modu- lus on the printed sample’s top and bottom surfaces were observed. Both hardness and indentation modulus increased when postcuring was applied, but only the mechanical prop- erties at the directly illuminated surface were improved as the UV light could not penetrate through the whole sample. The sample printed in an air environment had a hardness of
resolution, with less material wastage. The advantage of inkjetprinting has been well documented in the literature . Much of the previous research concentrated on using MNPs to print circuits for electronics ap- plications and most of them are limited to a few layers ( b 20) [19 – 21]. A recent study has documented combined printing and sintering of 50 layers of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) towards enabling multifunctional AM (MFAM) for electronics application . In concert, a recent innova- tion in system architecture has been shown by XJet®, whereby an inkjet based printing machine has been developed to produce metallic parts from nanoparticles . The system is capable of processing a structural material and a supporting material; however, multi-material printing is limited. Microstructure, surface and mechanical properties of the parts produced by XJet® remains unknown. An understanding on the evolu- tion of the microstructure is essential in order to build 3D structures with optimal mechanical properties. Whereas, the existing knowledge of microstructure of sintered nanoparticles for multiple layers ( N 100 layers) is limited.
sizes bigger than pure PGA NPs. At the same time, a clear enlargement of NPs sizes for all the explored materials was observed on increasing the concentration from 50 µg/mL to 250 µg/mL. Cytotoxicity is of critical importance for the clinical translation of any kind of nanosized carrier. The formulation strategies employed for NPs production, including the presence of surfactants and of course of solvent traces, significantly affect cell metabolism. In our formulations, the concentration of DMSO in the final nanosuspensions was determined to be non-cytotoxic (Error! Reference source not found.), in agreement with previous evidence.  In fact, as evident in Error! Reference source not found., the different NP formulations obtained by printing, did not show any negative effects on the metabolic activity of H1299 lung cancer cells after 24h of treatment, in line with the data reported for NPs made by similar polymers but through different formulation processes.  Therefore, the high throughput method of directly transferring the formulations in the well plates to any cell-based assays required, including cytotoxicity assays, has been validated. It should be noted that previous literature has shown that PGA and its derivatives are not toxic (although different cell lines have been used in previous works). ,,
Design. 3D models were designed using Magics 19.01 (Materialise) computer aided design (CAD) software. The dimensions of the FS and the FH samples are shown in Fig. 1. Angles ranging from 0° to 80° (in increments of 5°) were designed for both sample types. The designed samples were aligned to the build platform for fabrica- tion. Five cylindrical samples of diameter 10 mm and height 20 mm for the thermomechanical analysis (TMA) was also designed. Three equally spaced (5 mm) tracks for printing AgNPs with 35 mm length, 1 mm width along with a contact pad on either end (2.5 mm × 2.5 mm) was designed using GIMP (The General Image Manipulation Program) software with a resolution of 500 dpi (dots per inch). The pattern was saved as a bitmap (.bmp) file. 3D-printing. Substrate. A Stratasys Objet Connex3 260 3D inkjet printer was used to fabricate the FS and FH samples. Briefly, the designed patterns (0°–80° with increments of 5°) were aligned to the platform. VeroClear was used to build the samples. Print heads and the build platform were cleaned using IPA. A “glossy” finish was selected for all the samples. The parts were printed parallel to the printing direction to minimise the effect of ridges on the surface. Post-fabrication, the parts were removed from the build platform and supporting structures were also removed. TMA samples were also printed using the same print conditions in the Objet machine.
We developed a pneumatically driven inkjet print- ing system that forms highly viscous microdroplets in the nanoliter volume range. The performance of the printing system at high viscosity was assessed via the application of liquids with a broad range of viscos- ity (1–384.5 cP). The operating conditions were opti- mized to determine the minimum droplet volumes for each liquid. The printed droplet volumes were in the range 12.2–63.5 nL and increased with the viscos- ity of the printing liquids. The printing system showed outstanding reliability in droplet formation, with a CV ≤ 1.07 % for the droplet volume. The minimum standoff distance was in the range 1.09–3.51 mm and depended on the viscosity of the printing liquids. The standoff distance was increased by high viscosity and excessive energy, leading to long tails during droplet formation. The printing frequency was estimated as the time to form a droplet and was found to be strongly affected by the high viscosity of the printing liquids. Liquids with high viscosity required a long retraction time (i.e., the time taken by the liquid to return to its initial state) for the residual liquid at the end of the nozzle after pinch-off. While typical inkjet systems can print liquids with a limited viscosity range, our print- ing system can print liquids of viscosity ranging from 1 to 384.5 cP without the need for additional energy (e.g., heating of printing liquids to reduce the viscos- ity). Therefore, without requiring viscosity control of the liquids, our printing system can be directly used in inkjet applications with functional liquids over a broad viscosity range.
LH-100 inks was found to be acceptable with a rating of 3-4 for cyan, magenta and yellow inks, which is better than that achieved by the LF-140, LF-200 and thermal inks. As LH-100 inks contain acrylates of higher functionalities in their formulations than that of LF-140 and LF-200, it is therefore likely that they would produce higher density of shorter cross-links, resulting in overall better entrapment of the pigments . Similarly higher dry rubbing fastness grade was achieved with LH-100 and LF-140 inks than that with LF-200 and thermal inks. The wet rubbing fastness rating found to be poor for all the Cyan and Magenta inks but slightly increased with yellow and black. The light fastness of all UV-cured inkjet printed PLA fabrics was observed to be excellent, grade 5 with no change of colour. As the inks are pigment based and pigments exhibit very good resistance to light in general, it was therefore ex- pected that excellent light fastness would be achieved for all the colours of inks of different types ; however the thermal inks surprisingly provided poorer colour fastness to light.
Electronic printers, applies a passaging of electrons for providing a desired function. In order to transition electrons via a device, a suitable electrode material whit high conductivity and low losses in voltage, current, is required. Generally, a set of two electrodes is applied for providing a complete circuit for electrons flowing in a power source. Sometimes, these two electrodes are composed of the same material and in some cases consist of two different materials, due to the electrical position of inkjetprinting. Although there are several different conductive materials, only some of them are readily accessible in a form suitable for inkjet printer. The three main categories of these structures are Nano carbon materials, metallic colloids, and conjugated polymers. The two first items are dispersible species, whereas conjugated polymers might be either dispersed or dissolved. Metallic colloids have become extremely common as inkjet-printable materials, and include such conventionally-used electrode materials as Ag [46- 48]. Recently in several works, conductivities comparable to bulk amounts have been used with the colloids [49, 50]. Commonly, these methods need a high-temperature curing phase for removing solvent and organic ligands from the nanoparticles, which are used for stabilizing the colloidal suspensions. The solvents and also encapsulating polymers ligands which stabilized the particles in solution prevent sintering from occurring until they are removed. The solvents might be decompose or evaporate at a comparatively low temperature, leading to the consumption of such materials as nitrocellulose, which decomposes around 135°C . During the removal of the cap, the particles are usually still non-conductive, being physically segregated to prevent any effective electron transfer [40, 41
One of the earliest large format ink jet printers was the Iris Model 3047, introduced in 1988. It was produced as a proofing machine for the printing industry. Since proofing was a short term product, the light sensitivity of the ink was not a concern. This was a very expensive machine costing $126,000, and was not intended for the reproduction of fine art or advertising as a production machine, but was the start of the large format digital revolution.
Most halftoning techniques assume that the dis- played binary pattern consists of identically shaped dots of two colors, usually on a rectangular grid. This assumption does not hold for most printing devices which introduce significant distortions. Traditional halftoning techniques, like “classical” screening are de- signed to be fairly robust to printer distortions at the expense of spatial and gray-scale resolution. “Model- based” halftoning techniques [1, 2, 3, 4], on the other hand, exploit the characteristics of each particular printer to maximize the quality of the printed images. Thus, they depend on accurate printer models, whose parameters must be adapted to each individual printer. Model-based techniques can be used with any digitalprinting device, B/W or color, including high resolu- tion devices (e.g. phototypesetters) used for high qual- ity and high volume printing.
We have developed a simpliﬁed jetting model that predicts the printability of dilute, monodisperse poly- mer solutions in drop-on-demand (DoD) inkjetprinting. Polymer molecules are modelled as ﬁnitely extensible non-linear elastic (FENE) dumbbells with ﬂuid parameters chosen to ﬁt the Zimm model. Three distinct jetting regimes are predicted, deﬁned by the Weissenberg number Wi and the extensibility L of the molecules. The behaviour of the jet depends upon a critical factor that limits jet speed; regime 1 is restricted by ﬂuid viscosity, regime 2 by elasticity and regime 3 by high strain extensional viscosity. We study two polymer solutions of disparate viscosity under different jetting conditions (i.e. print speed and nozzle geometry) and compare our results with experimental data and axisymmetric simulations. The maximum polymer concentration that can be jetted at a desired speed is found to scale with molecular weight M w and is dependent on the solvent quality factor m . We ﬁnd that polymers can be stretched out in