exclusive right to produce films with her scanned 3-‐D version and a condition that she must now forever retire from her acting career. In return she is offered an impressive amount of money and a digital immortality for she is to remain forever young, at least on screen. Mirramount Studios is however to be the sole decision maker over which films her avatar will appear in, including tasteless blockbusters with tacky scripts and sexually explicit scenes, Robin was not willing to participate in as an actress. In his interview Folman expressed a deep concern about the new film economy and especially that of digital actors, use of which seems to become mainstream. In what Folman calls a post-‐Avatar era filmmakers must contemplate whether real actors can be completely substituted by their virtual avatars, having been scanned in and rebuilt anew as digital reconstructions, indiscernible to the naked eye from their flesh and blood prototypes. The job of the director would then become steering the simulated performance. As
Changing technologies and consumer demographics are transforming the production and consumption of media content of all kinds. The one-way broadcasting model of traditional media industries is evolving into peer-to-peer communication networks. These changes have been most pronounced in the explosion of user-created content in digitalmedia from games to online social networks.
Martin (2008) further explained that digital competence (Level I) is the crucial importance of “situational embedding” with the involvement of successful usage of digitalmedia within life situation. The digital usage (Level II) is considered the application of digital competence within specific profession context, and digital usages become “embedded and evolved” with the community itself (Martin, 2008). The use of digitalstorytelling can effectively develop digital literacy (Robin, 2006). The digital transformation (Level III) is regarded as the achievement of contributing digital usage with innovation and creativity to the profession or knowledge domain (Martin, 2008). According to literature, digital literacy skills can develop through digitalstorytelling activities. Students could improve their digital competence by mastering basic skills for digitalmedia creation with technological tools during the production stage of digitalstorytelling activities (Frazel, 2010; Ibrahim et al., 2013; Smeda et al., 2012). Sadik (2008) points out that digitalstorytelling enables students to use the new technology in an effective way, especially when they are engaged with digital resources and useful editing tools to create quality stories.
‘Mediatisation’ is beginning to emerge as an important concept in studies of media. 1 The concept refers, in its simplest form, to the integration of media into institutions whose core business is something other than media, like political, religious, and historical institutions, to the extent that ‘institutional activities are performed through both interactive and mass media’. 2 In other words, mediatisation—in contrast to ‘mediation’, which is often tacitly defined as a neutral or transparent process—assumes that such institutions not only conduct their activities through media, but that in doing so they become dependent upon and guided by the ‘institutional and technological modus operandi of the media’. 3 Institutions of public memory are an example of such institutions: they are publicly-funded and physically-located organisations that mediatise the ‘intersection of official and vernacular cultural expressions’ through their collection, preservation, and display of cultural artefacts. 4 They range from cultural institutions with broad charters—like the Australian Centre for the Moving Image, which is both a museum of and a production space for Australian ‘moving images’ in film, television, and digitalmedia—to more conventional repositories, such as libraries, galleries, museums, and other public archives.
Social media platforms also play a vital role in the content creator-audience relationship. Media audiences now use their agency to not only voice opinions, wants, or needs, but also to create alongside, and often with, the entity for which they are an audience. For example, it is common for television shows to have companion websites or applications that allow the audience to create dialogue, contribute information, further interact with existing content, and occasionally even create content of their own related to the show. If a content creator doesn’t provide these provisions, the audience often creates these ecosystems themselves through various social media and digitalmedia outlets. In the entertainment industry, this process of interaction between creator and audience is often known as breaching the fourth wall (Griff, 2014).
The findings of this research indicate that levels of student engagement fluctuate between moderate and high. In other words, students were always engaged in the class- room. The use of software and conducting searches for digitalmedia took these levels to very high, and were the highest for student presentations. In all cases students liked using technology, searching the internet, and watching other digital stories. There were some differences in implementation. For instance, Year 7 students had very low engage- ment levels when they had to complete their storyboards. Year 9 students had a con- stant, high level of engagement as they occasionally presented their completed works. Some Year 11 students’ lack of interest in school curriculum presented as an engage- ment problem. However, the use of digitalmedia managed to increase their engage- ment level. This finding is supported by Dupain and Maguire who argued that educators continuously need methods to engage students ’ interest with teaching mater- ial. With the aid of the latest developments in technology, classrooms welcome digitalstorytelling as a means of teaching, and students are motivated to conceive an academic concept and transmit their own (Dupain & Maguire 2005).
The second research question asked participants about their views and concerns re- garding integrating digitalstorytelling into learning curriculum for Indigenous learners. Overall, participants identified that the approach was novel and interesting but voiced concerns that it would require further iterations to overcome some of the trepidation that inherently comes with new approaches to learning, particularly those that involve ICT approaches. For example, a participant requested more detail on how the ICT components of the approach would ensure that privacy and security of the knowledge was maintained.. Bang et al. (2013) observe that as revitalization and regeneration in Indigenous communities continue, it will become increasingly necessary to repatriate technologies that are for new knowledge building as well as for knowledge dissemin- ation and sharing. This will require that the design of learning environments and the development of technologies must centrally involve Indigenous communities as deci- sion makers. Feedback from participants indicates that this research provides solutions towards this goal, for example, by including local knowledge holders and community members in the design process, and by incorporating oral and visual methods of ex- pression into the knowledge building process. From the transformative worldview employed in this research approach, these processes may be used to challenge and sub- vert the constraints imposed on Indigenous learners, for example, in the form of a colo- nialist oppressive educational system (Mertens, 2012). From this, it is clear that moving forward, any educational initiative that involves Indigenous learners in a community must fully involve the Indigenous knowledge keepers and the Elders within the com- munity in the process of creating and vetting any knowledge, including digital stories about that community. Additionally, any external influences to this process, including educators and curriculum experts, must have the knowledge, the expertise, and most importantly, the trust of the community to support the digital story creation process.
making was done collaboratively with the young people. The only specification (agreed as part of being involved in the project) was that the young people were to create at least one digital story by the end of the retreat and that the adults would be available to support this goal. Guidance focussed on helping the young people to explore their ideas and associated activities without the adults knowingly or intentionally imposing their views about the perceived problem or solution. Direct technical support was given in editing the video, although all of the decisions about content and format remained with the young people. There are hierarchies of power and knowledge within any group and scope exists for subtle and unintended guidance to occur. Nevertheless, the intention was to create a safe space where differences between the young people were negotiated without influence from adults. This form of collaboration means that priorities, schedules, abilities and interactions between the young people and adults is unique; hence replicating this project with other groups might give different findings. The young people volunteered to join the project following a request by the researchers to an advocacy and support service. Six young people
Environmental issues have recently been incorporated into English materials. Hundreds of ELT materials concerning environmental issues are available worldwide in mainstream or assigned coursebooks and may simply be adapted by teachers for their classroom use. To respond to this, the present study explores an initial endeavor to integrate critical environmental education into ELT in a higher education context. In this study, a collaborative digitalstorytelling project was enacted. Student teachers created digital stories about Subak, their local environment, to evaluate its problems and propose solutions to the problems. Data gleaned from a questionnaire, an interview, and digital stories were thematically analyzed. Findings indicate that digitalstorytelling served as a multidimensional platform for student teachers to explore economic, political, and social aspects linked to subak. Thus, their digital stories could be considered as authentic materials for environmental education. This suggests that digitalstorytelling (DST) is a form of a powerful campaign against environmental destruction. The main contributions of this article are to provide empirical evidence regarding the implementation of a collaborative DST project in higher education and to show pedagogical implications for English language teaching (ELT) and critical environmental pedagogy.
One way to approach the project of decolonising the university is to employ decolonising pedagogies, which allow the whole of people’s lived experience into teaching and learning spaces, affirm this experience as worthy of scholarly attention and create a dialogue between experience and theory. Encouraging the sharing of personal stories among diverse and differently positioned students, however, brings up questions about “safe spaces”. Using Tronto’s ethics of care as a normative framework, we will reflect on a range of snapshots that exemplify ethical dilemmas encountered in a teacher education classroom within a digitalstorytelling project. Based on this analysis two main assumptions are challenged: that safe spaces exist, and that safety is something that can be bestowed on students by the lecturer. We argue for teaching and learning that facilitates a heightened self-awareness on the part of (in particular white) educators about their own gendered, classed and raced subjectivities and how these play out in the classroom ‒ a practice of care both towards others and towards the self. This self-awareness and self-care needs to be matched by the development of facilitation skills that may help to create learning spaces that re-affirm difference among learners while also enabling generative dialogue. We conclude with practical suggestions on how to implement such an attempt at practicing the ethics of care in the classroom.
The purpose of this paper is designed to explore the effects of using digitalstorytelling in after school English classroom on Korean ELL learners’ attitudes; and perception toward learning in English. In a public elementary school located in Eastern Kyunggi province in South Korea, 32 ELL learners in the 5th grade participated in 12-week study experiencing digitalstorytelling in English class. ‘Digitalstorytelling’ as a primary teaching and learning resource was introduced and adapted, which had been designed and developed by the researcher. And to figure out the impact and effect of digitalstorytelling, a mixed research method was conducted for looking to students’ response. Students’ self-evaluation report and lecture review report gathered for data analysis along with quantitative data which were pre-/post-survey on the change of students’ learning attitude and reading comprehension. The findings showed that the potential benefits of digitalstorytelling brought positive effects on the 5th grade ELL students’ attitudinal changes in learning English by helping them to have deeper understanding of the lesson, which led their voluntarily active class participation. The results also revealed that digitalstorytelling made students engaged in the content of the story not only by promoting motivation and interest, but also by providing confidence in learning English.
It is impossible to analyze the framework for digitalstorytelling without discussing the paradigmatic influences, particularly on the process of digitalstorytelling itself. As a direct challenge to the notion of mass media information dissemination, digitalstorytelling signifies a representation from the contributor him/herself, distributed in a public space that makes the story accessible to others in a way it was never before. Daniel Meadows, a photographer and journalism teacher, coordinated the ‘Capture Wales’ project in cooperation with BBC Wales (Meadows, 2003). A series of digital stories were shown on regional television and several hundred are available at the BBC Cymru (Wales) website (www.bbc.co.uk/wales/capturewales). Meadows notes, “Contributors are not just originating their own material, for the first time they are editing it too. This is what first excited me – and still excites me – about DigitalStorytelling, for no longer must the public tolerate being ‘done’ by media – that is, no longer must we tolerate media being done to us…If we will only learn the skills of DigitalStorytelling then we can, quite literally, ‘take the power back’. Not for nothing is the computer we use called the ‘PowerBook’. ‘Think Different’ the Apple advert tells us. DigitalStorytelling isn’t just a tool; it’s a revolution (p. 192).”
DigitalStorytelling (DST) is the present-day version of the ancient practice of telling stories. According to Bruner (1986) there are two complementary modes of thought: the paradigmatic and the narrative. They organise experience in different ways, as they use distinct rationales to establish causality, to persuade, to verify truth. The mode of thinking is the epistemological foundation of DigitalStorytelling that makes use of various types of media: hypertext, pictures, sounds, movies etc. and that has been successfully applied in the educational field in recent years. A story problem can be seen as a mathematical problem that has been contextualised in concrete and realistic situations. A key issue for storytelling to be a powerful means to mediate mathematical problem solving is the correct balance between narratively relevant and logically relevant kinds of information. This requires careful design of the story from which the mathematical problem should naturally arise. Thus, DST allows the development of skills in meaningful and engaging contexts integrating logical thinking and narrative thinking via artistic means. This article aims to present how the artistic features and educational potential of DST has been applied in a research project in Italian schools. In the following pages, the theoretical background of narrative thinking will be discussed, then the digital and artistic components of DST in supporting the mathematical reasoning will be illustrated, and finally some of the main findings of an Italian project in Digital Interactive Storytelling in Mathematics will be illustrated.
If well integrated in schools/universities, digitalstorytelling can enhance facilitation of a wide range of substantial educa- tional benefits: acquisition and consolidation of knowledge and skills; heightened engagement, motivation towards learning activities, and also acquisition of digital literacy skills (Blas, Garzotto, Paolini, & Sabiescu, 2009). Digitalstorytelling allows students to develop their personal and academic voice, present knowledge to a community of learners and receive situated feedback from their peers. Due to their affective involvement with this process and the novelty effect of the medium, students are more engaged than in traditional assignments. These factors can create a “spiral” of engagement, drawing students into deeper and deeper engagement with their topics or studies (Co- ventry & Oppermann, 2009). Digital storytelling’s combina- tion of video, sound, images and student voice creates an envi- ronment where students become deeply invested in their topics or subjects under study. Digitalstorytelling increases engage- ment through interactivity. It improves students’ teamwork capabilities through the thick social interaction students engage in during the production, than other school activities do (Blas, Garzotto, Paolini, & Sabiescu, 2009). Digital stories mediate the academic conversations students conduct with their peers and with staff, management of their learning, how they document, distribute and apply their knowledge, or the time they spend really trying to understand a topic. Furthermore, creating digital stories increases students’ motivation and engagement levels (Dogan & Robin, 2008; Salpeter, 2005), especially the direc- tor’s chair effect, self expression and opportunity to utilize technology as a key factors in captivating and motivating stu- dents (Banaszewski, 2005; Paul, 2002; Dogan & Robin, 2008). Despite growing recognition of the importance of student engagement and the potential impact of digital stories on stu- dent engagement, little research has been done internationally and in South Africa into how the adoption of digitalstorytelling as a vehicle for expanding learning is creating new patterns of engagement. Additionally, the adoption of digitalstorytelling in conventional educational setting is currently limited; most re- ported educational projects based on these systems are largely
Abstract: The aim of this mixed methods study is to investigate the effect of two ways of storytelling on speaking skills of Iranian EFL learners. The traditional way of storytelling which is called storytelling aloud is performed by a teacher or a narrator in an educational setting. Another way of storytelling named digitalstorytelling is done using the internet and websites. This mixed method study measured the differences between effect of digitalstorytelling and storytelling aloud on speaking skill of Iranian EFL learners using both qualitative and quantitative methods. The data were collected from 42 students who were aged19 to 25 years old at Payam Noor University in Gorgan, Iran. In this study a TOEFL speaking test was administered to students in two classes as the pre-test. Next, one of the classes as experimental group consisting of 21 participants was exposed to treatment in which they participated in a digitalstorytelling course for 12 sessions. The other class as the control group had the traditional storytelling instruction. At the end of the course, the same TOEFL speaking test was administered to both groups. Alongside the speaking test, the experimental group was given a questionnaire about the effectiveness of digitalstorytelling course on their motivation to improve their speaking ability. The data analyzed by using SPSS software proved the efficiency of the digitalstorytelling on the oral performance of EFL learners.
Any media device which can be read by a machine is called digitalmedia. What makes the difference between digitalmedia devices and the classical, physical is the fact that digitalmedia is created, modified and distributed on digital electronics devices. It may be difficult to believe, but in 1986, only 30 years back, we had as little as 1% of total media storage capacity in digital form. By 2007, this number came up to 94%, which best illustrates the speed at which digitalization came about. Machines could read the information on computers, even though this may seem strange to modern generations. Way back in the early 1800s, people started to think about how to create machines which could process information faster than humans. (James M. Scott, 2017) .
The narrative component of the digital storytell- ing assignment often played an important role in transforming the meaning of the images students chose to include. Sometimes our students chose a topic that was more academic. However, using the framework for digitalstorytelling in Lambert (2012), we wanted the students to focus on a key personal moment in their stories. Students often struggled with adding a personal dimension to their academic stories. A Korean student, for example, created a sto- ry about hoping to be a better father than his father was. His story included a haunting photo of a man, who may or may not be his father, standing in front of a ship. A Chinese undergraduate told a moving story of the day she left China to study in the United States as this moment was the first time her mother told her she loved her. The students were never re- quired to reveal such aspects of their personal lives, but it often helped them develop their voices in rela- tionship to their texts.
The Collins English Dictionary (n.d.) defines a narrative (or story) as any account that presents connected events and experiences to an audience. A narrative will consist of a set of events (the story) told in some form or process of narration (or discourse) in which the events are arranged in a particular order (the plot). Narrative inquiry uses stories, autobiographies, journals, field notes, letters, conversations, interviews, photos, and videos to research and understand the way people create meaning in their lives as narratives (Riessman, 1993). According to Heo (2004), “narrative inquiry is a way of understanding, organizing and communicating experience as stories, lived and told” (pg. 230). Pedersen (1995) describes storytelling, a form of narrative inquiry, as one of the first instructional strategies in teaching. Storytelling allows an individual to make sense of the external world through the expression and creation of stories (Bruner, 1990).
In the current context of rapidly changing digital tech- nology, researchers must keep pace with novel research approaches that hold significant potential to engage users (i.e. patients, family members) as well as other members of healthcare and research communities. A highly techno- logical world is rapidly changing the definition of what it means to be an informed and contemporary researcher . This digital revolution has ushered in a multiliterate age in which humans engage and communicate through various modalities . Increasingly, people are document- ing their lives on social media, whether that be communi- cating a personal achievement, sharing life experiences, or conveying what it is like to live with illness. Face-to-face contact and virtual presence are becoming equally import- ant as meaningful avenues for expressing lived experi- ences. Email, Instagram™, Facebook™, and Twitter™ are some of the digital mediums that now connect people more frequently than landlines and regular mail. There have been significant advancements in technology over the last two decades that have shaped the digital revolu- tion. Smart phones and tablets are essentially pocket-sized personal computers. ‘ Apps’ shape photos and videos into engaging, personalized media content. It is critical that researchers find innovative approaches to respond to these societal shifts.
Education is an essential aspect in human life. People seek the knowledge and increase their competencies through education. As the result of the rapid change and innovation in technology especially in the field of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), education system is forced to meet and adapt with the latest change and trend in the field. Multimedia technology as a branch of ICT is playing an important role in making the education system more interesting, efficient, and successful . In fact, multimedia technology has become a popular tool in teaching and learning for every level of education. It has successfully complemented the traditional way of teaching and learning by putting more concerns on interactive aspects of education. In relation, interactive multimedia is basically employed to increase interactivity between student and teacher during the teaching-learning process using more than one media and at the same time, it might increase students’ comprehensive understanding of the materials learned .