for additional questions pertaining to attitudes towards disclosure and help-seeking. Descriptive analyses indicated that the majority of the participants who reported lived experience had experienced one or more of the represented mentalhealthproblems (83.1%). These findings verified the suitability of types of mentalhealthproblems chosen. Where the term “mentalhealth problem” was used, feedback from two participants suggested that its classification was too broad and made responding to the questions difficult. “I found it quite difficult to answer as I think there is a marked difference in how socially accepted some kinds of mentalhealthproblems are”, “…because the definition of this (mentalhealthproblems) could be narrow and broad…I found it difficult that you clumped together a large group of different diagnoses. I answered some as how I felt about someone with depression and others thinking about bipolar disorder or psychosis, which I personally view differently in terms of their possible impact on functioning and likely need for external help… the neurosis/psychosis split might have different types of response which my responses mixed up depending on the question asked. I wasn’t able to reflect this difference in stigma in my answers”. While on one hand, this might add to the literature that mentalhealthproblems are stigmatised differently, it raises concerns about the validity of participants’ responses. It would be helpful for future research to have clearer definitions of concepts and terminology used.
Ethical approval for the research was obtained from City University Senate Ethics Committee and the National Offender Management Service. Confidentiality and anonymity were assured and maintained throughout the study. T2A staff only invited possible interviewees with capacity to consent. Full and parallel ‘youth-friendly’ information sheets were distributed. Though procedures were devised to deal with the disclosure during interviews of material that would need to be reported elsewhere (issues of risk or criminality), these were not needed. T2A workers were at hand should the young people interviewed become upset and need extra support: most met with them for a chat after the interview in any case. To ensure that no young people could be identified by their peers, families or staff who work with them, quotations are not attributed even by code to any individual. Each of the fifteen young people is quoted at least once.
This study surveyed a sample of 255 mentalhealth counselors in the United States and used descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, one-way ANOVA, and logistic regression analysis to investigate the prevalence of mentalhealthproblems and help seeking, the perceived barriers to, and predictors of help seeking for mentalhealthproblems among mentalhealth counselors. In this sample, 62.6% (n = 159) reported they had experienced a mentalhealth problem during the time since licensure. Of those, 13.2% (n = 21) reported they had not received treatment. “Handling the problem on my own” was the most cited barrier to help seeking, followed by “not being able to afford the financial costs,” “difficulty taking time off, and “having had bad experiences with mentalhealth care.” The study also found that increased help-seeking self-stigma predicted decreased intention to seek help from a mentalhealth professional, while experience of role model disclosure of positive experiences with mentalhealth treatment predicted increased intention to seek help. A limitation of this study was the use of availability sampling which resulted in a non-representative sample, skewed toward white, non-Hispanic, females. Important areas for future research include studies with larger more
respondents did not include open‐ended comments, but those who did provided both things to consider and areas of concern. In the area of Block Placements, concerns were primarily related to the length of time cases remain open in mentalhealth and to the cost of releasing an employee from a work
assignment for 3 months. In the area of Cooperative Community Placements comments indicated interest in this as a possibility. All narrative comments are provided unedited in Table 2.
R01-MH069864, and R01 DA016558), the Fogarty International Center (FIRCA R03-TW006481), the Pan American Health Organization, the Eli Lilly and Company Foundation, Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceutical, Inc., GlaxoSmithKline, Bristol-Myers Squibb, and Shire. The authors declare that the funders of the SPMHS had no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. The authors also declare that the commercial funders of the Harvard coordination center had no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. We thank the SPMHS staff members, Beatriz Margarita Adler, Marlene Galativicis Teixeira, Indaia´ de Santana Bassani, and Fidel Beraldi. We also thank the WMH staff for assistance with instrumentation, fieldwork, and data analysis. A complete list of WMH publications can be found at http://www.hcp.med.harvard.edu/wmh/.
The strengths of this analysis include an examination of MHC needs by type (information, medication, counselling, and other), a determination of the degree to which MHC needs are met (fully, partially, or unmet), and a large, popu- lation-based sample. The results suggest that many Canadians perceive an MHC need, particularly for counselling. The presence of a mental disorder, higher distress, and chronic physical conditions were positively associated with per- ceiving an MHC need, many of which were unmet or only partially met. As well, higher levels of distress predicted a greater likelihood that needs would be unmet or partially met. Most perceived barriers to receiving MHC were related to personal circumstances, although almost one in fi ve who reported barriers said they were related to features of the health care system. ■
Several limitations need to be considered when interpreting the findings. The diagnoses of internalising disorders and physical health conditions were based on self- reported data. It is likely some people had undiagnosed mentalhealthproblems within the sample, as many people do not seek treatment for mentalhealthproblems, particularly Māori and Pasifika peoples (Horwood & Fergusson, 1998). Therefore, the prevalence of internalising disorders in the general population may have been underestimated, as well as the risk associated with physical health conditions. In comparison, Te Rau Hinengaro (Oakley Browne et al., 2006) assessed mentalhealthproblems using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0), a diagnostic screening tool. The lifetime prevalence of anxiety disorders was 25%, and mood disorders was 20%, which is higher than in the current study. Despite this limitation, data from the NZHS was able to detect a significant association between mentalhealthproblems and most physical health conditions in line with previous research.
systematic manner, are needed to increase understanding of how cur- rent cohorts of college students are experiencing these issues. The counseling center profession does an extensive job in collecting “local” data from clients on individual campuses, but these are rarely shared nationally. Further, samples of students who don’t come to counseling centers need to be investigated to examine similarities and differences between clinical (those who seek mentalhealth treatment) and non- clinical populations. Finally, an intentional focus on reaching diverse groups of college students is needed to ensure the understanding of similarities and differences both among and between identity groups. Most research on college student mentalhealth has focused on the stu- dents who seek help at college counseling centers (Benton, Robertson, Tseng, Newton, & Benton, 2003; Furr, Westefeld, McConnell, & Jenkins, 2001) and on broader health issues (American College Health Association [ACHA], 2003). For example, Benton et al. conducted a longitudinal study that charted the presenting issues of college student clients from 1988–2001. Their results support the evidence from other colleges and universities in the United States that have been reporting an apparent rise in both the presence and severity of mentalhealth issues among students (Kitzrow, 2003; Pledge, Lapan, Heppner, Kivlighan, & Roehilke, 1998; Rudd, 2004). In addition, for the past 4 years the ACHA has conducted the National College Health Assessment (NCHA), an informative survey of college student health that includes limited questions on mentalhealth issues such as med- ication use, depression, and suicide.
What do you want your peers to know about mentalhealth?
Prevalence and risk of mentalhealth issues in college. It is more common than you think and you are not alone, people just do not advertise it. Everyone should take care of their mentalhealth since there are increased risks during college. Mentalhealth is affected by the stress of college life. It can happen to anybody. Everyone has problems, stresses and challenges in life and sometimes need help to address them. More people than you realize are getting help. Everyone will experience a mentalhealth issue at some point in their lives and need to be aware of it so it is not detrimental to their health.
mood disorder were aware of their condition. Among the group with schizophrenia, 40%
lacked insight into their having the condition, but they were in the minority. These results suggest that people with some mentalhealth conditions, such as bipolar disorder, are highly likely to have the insight about their condition required to face the dilemma outlined in this paper when they are in remission. But the results also suggest that many people with conditions often closely associated with a lack of insight, such as schizophrenia, including those with delusions, will also have the required insight when they are in remission. These findings suggest that people frequently face a dilemma about whether to disclose information about their condition not while they symptoms are most acute (see also Jacoby 2016) but in periods when they are less severely ill or in remission. Only then are they likely to have the insight required to disclose information about their condition and therefore the ability to provide information that will allow others to properly interpret their behaviour if they relapse and once again have acute symptoms.
identified and proper remedial measures have to be incorporated to impart positive attitudes among the offenders which results in the effective functioning of the individual to the society.
The Juvenile offenders in Juvenile Justice System are reported to have mentalhealthproblems. As many as 70 percent of youth in the Juvenile Justice system are affected with the mental disorder and one in five suffer from mental illness which impairs their ability to function as a young person and grow into an responsible adult. Children with unaddressed mentalhealth sometimes enter a juvenile justice system that is ill – equipped to assist them, even if they receive a level of assistance, some are then released without access to ongoing needed mentalhealth treatment. An absence of treatment may contribute to a path of behaviour that includes continued delinquency and eventually, adult criminality. The Bureau of Justice statistics estimates that more than three quarters of mentally ill offenders in detention centres had prior offenses. Effective assessment and comprehensive responses to court – involved juveniles with mentalhealth needs can help to break this cycle and produce healthier young people who are less likely to act out and commit crimes.
There is also evidence that the depression subscale of the EPDS correlates more highly with other measures of anxiety than the anxiety subscale does, indicating poor convergent validity (Brouwers, van Baar, & Pop, 2001).
With the exception of measures of pregnancy-specific worries or anxiety, no specific measures of anxiety have been developed for use in perinatal populations. Most measures used were originally designed for use in generic samples. Validity of any self-report measure depends on recalibration for the population under study (Geisinger, 1994). Self-report measures constructed for use with one population may produce flawed results in another population because the distribution of the variable will differ according to a number of factors including culture, development and time of measurement in the perinatal period. Normative values and cut-offs may also vary in samples that differ from the original sample. Therefore an evaluation must be made as to whether the sample with whom the test was designed is sufficiently similar to the test sample to ensure little variability in functioning of the self-report measure (Myers &
Years in the nursing profession and years in role.
No significant correlations were found between years in the nursing profession or years in current role and SWB. Increasing years of experience of mentalhealth nursing have been associated with higher emotional competence(Humpel & Caputi, 2001) and lower burnout (Johnson et al, 2011), as well as higher work engagement(Vanaki & Vagharseyyedin, 2009). Johnson et al(2012) also found that being in a current post for over a year and hav- ing a long time of service in mentalhealth care tended to associate with lower positive en- gagement. UK mentalhealth employees five to nine years into their career were most like- ly to burnt out in Johnson et al’s study, whilst Vanaki and Vagharseyyedin found that nurs- es with two to ten years of nursing experience were experiencing more stress and less managerial support. This perhaps fits well with general population findings on age, as de- scribed above, in that SWB tends to rise as people get older, certainly past middle age.
However, the variables that most often predicted first aid responses were female gender, low personal stigma and correct recognition of the disorder in the vignette. The lat- ter two predictors indicate potential barriers to providing first aid. Respondents who saw the person in the vignette as having negative attributes were less likely to respond by encouraging professional help-seeking or providing per- sonal support. Efforts to reduce stigma in the community may therefore facilitate greater first aid. People who did not recognize the disorder showed a similar pattern of responses. These people lack knowledge of mental disor- ders, at least to the extent of being able to apply a psychi- atric label. Therefore community education about how to recognize these disorders may also facilitate helpful first aid responses.
of organizations where individuals worked and how much variance there is within an organization could reveal if relationships differ based on organizational culture.
Another limitation of this study is that it does not address reasons for disclosure.
Just as the impact of navigating a mental illness varies by person, as do the reasons for disclosure. Examining the reasons for disclosure, would provide a better view of the motivations for disclosure and how those motivations were impacted by the individual’s work environment. Future research could also employ a longitudinal study in order to better determine causality among these results. Stated differently, a longitudinal study could provide better insight into whether or not self-disclosure in the workplace is best thought of as an independent or dependent variable. Similarly, this study does not examine self- disclosure within differing interpersonal contexts. By understanding an individual’s self- disclosure outside of the workplace, this can create a more comprehensive picture how organizational factors influence disclosure. In addition, future research could examine if and how individuals continue to feel supported following disclosure.
What factors are associated with care-seeking in the CF?
What barriers do CF members perceive to mentalhealth care-seeking?
How does the mentalhealth of the CF population compare to that of the general population? What sub-populations are at risk of developing mentalhealthproblems and disorders?
trol of various theories and the use of various respondents and field workers. This therefore is the result of applying the cross validation strategy.
As a result of the meta-theoretical assumptions, the Nursing for the Whole Person Theory of the Oral Roberts University, Anna Vaughn School of Nursing, was utilized as theoretical framework to categorize the results of the explorative multiple case studies, reflected in the life world of the adolescent with mentalhealthproblems, under the headings: the physical di
† Authors contributed equally to this work.
∗ Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Online social media, such as Reddit, has become an important resource to share personal experiences and communicate with others. Among other personal information, some social media users communicate about mentalhealthproblems they are experiencing, with the intention of getting advice, support or empathy from other users. Here, we investigate the language of Reddit posts specific to mentalhealth, to define linguistic characteristics that could be helpful for further applications. The latter include attempting to identify posts that need urgent attention due to their nature, e.g. when someone an- nounces their intentions of ending their life by suicide or harming others. Our results show that there are a variety of linguistic features that are discriminative across mentalhealth user communities and that can be further exploited in subsequent classification tasks. Fur- thermore, while negative sentiment is almost uniformly expressed across the entire data set, we demonstrate that there are also condition-specific vocabularies used in social media to communicate about particular disorders. Source code and related ma- terials are available from: https:
The overall prevalence rate of depression rate in Iraq is 3.7%
(WHO estimates, 2021).
Because Iraq has experienced numerous ongoing conflicts, present and past, the population had been affected by many traumatic events that inevitably has impacted their mental wellbeing; the last one was the invasion of ISIS that displaced a third of the population in four big cities in Iraq (Ninewa, Salah Al din, Anbar and Kirkuk). In this literature, four studies were found which examined PTSD, three conducted among IDPs, and the last one conducted among university students. The results of all the studies showed that the percentage of PTSD is high in Iraq. In 2017, Al-khafaf reported that 18-29-year-olds in one of the Iraqi IDP camps showed the prevalence of PTSD as 67%.