Learner Autonomy and Learner Control
Bouchard (2002) and Dron (2007) both indicate that learner autonomy is not a particular quality or level of independence in learning that people have, but a relational interplay between contextual and personal factors. Adult learners make choices about the level of control imposed by others on their learning and Bouchard (2002, p.6) identified several factors that are significant. He clustered them in four groups, the first one related to motivation, confidence and initiative; the second to control over the learning activity and the third one related to issues of language and communication used in the learning and teaching process. The importance of aspects of economy in learner autonomy was recognized as a fourth category; the choice to learn for personal gain such as for future employment, and the possible cost of other study options. In short, learners will conduct a breakdown of costs and benefits that the particular learning option would bring and make choices accordingly. The choice to study through an institution and tutor, independently, or mediated through technology will mean a different level of control being imposed on the learning process by different actors and on different aspects of the learning itself. Dron (2007) emphasised the fine balance between control by an institution and a tutor on the one hand, and the making of
As is the nature of “disruptivetechnologies”, their exploitation creates the demand for finding and implementing an adequate business model capable of dealing with these innovations. This is also true for innovations of learningtechnologies: “Deans and heads of schools are looking to move teaching from a cottage industry to the industrial mode” (Cohen / Boyd 1999). The necessity of envisioning new business models for the production and delivery of learning and of reviewing the learning industry’s value chain has been noted earlier. Without going into depth at this point (see for a more detailed discussion e.g. Ip 1997; Cohen / Boyd 1999; Hämäläinen 1999; Seufert 2001; Piller / Möslein 2002), we are building our further analysis on the assumption that “disruptivelearning innovations” as presented above also have to be implemented into (new) business models for the production and delivery of management education from all participants of the management education industry’s value chain:
Design and technology (D&T) is at a point of uncertainty and there are mixed views about what it should consist of and the values that it holds. This research aimed to find out if teaching secondary pupils about disruptivetechnologies such as artificial intelligence (AI) would alter their perceptions in relation to the value of D&T, as well as improving their learning. Two lessons, focussed on AI, were i teg ated i to a s he e of o k a d pupils pe eptio s of D&T s alue e e easu ed efo e a d afte the lesso s. Pupils espo ses a d o k out o es e e also o side ed. Following the lessons, pupils showed more awareness of D&T being related to problem solving, they displayed critical thinking, and work outcomes showed progress in problem solving skills. The research suggests that tea hi g pupils a out dis upti e te h ologies a ha e a positi e i pa t o pupils lea i g a d to some extent, their perceptions of the value of D&T.
There is a widespread belief that such technologies will transform teaching and learn- ing practices, making them more significant, interesting and relevant to the students, and thereby radically changing the quality of learning students experience (Karasavvidis & Kollias, 2014). Institutions in higher education are making a substantial investment in technologies to support teaching and learning (Bebell, Russell, & O’Dwyer, 2004). The rapid advancement of learningtechnologies in higher education is attributed to the realisation that learningtechnologies can support, and innovate teaching (Fernán- dez-Ferrer & Cano, 2016) and enhance various forms of assessments (Farrell & Rushby 2016). Drent and Meelissen (2008) argue that the deployment of learningtechnologies into the teaching and learning environment brings benefits for students, such that they are able to develop skills for searching and assessing information, collaboration, com- munication and problem solving. Research also shows that technologies can be used to improve the quality of teaching through the provision of professional development op- portunities for teachers (Levin & Wadmany, 2008; Mends-Brew, 2012; Peters, 2009; Ruhizan, Norazah, Mohd, Faizal, & Jamil, 2014). Further, disruptivetechnologies such as Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) provide flexible online education for teachers, as well as opportunities for them to repurpose and adapt content to their own teaching (Conole, 2013; Kay, Reimann, Diebold & Kummerfeld, 2013). Proponents of the use of technology in education suggest that technology will make education more accessible, more affordable, and more effective, whereas opponents of the use of tech- nology in education claim that there is no significant difference in learning when tech- nology is used in the education process (Abrahams, 2010).
Undertaking this research has sometimes felt like plate spinning, seeking to keep a variety o f things aloft at once. I have been an Associate Lecturer at the Open University (OU) since 2003. I had left university in 1999 with a PhD in nineteenth-century English literature and culture, and had thereafter (1999-2007) taught English at three HEIs and one private school. I had also had two books published in my field. In 2007 I started an MA in Online and Distance Education as part o f my Continuing Professional Development at the OU. Undertaking the MA (2007-09) spawned my interest in disruptivetechnologies. In January 2009 I was appointed Head o f Learning and Teaching at IFS University College, leading academic community development as the organisation sought taught degree awarding powers (granted in 2010). I started this EdD in May 2010, intending to use academic community members at the OU and IFS as research participants. My situation, however, became complex at the beginning o f 2012, as I was offered the post o f Head o f Curriculum Innovation at King’s College London, to the chagrin o f the IFS. It has been a challenging few years. Incidentally, I am also a husband, and father to a son (15) and daughter (12, going on 19).
The first level of technological equipment in the kindergarten has practically no added value to the overall educational process. The teacher cannot show a teaching resource on a small screen to a group of 25-30 children at the same time. Teachers using this level of equipment share that they use the computer to work with problem children, to set individual children's tasks in the afternoon before the end of the school day, to play audio recordings from the Internet, i.e. A UNESCO report describes an attempt to build computer rooms in kindergartens in Moscow, but the model is not included into the recommendations set out in the report and the guidelines for technology integration in the early ages . Placing the child alone in front of the computer and building skills for working with mouse and keyboard corresponds to first grade national educational standards for teaching ICT at Primary school.
implementations in the various classes in Phase 3 of the project. The workshops represented a ‘group learning process’ in which teaching ideas were discussed, and refined through all phases in an ongoing cyclical process. The workshop sessions drew on the expertise of those within the group. Recognition was made through the structure of the workshops of those with a range of areas of expertise (such as pedagogy or technology), where discussion allowed for the development of shared understandings and goals. In this way, the workshop model is one that any university or institution could readily adapt because it uses existing human and other resources to implement a self-sufficient, Faculty- or Department-wide solution to a problem rather than draw on outside experts to advise on ‘correct’ procedures. Such a process is beneficial beyond the financial saving of using expertise from within; it allows for acknowledgement of the expertise within the group, building stronger ties between members of that community. The teachers retained the mobile devices throughout the professional development workshop sessions, bringing them to each session to develop their skills in using the devices as well as to discuss their potential for teaching.
Furthermore, Massive open online course (MOOC) is also developed by universities to teach programming. It is one of the latest online teaching and learning model Liyanagunawardena et al.  which is gaining a lot of popularity. As discussed by Eckerdal et al. , people have mixed feelings about MOOCs and it has positive and negative aspects. Some of the good features are that it is affordable, accessible anywhere and anytime and allows interaction with experts. The negative aspects are that it does not have a clear teaching structure and does not have a satisfactory grading system which leads to learners not getting the correct feedback. To solve the issue of instant feedback researchers Tillmann et al.  propose a gaming platform Pex for fun (Pex4Fun). It is a browser based game which can be used on any browser from any device. It provides instant feedback to students and comes with auto-completing code editor. The key idea behind this platform is a sample solution which acts as a game where the student learner tries to complete the given code to match the sample solution by adding the codes and learning at the same time.
As it is the case with other African countries, the implementation of e-learning platform in Tanzanian universities is still very low despite of the opportunities that are provided by the open source technology and the conducive environment created by the government. In 2003, the Tanzania government enacted National ICT policy and the Tanzania Communications Regulatory Authority Act (URT 2003). These two major actions made it possible that by 2007 licenses for two basic telephone service provider, four land cellular mobile telephone operators, one global mobile personal communication service (GMPCS), eleven public data communication companies, nine private (dedicated) data services companies, and 24 public Internet service providers (ISPs) were issued (TCRA 2007). The government has also abolished all taxes related to computers and allied equipment, and reduced license fees and royalty payable by the telecommunication operators (Mutula and Ahmadi, 2002; National Committee for WSIS Prepcom II 2003; URT 2003). In the case of higher education, among ten universities, only the University of Dar es salaam (UDSM) has managed to implement the e-Learning platform in Tanzania. UDSM has implemented e-learning platform by using WEBCT and Blackboard, which are e-learning proprietary software. While, other universities such as Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA), Mzumbe University and Open University of Tanzania (OUT) possess basic ICT infrastructure such as Local Area Network (LAN), Internet, computers, CDs and DVDs facilities that form the basis for the establishment of e-learning platform.
Searching and matching making use of semantic technologies is featured by repositories that already employ semantic metadata. Expert matching as provided by the ArnetMiner has been deployed by the University of Tsinghua in China . The JISC funded AWESOME 25 project provides software that combines semantic wiki and pedagogy-aware inline recommendations to empower academic writing and is used by a number of schools at the University of Leeds, University Coventry and University of Bangor.
broadcaster and transmitter of static information, to a facilitator, adviser, content expert, coach, group facilitator, gatekeeper, and orchestrator of collaborative knowledge creation (Berk, 2009; Edutopia, 2008; Greenhow, Robelia & Hughes, 2009). The teacher's new role is to guide a new generation of “free-agent learners” who are using emerging and existent technologies (including social networking, cell phone applications, online classes, and podcasts) to personalize their learning, collaborate with peers, and share information – thus building a "personalized network of experts" (Project Tomorrow, 2010) and contributing to a collective intelligence (Kaminski, 2009). As a result of the numerous technological shifts that have occurred in the world and the classroom over the past decade, teacher education programs in Ontario (and, by extension, North America) have begun to develop and incorporate additional requisite and optional courses to tackle emerging issues (Laarhoven, Munk, Lynch, Bosma & Rouse, 2007). Available classes now include Learning with Technologies (The University of Windsor) and Educational Technology Leadership (Brock University), among others (Appendix A). Taking this even further, the University of Ontario Institute of Technology – “Ontario’s first laptop- based university” (UOIT, 2012b) – has integrated computers into every class in its
cloud computing is being heavily promoted as a disruptive It model for delivering greater benefit to organizations that require flexibility and agility in their It provision. outsourcing the provision of infrastructure, computing power and software with access via a network presents opportunities to drive down costs by paying for these capabilities and services only as required by the business, sharing them with other users and providing open access. With these benefits come a number of potential risks arising from security, availability and interoperability considerations. these opportunities and risks are not new, as they apply to any form of shared computing resource such as virtualization and even mainframes, but the ways in which the cloud can be used throws them into sharper relief. In addition, the requirements of the aerospace and defense industry demand particular care, since proprietary information not only is business critical but also can be a national security risk if exposed inappropriately.
Uses of m-learning in education
Despite the significant potential of mobile technologies to be
employed as powerful learning tools in higher education, their current use appears to be predominantly within a didactic, teacher-centred paradigm, rather than a more constructivist environment. It can be argued that the current use of mobile devices in higher education (essentially content delivery) is pedagogically conservative and regressive. Their adoption is following a typical pattern where educators revert to old pedagogies as they come to terms with the capabilities of new technologies, referred to by Mioduser, Nachmias, Oren and Lahav (1999) as ‘one step forward for the technology, two steps back for the pedagogy’ (p. 758). Adopting more recent theories of learning has the potential to exploit the affordances of the
Task-based teaching with multimedia technologies exceeds linguistic production stricto sensu. Technologies can support oral or written production. They may, in some cases, incorporate production as a task (listening, reading, and validating). Technologies allow us to adapt global pedagogical approaches: document exploration; reflection on the linguistic elements identified; and production in context, all as part of a set task. Thus, activities in the virtual classroom transform it into a real-life society. In fact, it is no longer necessary to pretend, as in the “role-play” activities of the communicative approach, instead, a concrete project is produced (through the experiences of social actors), where students can actually engage at different levels, because they are interested in and committed to its accomplishment. To this end, technologies become appropriate: as a source of real data information (Internet search engines, online dictionaries and encyclopaedias, online tools and resources such as Google, Wikipedia, etc.), especially as this coincides with the search patterns of today’s students.
Phase 2 of the pilot commenced in September 2007. Project proposals are being fine-tuned and a more rigorous skills audit is being conducted so that those staff with more experience can assist in the development of staff without. A range of podcasts has been created and made available to students via the University website and Virtual Learning Environment, X-stream. A bank of podcasts will shortly be developed by converting existing materials such as video and audio content, lecture notes and so on. Staff and students are being interviewed on the usefulness and appropriateness of podcasts as an additional method of delivering information and the analysis of this will allow us to draw some conclusions and produce supporting guidance for new podcast projects.
Students in rural communities in Newfoundland and Labrador are making increasing use of the Internet, learning in virtual classes within Digital Intranets and accessing an expanding range of web-based instruction. In the current school year there has been a doubling of the number of schools in rural Newfoundland and Labrador that use telelearning to expand educational opportunities in Intranet-linked classrooms. The theory that schools reflect the organization of industrial society has found widespread support over the last two decades. In this country Industry Canada has promoted the education of Canadians for “a digital world” (Information Highway Advisory Council, 1997) and Collis (1996) has argued that telelearning is the future of distance learning. There is a measure of agreement between these positions. At the present time we are seeing a challenge to the provision of education in industrial society by the emergence of telelearning and the mass provision of information.
Education is an instrument “per excellence” for national development. Business education is one of the programs run in about 117 universities in Nigeria. It was believed that business education has the capacity to bring about the required development since it is a course of instruction aimed at inculcating in the youth the skills, attitudes and competencies which are necessary to empower them to be gainfully engaged so that they will be useful citizens and contribute to the development of Nigeria and the society. However, there seemed to be gaps between the nation’s educational objectives and their realization. The obvious indicators to this fact are poor skills of graduates who cannot fit into the office of today, unemployment, poverty and underdevelopment of the country. Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) where properly utilized is capable of making the difference in empowering the students with the needed skills, attitudes and competencies. This study explored the barriers to the use of ICTs in teaching and learning business education. The researcher constructed 15 questionnaire items from research reports relevant to the study. The questionnaire was validated using Cronbach Alpha which yielded a reliability coefficient of 0.78. A total of 256 questionnaire items were administered to 202 business educators and 54 students of business education respectively from Universities offering business education in Nigeria and all of which were completed and retrieved. The Research Question “what are the barriers to the use of ICTs in teaching and learning business education in Nigeria?” was answered using mean rating and standard deviation. The Hypothesis of no significant difference in the mean responses of business educators and business education students from universities regarding barriers to the use of ICTs in teaching and learning business education was tested using student T-test. The study revealed that all the constructs, except one, constituted barriers to the use of ICTs in teaching and learning business education in Nigeria universities. it was concluded that the revealed barriers be tackled by the government, the university authorities, the teachers and the students so that the university environment would be repositioned to play its role of empowering the youth with the skills, attitude and competencies needed for Nigeria’s development.
Remailers are one of the older peer-to-peer technologies, but they have stood the test of time. Work done on them has helped or motivated much of the current work in the P2P field. Furthermore, they can be valuable to users who want to access many of the systems described in other chapters of this book by providing a reasonable degree of anonymity during this access, as explained in Chapter 15. Anonymous remailers allow people to send mail or post to newsgroups while hiding their identities. There are many reasons why people might want to act anonymously. Maybe they fear for their safety if they are linked to what they post (a concern of the authors of the Federalist Papers), maybe they think people will prejudge what they have to say, or maybe they just prefer to keep their public lives separate from their private lives. Whatever the reason, anonymous posting is quite difficult on the Internet. Every email has, in its headers, a list of every computer it passed through. Armed with that knowledge, an attacker could backtrack an email to you. If, however, you use a good remailer network, you make that task orders of magnitude harder.