management open source software like CVS (Concurrent Versioning System) and WebDAV (Web-based Distributed Authoring and Versioning) is available 12 so this function is mere an integration of such software. The scenario in Figure 48 shows protocol requests that a generic WebDAV client would make to carry out specific client actions. Arrows indicate the predominant information flow associated with a request. In this scenario, the user selects the resource to edit using a standard File...Open dialog box. The application then uses LOCK to lock the resource and thus prevent modifications by other applications. Next, PROPFIND retrieves the resource’s properties; and HTTP GET retrieves its contents, which are then displayed for editing. Once all edits have been completed, HTTP PUT saves the resource back to the Web, and UNLOCK removes the lock, allowing collaborators to access the resource.
Business processes define an organization’s operational procedures and are performed to reach the operational goals of the corresponding organization. Therefore, business processes are an important source for the engineering of customized software systems. In this context, the def- inition, monitoring, and enforcement of the duties associated with different tasks in a businessprocess is one important factor to ensure compliance in an IT system. For example, adequate support for the definition and enforcement of process-related policies, including separation of duty constraints, is one important part of SOX compliance [CB06, Dam04]. Separation of duty (SOD) constraints enforce conflict of interest policies (see, e.g., [AS00, LTB07]). Conflict of interest arises as a result of the simultaneous assignment of two mutually exclusive tasks to the same subject. However, modeling support for process-related duties is largely missing today. Especially in distributed environments the joint documentation of business processes and duties would facilitate their proper implementation and enforcement.
Chapter 2. Background and related work 27 In the modeling stage of the development cycle, the business analyst would define the above process, abstracting from technology, infrastructure, and implementation details. The result of the modeling stage is an abstract model of the process represented in BPEL, BPMN, or some other process definition language. This representation is imported into the development stage, where architects and developers break the model into development artifacts such as services along with their interfaces, and implement the required business logic. The result of this stage is a set of deployable components that are represented in a standard specification such as the Service Component Architecture (SCA) model . These services are deployed in a runtime environment that is managed by an administra- tor who is responsible for ensuring resource allocations and physical resource provisioning sufficient for the goals of the deployed services and processes. Often it is desirable to monitor the execution of the processes by tracking metrics on the state of the executing system. These metrics are computed based on observations in the runtime system and can be captured using standard monitoring frameworks such as an implementation of the Web Services Distributed Management standard . The metrics gathered can be aggregated and presented to the stakeholders in the preceding development stages. For example, the business analyst may be interested in high level metrics such as the number of times the second credit check is required. On the other hand, the system architect may be interested in lower level metrics such as the processing delays of the individual credit checking services, while the administrator would be concerned with system performance bottlenecks such as network congestion or processor utilization.
Here, we critically discuss relevant important developments on web service composition, coordination, and enhancements to the basic web service infrastructure (Invoke/Response) in order to support proper coordination and composition without attempting to be exhaustive. Web services have become increasingly promising to solve barriers that the EAI (Enterprise Application Integration) communality faced for decades In  authors have argued that Web services will play a major role in electronic data exchange and transaction processing systems. In [Ley02], authors illustrate how existing WSs are tailored to develop business processes over the Internet. Due to the service oriented nature of web services such applications need several web services to be integrated together to form a composed web process, in other words web service composition. Web services composition implies proper coordination (in particular control flow and dataflow) among participating web services to accomplish the business logic efficiently. Web service composition enables inter-organizational collaboration and coordination. Those coordinated activities are long running (workflows, transactions) and require much more functionality beyond just invoke-response protocols [Ley02]. In [Mue05], authors have pointed out the importance of integrating Web services in to workflow management systems. In [Men04], authors describe possible workflow application domains over the Internet. Application of workflow management systems (WFMS’s) spans large number of application domains including businessprocess models, scientific applications, and health care systems.
A businessprocess is a logical ordering of people, procedures and technology into work activities designed to transform information, materials and energy into a specified result  . On the other hand, process model or definition is used to describe the process by means of automation is composed of processmodeling and enactment phases. In general, three businessmodeling approaches and methodologies might be accepted: businessprocessmodeling developed by Prof. A.W. Scheer and is based on four views related to any businessprocess: functional, process, data, organizational and product-process view, while that approach is denoted as standardized approach , approach of increasing the level of automation of businessprocessmodeling (BPM) by representing the various spheres of an enterprise using ontology languages and semantic WEB services frameworks, which denoted as semantic approach  and approach, which is closed to extraction of business rules (BR), while two approaches have been used to extract BR from process specifications written in form of text in natural language (TNL –text in natural
Cloud Platform Value Assessment includes an impact analysis related to the business strategies, technology and financial implications. This answers most of the questions like why to move to cloud, what to move, when to move, how to move, which platform and service provider to select, what will be the impact on my employees, who will be the sponsor and analysis of investment and ROI.
SBPM also assists the user when creating a model: The user starts modeling a process and the system can make a recommendation how the process model could be finished. Therefore, several autocompletion mechanisms (such as Brockmans et al. 2006 or Betz et al. 2006) are discussed right now. But even the modeling of first steps of a process is not necessary in our opinion if a user simply specifies goals. Then the machine can automatically plan a process model based on given process actions (e.g. from a process repository) which finally lead to the goals. Therefore, the process actions need to be semantically described (at least) according to their inputs and outputs to make reasoning on these data. In the project SEMPRO (Henneberger et al. 2008) an approach is proposed that consists of three steps: finding dependencies between existing process actions, generate an action-state-graph using an innovative
In an initial phase (1), we prepared our prototype systems originating from the research project SEMPHIS and created a questionnaire for gathering the feedback. We, moreover, considered several options of how to perform the data collection such as sending the questionnaire or demonstrating the prototype followed by a survey. We finally opted for the latter strategy since, first, we aimed at presenting the interviewees our research prototypes personally in order to get a richer and more immediate feedback. Such a presentation would not be possible, when sending the questionnaires, e.g. via e-mail. In addition, after our presentation, we wanted to give the interviewees also the chance to try our tools out. Secondly, convenience sampling – as performed in this study – is especially suited for preliminary studies concerning, e.g. pilot testing . It belongs to the group of non-probability sampling and is a sampling technique where the samples are gathered in a process that does not give all the individuals in the population equal chances of being selected . Therefore, it is also considered to be not generalizable . Nonetheless, it is useful for getting first feedback at an early stage. The questionnaire itself was organized in three parts: (a) personal information about the interviewees, (b) feedback on the functionalities presented, and (c) gathering additional requirements that seem to be useful for being additionally implemented.
Other related research work was carried out on service discovery and optimization for composition in the domain of Service Computing. Traditional service composition issues refer to the web services scenarios recommended based on certain given or pre- defined business template in which high-level abstract web services are well specified by users when the workflow is designed.
”a structured, measured set of activities designed to produce a specific output for a particular customer or market. It implies a strong emphasis on how work is done within an organization, in contrast to a product focus’s emphasis on what. A process is thus a specific ordering of work activities across time and space, with a beginning and an end, and clearly defined inputs and outputs: a structure for action. ... Taking a process approach implies adopting the customer’s point of view. Processes are the structure by which an organization does what is necessary to produce value for its customers. ”Hammer & Champy’s (1993) definition can be considered as a subset of Davenport’s. They define a process
IC (number of inputs * number of outputs) 2 The advantages of the IC metric are that it takes into account data-driven processes and it can be calculated prior to implementation, during the design stage . In summary, although some researchers proposed using software metrics to evaluate businessprocess designs, the number of publications on concrete metrics and applications in the businessprocess domain is still small and only of a very recent date. We also note that object oriented metrics have not been adapted to businessprocess models despite the similarities that exist between the latters and object oriented software. In the next section, we propose to adapt object oriented measures to business processes.
understand, but also provides the ability to model complex business processes. It has also been designed specifically with web services in mind. BPMN is only one of three specifications that the BPMI has developed – the other two are a BusinessProcessModeling Language (BPML) and a BusinessProcess Query Language (BPQL). All have been developed using a solid mathematical foundation, which enables a BPMN BusinessProcess Diagram to map directly to BPML, in the same way that a physical data model maps directly to Data Definition Language (DDL).
The idea of applying process mining in the context of workflow management was first introduced in . This work is based on workflow graphs, which are inspired by workflow products such as IBM MQSeries workflow that is formerly known as Flowmark and InConcert. In this paper, two problems are defined. The first problem is to find a workflow graph generating events appearing in a given workflow log. The second problem is to find the definitions of edge conditions. A concrete algorithm is given for tackling the first problem. The approach is quite different from other approaches: Because the nature of workflow graphs there is no need to identify the nature of AND or OR joins and splits. As shown in , workflow graphs use true and false tokens which do not allow for cyclic graphs. Nevertheless,  partially deals with iteration by enumerating all occurrences of a given task and then folding the graph. However, the resulting conformal graph is not a complete model. In , a tool based on these algorithms is presented. Schimm [33, 34] has developed a mining tool suitable for discovering hierarchically structured workflow processes. This requires all splits and joins to be balanced. Herbst and Karagiannis also address the issue of process mining in the context of workflow management , , ,  using an inductive approach. The work presented in  is limited to sequential models. The approach described in , ,  also allows for concurrency. It uses stochastic task graphs as an intermediate representation and it generates a workflow model described in the ADONIS modeling language. In the induction step task nodes are merged and split in order to discover the underlying process. A notable difference with other approaches is that the same task can appear multiple times in the workflow model, that is the approach allows for duplicate tasks. The graph generation technique is similar to the approach of [23
Talking about ontologies and web services you might wonder, why we did not mention “OWL-S”  yet. OWL-S is more or less the answer of the Semantic Web community to the industry approach BPEL. It contains interesting aspects of defining interface descriptions with ontologies. This part is fully agreed: We map / export / import XML.Schema to any ontology. The other idea of OWL-S is to represent the process itself as an ontology. There are classes defining process steps, sub processes etc. as an OWL ontology. This approach competes with other XML serializations of processes e.g. XPDL without adding many new benefits. It does not tackle the real problem: Connecting the terminology used inside the process descriptions with ontologies as described above. Once the wording and names of process elements are founded in an ontology, the behavior or business value may be judged programmatically with mediators by analyzing the structure of processes, in order to find out, if the web service is “doing the right thing”. For more details on this issue see Semantic Web Service Processes with SemTalk (2003).
BPM represents a change in the way businesses structure IT solutions. The process view becomes central; the driving context for the underlying applications, services, and data is the process. This requires the separation of all the process information. Processes, including those which historically were embedded in application implementations or in the day-to-day business routine of employees, are now fundamental business assets. BPM execution environments become traffic cops, directing the flow of transactions from activity to activity or process to process. The company’s process knowledge becomes the key enabler for achieving and maintaining a competitive organization.
In this study, we perform UML integration modeling after analyzing the service oriented businessprocess based on SOA. Each process is defined in the form of a peer in order to allow the process derived from the modeling of the businessprocess to interact with other processes in the P2P mode. This paper proposes an efficient method of modelingbusiness processes in a P2P manner based on the use of SOA throughout the modeling steps, in order to enhance the efficiency of the services. This results in the accurate modeling of an enterprise and allows for the more efficient and visual integration of processes between enterprises.
and external factors that may influence strategic decisions, Porter’s Five Force Analysis (Porter, 2008b), which evaluates the competitive landscape of industries, and the Business Model Canvas (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010), which provides a generic frame for enterprises to describe and communicate their business models. The vast majority of the tools and techniques, however, share a common lim- itation: they are built on top of informally defined theories about the economic and social reality. This means that they put forth a number of concepts with- out accurately characterizing them. Thus, practitioners have to make their own interpretations about the key concepts proposed in such tools, which may result in distorted usage, and subsequently, them not obtaining the expected results (Jarzabkowski and Wilson, 2006). This issue, in fact, is pervasive in the field of management sciences, as evinced by the sheer number of publications discussing conceptual and definitional issues regarding many important notions (e.g. strategy (Mintzberg et al., 2005), strategy practice (Jarzabkowski and Paul Spee, 2009), business model (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2004; Timmers, 1998), competitive ad- vantage (Powell, 2001), risk (Aven et al., 2011; Kjellmer, 2007), value and value co-creation (Bowman and Ambrosini, 2000; Boztepe, 2007; Sánchez-Fernández and Iniesta-Bonillo, 2006), competition (Gur and Greckhamer, 2018), brand (Grassi, 1998), personas (Junior and Almeida, 2018), customer loyalty (Dick and Basu, 1994), market and industry (Nightingale, 1978), service (Nardi et al., 2015)). In most cases, the story is roughly the same. A new concept is proposed without be- ing properly characterized. It nonetheless becomes popular among researchers and practitioners, who then start to argue about what the concept really means and how it should be used. This leads to a number of (often conflicting) definitions, which end up hindering communication and adoption of the proposed concept in practice.
Several models have been developed to enable description of business processes using mathematical models. The most popular include Integration Definition (IDEF), Computer Integrated Manufacturing – Open System Architecture (CIM-OSA), Object-Oriented Modeling, and the highly popular Petri Nets. These standards were used to develop many tools for businessprocessmodeling (ARIS, FirstStep, PrimeObject, etc.). Zakarian  integrated the Fuzzy-rule-based Reasoning Approach with IDEF in order to extend the quantitative analysis of the process model. Grigori  proposed the BusinessProcess Intelligence, a tool which uses data mining methods for the analysis of business processes. Multiple algorithms were developed to enable optimization of business problems in the area of logistics Yu and Li , as most of business models (including BusinessProcessModeling Notation) are insufficient from the point of view of the multi-criteria analysis. McKay and Radnor  presented a model for the description of business processes which, however, did not include any formal optimization methods.
Pistoia et al.  develop a formal model for Role Based Access Control (RBAC) policy validation and a static analysis model for RBAC systems which is ca- pable to analyze static policy models. Through the use of XACML, the present approach allows the use of other access control models than RBAC. Additionally, it enables not only a static analysis but also a runtime analysis of policies (as described in subsection 5.3). A method for integrating risks in business processes is presented by zur Muehlen and Rosemann . The authors developed a taxonomy of process related risks and capture the risk-related information with an ex- tended Event-driven Process Chain (EPC) Notation. Furthermore, Sadiq et al.  developed a language for the representation of control objectives and propose to annotate business processes with corresponding control tags. However, the present approach includes an access control model, uses an internal control model, which resembles the COSO model more closely and prefers a standard rule language.