Shuying Jiang 1,2 , Takao Hamakubo 3 , Kenichi Mitsui 3 , Ren Yagami 4 , Yukio Fujiyoshi 5 , Yoichi Ajioka 2 , Makoto Naito 6,7
1 Department of Orthoptist, Niigata College of Medical Technology, Kamishinnsakae-machi, Nishi-ku, Niigata, Niiga- ta-Pref, Japan; 2 Division of Molecular and Diagnostic Pathology Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata University, Asahimachi-Doori, Chuo-ku, Niigata, Niigata-Pref, Japan; 3 Department of Quantitative Biology and Medicine, Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro- ku, Tokyo, Japan; 4 Aoyama Medical lmt. Sales Promotion Dept. Internal Affairs, Japan; 5 Department of Anatomic Pathology and Molecular Diagnosis, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences and Medical School, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, Japan; 6 Division of Pathology, Niigata Medical Center, Nishi-ku, Niigata, Niigata-Pref, Japan; 7 Department of Cellular Function, Division of Cellular and Molecular, Pathology, Niigata Uni- versity Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Asahimachi-Dori, Chuo-ku, Niigata, Niigata-Pref, Japan Received October 9, 2018; Accepted October 25, 2018; Epub December 1, 2018; Published December 15, 2018 Abstract: Slit and its receptor Roundabout (Robo) are important for neuronal development and neo-angiogenesis in various neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases. Angiogenesis is a key factor for tumor growth and other angio- genesis-dependent diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, and chronic inflammation Recently, over-expression of Slit/Robo1 family proteins has been reported in several types of malignancy. We explored the expression of Robo1 in neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases with a focus on newly formed blood vessels. Three hundred and thirty four cases of malignancy and forty five cases of angiogenic diseases were recruited. Using the A7241A Robo1 monoclonal antibody, Robo1 expression was validated
Conclusion: The Gal-3 to be used as adjunct for aiding thyroid cancer diagnosis access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The differential diagnosis of the thyroid nodule includes non- neoplastic and neoplastic (benign and malignant) (Fischer and
The age distribution, sex distribution, site of lesion and the cytological diagnosis were evaluated and compared with other studies.
The present study was carried out over a period of 1 year to find out the frequency of a variety of pathological conditions and to find out the accuracy of FNAC as a rapid diagnostic tool. This
Background: Distinction between non-neoplastic and neoplastic bladder lesions is therapeutically and prognostically important. Our objective is to describe the use of double immunohistochemistry (DIHC) for p53+CK20 as a tool for diagnosing neoplasia in bladder biopsies.
Methods: p53+CK20 DIHC were examined in 38 reactive atypia, 10 dysplasia, 9 carcinoma in situ (CIS) and 7 invasive carcinoma (IC) cases. CK20 was evaluated according to distribution extent and degree of intensity whereas percentage of positive cells together with staining intensity was taken into account in the evaluation of p53.
Main body: MDSCs are divided into two subpopulations, G-MDSCs and M-MDSCs, and their distribution varies between organs. MDSCs negatively control inflammation in inflamed organs such as the lungs, joints, liver, kidneys, intestines, central nervous system (CNS), and eyes by suppressing T cells and myeloid cells. MDSCs also regulate fibrosis in the lungs, liver, and kidneys and help repair CNS injuries. MDSCs in organs are plastic and can differentiate into osteoclasts and tolerogenic dendritic cells according to the microenvironment under non-neoplastic inflammatory conditions.
Fibrous dysplasia is a non-neoplastic condition that can present in 2 forms: monostotic and polyostotic. The monostotic variety is usually seen in older children and young adults. It most commonly involves the rib, femur and tibia. The disease may be asymptomatic or can lead to a fracture. The less common, polyostotic variety is characterized by unilateral distribution usually associated with endocrine dysfunction, precocious puberty in females and areas of cutaneous hyperpigmentation (McCune-Albright syndrome). This syndrome is the result of a somatic mutation of the c-fos oncogene in affected tissues that results in the activation of the signal-transduction pathway that generates cyclic AMP.
In the present study, high incidence was observed between the age group of fourth and fifth decade account- ing for 27.8% of overall case distribution with 32 cases.
The age-related difference could be due to varied expo- sure to the risk factors among the different age groups especially in relation to the dietary habits of both qualita- tive and quantitative.
Histopathological diagnosis, which gives the definite diagnosis of the lesion, helps to assess the clinicopathologic consistency of various groups of lesions and to comprehend the entire dermatologic disease spectrum. In the present era, dermatopathology has become an indispensable tool for a clinical dermatologist to confirm a clinical diagnosis. Moreover tissue specimen sent for histopathology can be used to perform ancillary tests, special stain, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Prevalence and incidence of skin diseases shows regional variation. Disease distribution patterns vary from one country to another and various regions within.
Symmetrical distribution is best appreciated by palpating both breasts simultaneously from standing behind the patient. This technique is more useful in assessing doubtful lumps in fibrocystic disease.
The diffuse nature of the lesion and associated with cyclical pain indicates conservative management but whenever there is a dominant lump or persistent doubtful lesions needs complete evaluation. FNAB is must for confirmation of all palpable breast lesions, and negative cytology and mammography is not sufficient evidence to ignore a dominant palpable lesion and needs core biopsy or surgical excision to exclude malignancy.
Intrathecal administration of drugs aims at efficiently targeting tumor cells in the CSF by circumventing the blood-CSF barrier while omitting systemic toxicity. However, drugs which are administered intrathecally probably have a limited penetration into solid leptomeningeal tumor deposits. Therefore, this approach is mainly restricted to patients who have non- adherent tumor cell spread in the CSF. Basically, treatment can be done following a lumbar puncture and subsequent drug injection. However, this approach has several drawbacks: repeated lumbar punctures are inconvenient for the patient and associated with an increased risk for misinjection and post puncture headache as well as complications such as infections or bleeding related to the procedure. Furthermore, distribution of the drug in the intra- and extraventricular CSF compartments may be insufficient 26 . Therefore, it is recommended to place an intraventricular catheter system such as an Ommaya or Rickham reservoir. These devices allow for repeated injections and a better distribution of the drug. Among the drugs which are available for intrathecal treatment, MTX and cytarabine are most frequently used. Alternatively, thiotriethylenephosphoramide (thiotepa) has been approved in some countries. However, a retrospective analysis on the use of thiotepa in breast cancer patients with
There have been approximately 100 different HPV types defined by sequencing a portion o f the LI open reading frame.
HP Vs infect basal epithelial cells through the a 6 p 4 integrin receptor (Evander et al, 1997), but replication and viral gene expression is dependent on the differentiation status o f the squamous epithelial cell. Viral particle production is restricted to the differentiated upper layers o f the epithelium and mRN As from both the early and late region o f the genome are transcribed. Biosynthesis o f the late viral proteins, viral capsid formation, and virus production is restricted to the outermost terminally differentiated cells. Papillomavirus can cause a persistent non-productive infection in the basal cells by residing and infecting the stem cells.
and second, to examine whether periostin plays a role in tumour progression.
Neoplastic and non‑neoplastic tissue samples analysed Tissue samples from 140 biopsies or surgical resections of bone tumours and tumour-like lesions, were retrieved from the files of the Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, His- topathology Department, Oxford (Table 1). Criteria for the histological diagnosis of bone and joint lesions inves- tigated in this study were those of the 2013 WHO Clas- sification of Tumours of Soft Tissue and Bone . The tissues were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and, where necessary, decalcified in 5% nitric acid or EDTA. In addi- tion, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections of syno- vial tissue derived from patients with RA (n = 21) and OA (n = 19) were examined. Samples of normal bone and joint tissues from amputation specimens of individuals with no history or evidence of joint disease or neoplasia were used as controls. Synovial fluid (SF) was also aspi- rated from the knee joint of nine patients with OA and nine patients with RA. Ethics approval was obtained from the National Research Ethical Committee, and patient consent was acquired prior to the collection of samples.
Hands and feet of dogs are commonly affected by neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions. These lesions may commonly present poor clinical or histopathological prognosis and amputation tends to be the treatment of choice. Previous studies regarding the prevalence and the clinicopathological aspects of digital changes in dogs have been performed abroad, with no similar investigations in Brazil. The aim of this manuscript was to perform a histopathological study to characterize hands and feet lesions of dogs from Brazil.Tissue samples from 105 tumor-like lesions of dogs hands and feet were used in this study. The samples came from three Brazilian veterinary diagnostic laboratories and were collected between 2003 and 2016. All specimens were fixed in 10% buffered formalin, and routinely processed for paraffin embedding and hematoxylin-eosin staining. Additionally, toluidine blue, Brown and Breen, periodic acid Schiff (PAS), Grocott Methenamine Silver (GMS) and Ziehl Neelsen were used in selected cases. Immunohistochemistry using anti-Leishmania spp., anti-CD117, anti-CD79, anti-CD3, anti-Melan A, anti-lysozyme, anti-Pancytokeratin AE1/AE3, and anti-vimentin antibodies were also performed. Neoplasia (62.9%) was the most frequently found lesion, followed by inflammation (19%), and other changes (18.1%). Among the neoplasms, 40.9% were mesenchymal, 39.4% epithelial, and 19.7% round cells. All round cells and most of the epithelial and mesenchymal neoplasms were malignant. There was no difference between males and females regarding neoplasia prevalence. Labrador Retriever, Schnauzer, Teckel, mongrel, German Shepherd, Rottweiler, and Pit Bull were the most frequently affected breeds. Fila Brasileiro (aka Brazilian Mastiff), Pit Bull and Schnauzer had higher incidence of mesenchymal, epithelial, and round cells neoplasms, respectively. Inflammation was more commonly observed in the Labrador Retriever and other changes were more commonly in Teckel, Labrador Retriever, and mongrel dogs. Medium age and weight were 8.4 years and 28.5 kg, respectively. Medium diameter of the tumor-like lesions was 2.5 cm and the neoplastic lesions presented higher averages. Lesions were mainly in yellow-coated dogs. Incisional
Rare diseases are usually defined as entities affecting less than 1 person per 2,000. About 7,000 different rare entities are distinguished and, among them, rare diseases of the thyroid gland. Although not frequent, they can be found in the everyday practice of endocrinologists and should be considered in differential diagnosis. Rare non-neoplastic thyroid diseases will be discussed. Congenital hypothyroidism ’ s frequency is relatively high and its early treatment is of vital importance for neonatal psychomotor development; CH is caused primarily by thyroid dysgenesis (85%) or dyshormonogenesis (10-15%), although secondary defects - hypothalamic and pituitary - can also be found; up to 40% of cases diagnosed on neonatal screening are transient. Inherited abnormalities of thyroid hormone binding proteins (TBG, TBP and albumin) include alterations in their concentration or affinity for iodothyronines, this leads to laboratory test abnormalities, although usually with normal free hormones and clinical euthyroidism. Thyroid hormone resistance is most commonly found in THRB gene mutations and more rarely in THRA mutations; in some cases both genes are unchanged (non-TR RTH). Recently the term ‘ reduced sensitivity to thyroid hormones ’ was introduced, which encompass not only iodothyronine receptor defects but also their defective transmembrane transport or metabolism.
Pulmonary hyalinising granuloma (PHG) is a rare, benign and non-infectious pulmonary fibrosing lesion with unknown etiology. Fewer than 100 cases have been reported thus far. PHG can mimick advanced lung carcinoma and should therefore be a part of differential diagnosis for pulmonary nodule. It is characterized by whorled deposits of collagen and hyaline. Here we report the case of a 43 years old female who presented with dyspnea and constitutive symptoms. Imaging studies revealed bilateral pulmonary nodue and the histopathology consistent with PHG.
J Clin Invest. 1977;59(5):889-899. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI108711.
In the present study, terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase was examined in the peripheral blood and (or) bone marrow of 115 children with a variety of neoplastic, hematologic, and other unrelated disorders. Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase activity was present at 4.08+/-0.74 U/108 cells in 23 morphologicall normal bone marrow samples from childhood controls. Terminal transferase was present at greater than 23 U/108 nucleated cells and at greater than31 U/108 blasts in the bone marrow of all children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia studied at initial diagnosis and at disease relapse. Terminal
2.6. Statistical Analysis
The chi-square test and chi-square test for trend were used to assess the association between TFF1 expression and histological type and the various clinicopathological fea- tures of the tumors. The survival time was defined as the interval in days between the date of diagnosis and the date of animal death by natural death and/or euthanasia. When- ever euthanasia was performed during surgery or for reasons related to the deterioration of the animal´s health conditions due to the progression of the neoplastic disease, the cause of death was considered to be related to the tumor. Survival time was censored for dogs that were lost to follow up. Kaplan–Meier survival analyses with log-rank test was performed to compare the differences between the median survival time of the two groups preserved and reduced TFF1 immunoexpression. Differences were considered sta- tistically significant at values of p < 0.05. Analyses were performed using GraphPad Prism 5 (GraphPad Software Inc., La Jolla, CA, USA).
44 oncogenic BRAF generated by mutating the gatekeeper residue, sorafenib still inhibited the growth of tumors driven by the mutant protein . Therefore, the failure of sorafenib to result in significant objective responses in BRAF-mutant melanoma in clinical trials has been interpreted as consistent with the non-BRAF mediated mechanism of action of the drug . It was later shown that sorafenib mediates antitumor effects in renal cell cancer (RCC) independently of its ability to block BRAF V600E signaling . It was eventually approved for the treatment of RCC and unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The efficacy in these cancers is believed to be due to inhibition of other kinases such as VEGFR2, KIT, and Flt-3 . Thus, while initially considered a selective RAF kinase inhibitor, sorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor that targets several receptor tyrosine kinases such as human VEGF receptors (VEGF-R) 1 to 3, PDGF receptor, and RET [221, 222]. The results of a recent meta-analysis suggest that sorafenib has only a modest effect in patients with radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer and shows also a high incidence of adverse effects that may affect the quality of patients’ life .
methods: This is an observational study conducted in the Department of Pathology,Gandhi hospitalfrom January
2016 to December 2017.H&E stained sections of Neoplastic and Non-Neoplastic breast lesions were reviewed and associated Columnar cell changes were evaluated.Results:Total200 breast lesions were studiedout of which 134 showed Columnar cell lesions. 90% cases of fibrocystic disease and 60% of fibroadenoma cases were associated with CCL and the predominant type of lesionis Columnar cell change. 80% cases of Ductal carcinoma insituand 40% of Infiltrative duct cell carcinoma cases showed CCL and the common lesion is Columnar cell hyperplasia without atypia.Conclusion: Columnar cell lesions were observed in both Neoplastic and Non-Neoplastic breast lesions. Based on previous observational studies cancer risk associated with CCL is only mild on long term follow up. However detection of CCL in biopsy should prompt additional scrutiny for other pathological changes.