In summary, for the first time in this study, we have char- acterized diurnalchanges in postural control in healthy school-aged children through computerized static and dy- namic assessments and have demonstrated that the postural control pattern during a typical school day in children is different from that in adults. Given the causative role for mild brain trauma in postural control impairment, assess- ment of alterations in postural control against the postural control pattern characterized for health young children in this study would be helpful to the diagnosis of mild brain trauma, which remains a significant clinical challenge. Nevertheless, our findings warrant further validation in more studies, involving the use of a larger sample size and more reproducible assessment methods.
The crystalline cone cells are completely surrounded by the distal pigment cells both at night and during the day. The retinula cells are surrounded by proximal (=secondary) pigment cells. Pigment migrations depending on the degree of light adaptation or the diurnal rhythm were observed in the retinula cells only, not in the two kinds of screening pigment cells with their somewhat larger pigment granules. In the crustacean superposition eye, the main causes of sensitivity changes, monitored by ERG recordings at different states of adaptation, have been shown to be related to the positions of the screening pigments within the eye (Arechiga et al., 1974; Bryceson and McIntyre, 1983; Meyer-Rochow and Tiang, 1984), a conclusion also reached for the apposition eye of the portunid crab Scylla serrata (Leggett and Stavenga, 1981). However, it seems that the large sensitivity changes seen in the apposition eye of L. exotica in ERG recordings were not caused by migrations of the screening pigment granules in the pigment cells (as in a superposition eye), but primarily by radially migrating retinula cell pigment granules (see Warrant and McIntyre, 1992) and diurnalchanges in the volume of the rhabdom.
In Fig. 5 the earthquake frequency distribution with respect to the hour (LT) of origin time is shown, based on an ob- servation period of 90 years (1901–1990) in Austria. The distribution is compared with an average geomagnetic Sq- variation in the horizontal component H of the Earth’s mag- netic field, a mean variation 1983–1985, at the Austrian mag- netic observatory Wien-Cobenzl. A second example of diur- nal changes of earthquake activity and magnetic variation is given in Fig. 6. There, 1400 seismic events in a small area of about 10 × 10 km around the volcano Mt. Vesuvius, Italy, recorded in the period from 1972 to 1996, have been analysed
Induction factors associated with Fe deficiency were mapped onto custom biochemical pathways (Fig. 5) using the Visualization and Analysis of NeTworks with related Experimental Data program (VANTED) v2.1.0 (Plant Bioinformatics Group, The Leibniz-Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, available at https://immersive-analytics.infotech.monash.edu/vanted/ ). Induced levels of the α–ketoglutarate family amino acids (proline, histidine and glutamine) were observed in Fe-deficient roots following a diurnal pattern with a peak of induction occurring during 18:00–20:00 (Fig. 5a). Induced levels of the 3-P-glycerate derivatives serine and glycine (Fig. 5b) and pyruvate derivatives: valine, leucine, alanine and β-alanine (Fig. 5c) were also observed in Fe-deficient roots, suggesting an increase in glycolysis during light periods (11:00–13:00 and 18:00–20:00). Increased activity of glycolysis due to Fe de- ficiency was also supported by a significant increase in concentration of the glucose-to-pyruvate intermediate 3- P-glycerate in Fe-deficient roots (Additional file 3: Figure S1). Induced levels of the aromatic amino acids: phenyl- alanine, serotonin, tyrosine, and tryptophan in Fe-deficient roots (Fig. 5d), suggest an increased activity of the shi- kimate pathway. Induced levels of arginine and citrulline but not ornithine in Fe-deficient roots (Fig. 5e), suggest an increased activity of the citrulline–nitric oxide (Cit-NO)
suprachiasmatic nucleus decreased the sympathetic firing rate at noon but produced a significant increase in the sympathetic firing rate at night. These data show that a diurnal rhythm exists for the sympathetic firing rate. The decrease in firing rate in response to insulin when injected into the VMH is in the same direction but varies in magnitude throughout the day, whereas the responsiveness of the suprachiasmatic nucleus to injections of insulin shows […]
rhythms. Single-unit recording of DA-responsive dmARN neurons in vitro also reveals a diurnal rhythm of their fir- ing rates . On the other hand, it is well-established that SCN is the master biological clock that coordinates most circadian rhythms observed in mammals and bilateral le- sions of the SCN eliminate both TIDA diurnal rhythm and the estrogen-induced PRL surge , indicating an entraining signal originated from SCN can affect directly or indirectly on TIDA neurons.
7 Abstract. Slow changes in the activity of the heart occur with time scales from days through to decades, and 8 may in part result from changes in cardiomyocyte properties. The cellular mechanisms of the cardiomyocyte ac- 9 tion potential have time scales from < ms to hundreds of ms. Although the quantitative dynamic relations between 10 mRNA transcription, protein synthesis, trafficking, recycling, and membrane protein activity are unclear , mRNA- 11 Seq can be used to inform parameters in cell excitation equations. We use such transcriptomic data from a non- 12 human primate to scale maximal conductances in the O ’Hara -Rudy (2011) family of human ventricular cell mod- 13 els, and to predict diurnalchanges in human ventricular action potential durations. These are related to circadian 14 changes in the incidence of sudden cardiac deaths. Transcriptomic analysis of human fetal hearts between 9 and 15 16 weeks gestational age is beginning to be used to inform ventricular cell and tissue models of the electrophysi- 16 ology of the developing fetal heart.
It is important to understand the natural variation in red coralline algal photosynthetic characteristics and their potential for minimising photo-damage. Such in- formation is particularly informative when considering the contribution made by red coralline algae in car- bonate reef accretion, ecosystem service provision and palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. In that context, this study characterised the photosynthetic characte- ristics, pigment composition and intracellular DMSP concentrations of two tropical red coralline algae spe- cies across a diurnal period. It was hypothesised that, where algae were exposed to diurnalchanges in irradi- ance, photosynthetic and DMSP measurements would also respond with a diurnal pattern, indicating dynamic photoinhibition and supporting the putative antioxi- dant function for DMSP.
To verify these findings obtained by the CAGE method, the diurnalchanges in the mean mRNA expres- sion levels of BMAL1, REV-ERBα, PER1, and PER2 in cortical microglia prepared from WT and APP-KI mice were examined using quantitative PCR (qPCR). As re- ported previously , BMAL1 and REV-ERBα exhibited oscillations in cortical microglia isolated from WT mice with peaks at ZT2 and ZT10, respectively, (Fig. 1c, i). It is noted that the average values of mRNA expression of BMAL1 and REV-ERBα over the course of the day in APP-KI microglia were significantly lower than those in WT microglia (Fig. 1d, j). The WT cortical microglia also exhibited an oscillation of PER1 and PER2 with a peak at ZT18. In contrast, the expression of these clock genes in cortical microglia isolated from APP-KI mice showed differential oscillations as compared to those in WT microglia (Fig. 1e, g). BMAL1 and REV-ERBα exhib- ited oscillations with peaks at ZT22 and ZT6, respect- ively, whereas PER1 exhibited an oscillation with a peak at ZT6, and PER2 did not show a clear oscillation at all. The average value of mRNA expression of PER2 over the course of the day in APP-KI microglia was signifi- cantly lower than that in WT microglia, while there was no significant difference in the average value of mRNA expression of PER1 between the two groups (Fig. 1f, h). The rhythmicity in clock genes expression in microglia was further analyzed by JTK_Cycle analysis (Additional file 1: Table S1). We observed adjusted p value (ADJ.P) in PER1 of both WT and APP-KI and that in PER2 of WT mice showed < 0.05. However, the ADJ. P in APP-KI mice were all increased compared to that of WT mice in all the analyzed clock genes (Additional file 1:
differentiating cells were fully turgid, but it was rarely seen when the cell volume was low. These results suggest that the supply of the matrix containing hemicellulose to the inner- most surface of developing secondary walls is affected by diurnalchanges in the water status of differentiating cells, e.g., turgor pressure. The observed time lag may have re- sulted from the time taken for the differentiating tracheids to become fully turgid or to decrease their volumes enough after the change in light.
The IVDs have been demonstrated to have a dynamic behavior over the day. De Puky et al. showed that on a macroscopic level the diurnal load diminished the height of the IVDs with about 1%, which was then restored during rest . They also found that degenerated IVDs did not alter as much in height as non-degenerated IVDs. Qualita- tive MRI studies of the IVD have proposed that diurnal load alters the hydration grade of various sub-regions of the IVDs . Quantitative MRI of young volunteers has revealed diurnalchanges of T2-values in entire IVDs and in different sub-regions of the IVDs [18–21], indicating a dynamic displacement of water between the sub-regions [18, 19]. To our knowledge, it has not yet been investigated if and how the T2-values vary over the day with alMRI.
Drug Administration for the treatment of headache and dizziness associated with cerebrovascular diseases. The granules are composed of 11 herbs: Radix angelicae sinensis (Dang Gui), 6.76%; Rhizoma chuanxiong (Chuan Xiong), 6.76%; Radix paeoniae alba (bai shao), 5.41%; Ramulus uncariae cum uncis (Gou Teng), 13.51%; Caulis spatholobi (Ji Xue Teng), 13.51%; Spica prunellae (Xia Ku Cao), 13.51%; Concha margaritifera usta (Zhen Zhu Mu), 13.51%; Radix rehmanniae preparata (Di Huang), 5.41%; Semen cassiae (Jue Ming Zi), 13.51%; Rhizoma corydalis yanhusuo (Yan Hu Suo), 6.76%; and Herba asari (Xi Xin), 1.35%. Available evidence from in vitro studies has revealed that at least six chemicals derived from these herbs exhibit antioxi- dant potential, inhibit neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells and decrease infarct size and brain tissue damage . YXQN was reported to show effects on functional and structural changes in microvessels in the cerebral cortex of gerbils induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury . These granules might improve non-motor symptoms, such as dizziness, headache and even depression [16,17].
The diurnal cycle of the storms’ offshore propagation is a key component of convection in the MC region (Qian 2008; Mori et al. 2004). Figure 4 presents Hov- möller plots of the mean diurnal cycle of precipitation along the diagonal transect marked in Fig. 1. In TRMM (Fig. 4a) the precipitation first appears over the moun- tains along the west coast of Sumatra between 1200 and 1500 LST and moves inland until around 2100 LST. At about 1800 LST precipitation begins to propagate to- ward the southwest, reaching beyond the analysis do- main boundary at 98 8 E. Weaker propagation also occurs off the northeast coast but this begins later in the day, at 2100 or 0000 LST. Precipitation appears too early over the land in RCM12 (as discussed in relation to Fig. 3), and the precipitation begins over the flat land in the middle of the island; then the peak rainfall moves to- ward both coasts, rather than beginning along the west coast as seen in TRMM (Fig. 4b). RCM12 does, how- ever, produce a propagating signal off the southwest coast. A propagating signal is not apparent off the northeast coast; rather, it rains on average more than 10 mm hr 21 between 1500 and 0900 LST. In RCM4.5 the timing and location of the appearance of rainfall over Sumatra is in agreement with that in TRMM, although the rainfall rates are too high over land, and there is a wet bias over the ocean in the signal propagating to- ward the southwest (Fig. 4c). As with RCM12, there is no offshore propagating signal toward the northeast in the early morning between 0000 and 0900 LST. b. Behavior of key model diagnostics by MJO phase
examine nocturnal moisture changes on a crust with a mix of ridged and continuous sections over a 39 day period using infra-red (IR) imagery and determine the change in elevation at this site over the same period using TLS. Next, (Experiment 2) we use TLS to examine the relationship between topographic and moisture change for different crusted surfaces during the night and, finally, (Experiment 3) we determine how the crust dries at dawn, again using TLS. For each crust type we relate differences in moisture and topographic change to distinct temperature and relative humidity conditions; which are in turn used to infer geochemical and thermodynamic processes occurring in surface and groundwater within the critical zone. We limit our study to nocturnal and early morning changes because this is when evaporation rates are suppressed and the surface has the potential to remain moist through fluxes via subsurface capillary or atmospheric condensation mechanisms (Groeneveld et al., 2010; Kinsman, 1976; Sturman and McGowan, 2009; Thorburn et al., 1992) for a sufficient time and magnitude that can be detected by IR camera and TLS (Nield et al., 2011; Nield et al., 2014).
Olsson K, Lagerstedt A-S, Bergström A, Häggström J: Change of diurnal heart rate patterns during pregnancy and lactation in dogs (canis familiaris). Acta vet. scand. 2003, 44, 105-110. – Pregnancy and lactation involve great demands on the car- diovascular system. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the heart rate and diurnal heart rate pattern change when dogs become pregnant or lactate. Five clinically healthy female beagle dogs were mated, and delivered three to seven healthy puppies. The heart rate was investigated with 24-h ECG (Holter) once during anoestrus, at 3, 5, 7 and 9 weeks of pregnancy, and at week 4 postpartum (lactation). However, at 9 weeks, the ECG could not be recorded for the fully 24 h in 4 of 5 dogs, because labour started and the dogs then appeared disturbed by the recordings. The results at this date are not included in the statistical comparison. The heart rate increased progressively during pregnancy and was still elevated at 4 weeks of lactation. During late pregnancy the dif- ference in heart rates between daytime and nighttime became smaller, but the heart rate was significantly higher in daytime in all periods. In conclusion, the increased heart rates during pregnancy and lactation reflect increased demands on the cardiovascular system and may be important to consider in clinical practice.