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Pulmonary challenge with carbon nanoparticles induces a dose-dependent increase in circulating leukocytes in healthy males

Pulmonary challenge with carbon nanoparticles induces a dose-dependent increase in circulating leukocytes in healthy males

Inflammation parameters: Dose-response correlations There was a significant dose-dependent increase in blood neutrophils (Spearman p = 0.0468) and a trend to- wards increased blood leukocytes (p = 0.061) after chal- lenge with carbon nanoparticles as compared to placebo. Figure 2 shows the means of circulating neutrophils be- fore and 6 h after bronchial segmental challenge with placebo, 10 μg, 50 μg, and 100 μg carbon nanoparticles. In Table 2 the means of circulating leukocytes and neu- trophils are shown after segmental challenge. In BALF there were no significant differences measured between the different dosage groups. Additionally, we compared the results of the different groups with each other. Add- itional file 2: Table S1 shows the analysis of the inflam- mation parameters after challenge with placebo as compared to 10 μg nanoparticles in blood and BALF. In Table S2 of the Additional file 2 the results of the com- parison between placebo and 50 μg nanoparticles is shown. Results of the analysis between 10 μg nanoparti- cles and 50 μ g nanoparticles are described in Additional file 2: Table S3. Comparison of 10 μg nanoparticles ver- sus 100 μg nanoparticles is shown in Additional file 2: Table S4. Analysis of 50 μ g nanoparticles as compared to the 100 μg nanoparticle group is presented in Table S5 of the Additional file 2.
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IN VITRO ANTIHISTAMINIC AND ANTISPASMODIC POTENTIAL OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF TRIDAX PROCUMBENS LINN

IN VITRO ANTIHISTAMINIC AND ANTISPASMODIC POTENTIAL OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF TRIDAX PROCUMBENS LINN

Preliminary phytochemical evaluation of extract showed presence of saponins, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides and carbohydrates etc. The percentage yield was obtained about 6.7% w/w. The antihistaminic effect of methanolic extract of Tridax procumbens L (TP) was carried out using histamine induced contraction on goat tracheal strip preparation. Histamine contracts the tracheabronchial muscle of guinea pig, goat, horse, dog and man. Goat tracheal chain is much more sensitive and easier to handle. [5] Histamine produced dose dependent increase in contraction of goat tracheal chain and thus subsequent increase in height response curve which was significantly inhibited by aqueous extract Tridax procumbens L (TP) of as compared to standard drug Chlorpheniramine Maleate (Table 1). The antagonistic effect of aqueous extract towards histamine was indicated from the right shift of cumulative dose response curve of histamine in presence of methanolic extract (Figure 1) which may be due to blocking H1 receptors.
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Effect of Achyranthes Aspera Leaf Extract on Hematological Parameters of Swiss Albino Mice

Effect of Achyranthes Aspera Leaf Extract on Hematological Parameters of Swiss Albino Mice

resulted in the observed dose dependent alterations in hematological parameter of Swiss Albino mice, but increase value of lymphocyte after ingestion of the extract is believed to be due to the present of Saponins phytochemicals in this plant because Saponins have been shown to increase cytosolic calcium concentration which results in calcium permeable cation channels [36] and calcium play an important role in lymphocyte kinetics and proliferation [37] therefore, the present of Saponins may through the calcium activation mechanism improve lymphocytes proliferation in the blood. In addition, the dose dependent increase of blood lymphocyte counts as shown table 3 is also believed to be due to the presence of alkaloids as a phytochemical compound in the leaf extract of Achyranthes aspera since alkaloid fraction stimulate defense system by improving and modulating several immunological parameters including lymphocyte proliferation. [38]
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Neurobehavioural effects of Vigna unguiculata spp Dekindtiana (L.) Walp in mice

Neurobehavioural effects of Vigna unguiculata spp Dekindtiana (L.) Walp in mice

the reversal of the novelty-induced rearing and locomotion with picrotoxin while the reduction in novelty-induced behaviour (rearing and locomotion) was potentiated by both cyproheptadine and yohimbine. This shows the possibility of GABAergic, serotonergic and adrenergic involvement in the behavioural effects of the extract and its fractions. Also, the methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction showed dose-dependent increase in sleeping time and dose-dependent decrease in sleep latency indicating the hypnotic effect of the extract of the plant. The possible mechanism of action of the phenobarbital-induced sleeping time was investigated using flumazenil (an antagonist of GABA), where a reversal was obtained suggesting the possible involvement of GABAergic receptor. In conclusion, the result showed that methanol extract and its fractions exhibited both central inhibitory effect and hypnotic effect in mice.
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Timothy SY*, Wazis CH, Helga BI, Maina A, Bomai HI

Timothy SY*, Wazis CH, Helga BI, Maina A, Bomai HI

The aqueous and ethanol extracts of Mitragyna inermis bark exhibited significant anticonvulsant activity, shown by a dose dependent increase in the onset time of clonic convulsion in albino rats. However, the aqueous extract at 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg showed a statistical significant difference with the negative control (p<0.05). The ethanolic extract at 125mg/kg, 250mg/kg and 500 mg/kg showed statistically significant increase in the onset of clonic convulsion (p<0.05). The extracts also exhibited a dose dependent significant reduction in various phases of epileptic seizures when compared with the negative control. Diazepam used as positive control protected all the rats from clonic convulsion. The percentage protection of the extracts against the mortality of PTZ induced epileptic seizures was also dose dependent with the ethanol extract having better protection when compared with the aqueous extract (Table 3).
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 A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE DIURETIC ACTIVITY OF NEOLAMARCKIA CADAMBA

 A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE DIURETIC ACTIVITY OF NEOLAMARCKIA CADAMBA

The present investigation is focused on the diuretic activity of fruit of N. cadamba in two different solvent extracts in aqueous (AFNC) and methanol (MFNC). AFNC at high dose showed high urine volume (9±1.07ml) than its low dose treated ones (6±0.73ml) and the value is significant (p<0.01) with control groups (3.33±0.23ml). Both aqueous fruit extract and methanol fruit extract showed a dose dependent increase in the volume of urine but high increase in urine volume was noticed from AFNC (400mg/kg b. wt.) and the value is in the range of standard diu- retic drug, furosemide (Fig. 2). Urine pH has no significant vari- ation among the groups. Aqueous extract at dose 2 exhibited high conductivity value (72.75±3.71) when compared to all other groups and is statistically significant (p<0.01) with saline treated control groups and furosemide treated groups (Table 1). Group III and IV of AFNC treated groups showed elevated so- dium concentrations in a dose dependent manner. A significant increase (p<0.01) in urinary sodium was observed from group V (55.39±6.83) and group VI (64.23±5.68) (Table 4). Both AFNC and MFNC treated groups exhibited an elevated urinary sodium excretion than other groups (Fig. 3).
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Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science

Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science

Light - dark test measures was summarized in Table 2. Diazepam (1mg/kg) and EECM (200 and 400mg/kg) significantly increased time spent in light arena 166.17±3.45 and 174.67±2.66, in dark 133.83±3.48 and 125.33±2.66. The number of crossings was considerably increased in Diazepam (1 mg/kg), EECM (400 mg/kg) compared to control group (p<0.01). Treatment with EECM (200 and 400 mg/kg) to the rats causes the significant ( <0.01) increases in the frequency of the open arm entries (Table 3). Significant and dose dependent increase in the duration of time spent in the open arm were observed in EECM (200 and 400 mg/kg) treated rats. Extract at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg produce a low number of entries in the closed arm, while control (10 ml/kg) had the highest closed arm entry value of 11.38±0.29. The effects of EECM (200 and 400 mg/kg) and diazepam resulted in significant increases in the total number of entries into the two arms. In the hole board test, there was a significant decrease in the number of head dips 13.12±0.04 of Diazepam (1 mg/kg), EECM (400 mg/kg) compared to control 2.07±0.03 to 6.25±0.07 (Table 3).
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Modeled nitrate levels in well water supplies and prevalence of abnormal thyroid conditions among the Old Order Amish in Pennsylvania

Modeled nitrate levels in well water supplies and prevalence of abnormal thyroid conditions among the Old Order Amish in Pennsylvania

study of women who obtained their drinking water from public supplies and private wells with varying nitrate levels [7]. They observed a dose-dependent increase in the volume of the thyroid associated with increasing nitrate concentrations in drinking water from a combi- nation of public and private supplies, with nitrate levels ranging from 0.004 mg/L to 29.1 mg/L (as nitrate-nitro- gen). Women with nitrate levels exceeding 11.1 mg/L as nitrate-nitrogen had a significant increased prevalence of thyroid gland hypertrophy. Our results for women are consistent with the findings in Slovakia and indir- ectly support the associations observed in the Nether- lands. However, the reason for our finding of in women but not men is unclear particularly since men consume more water than women on average [23]. It is possible that women may be more sensitive to exposures that perturb the thyroid as indicated by their higher preva- lence of thyroid disease [24].
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In vivo antioxidant capacity and enzymes of inflammation inhibitory activity of n-butanol fraction from boswelli dalzielii  hutch (burseraceae

In vivo antioxidant capacity and enzymes of inflammation inhibitory activity of n-butanol fraction from boswelli dalzielii hutch (burseraceae

Introduction: Boswelli dalzielii Hutch (Burseraceae) is a plant widely founded in the tropical region of Africa. The present study evaluated the in vivo antioxidant and enzymes of inflammation inhibitory profiles of n-Butanol fraction of stem bark from Boswelli dalzielii. Material and Methods: The in vivo antioxidant effects were evaluated using serum catalase, superoxide dismutase and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assay methods. About enzyme of inflammation inhibitory activity, A5-LOX inhibitory, Hyaluronidase inhibitory and Xanthine oxidase inhibitory were determined. Results: Concerning the effects of n-Butanol fraction on the body weight of the treated rats. Fraction did not produce any significant ( > 0.05) difference in body weight gain in treated rats when compared to the negative control. About the in vivo antioxidant effect of n-Butanol fraction on rats, it is noticed that the fraction produced a dose dependent decrease in the MDA levels in the serum. The serum MDA level of the group treated with 300 mg/kg of n-Butanol was significantly (p≤0.5) lower when compared to other treatment groups and the negative control group. Fraction also produced a dose dependent increase in the serum level of catalase activity. The serum catalase activity of the group treated with 300 mg/kg of n-Butanol was significantly (p≤0.5) higher when compared to other treatment groups and the negative control group. Furthermore, fraction produced dose dependent increase in the serum level of superoxide dismutase activity. The serum superoxide dismutase activity of the groups treated with n-Butanol fraction were significantly (p≤0.5) higher when compared with the negative control group. Conclusions: These findings suggest that of stem bark from Boswelli dalzielii possess a potent antioxidant activity which may be responsible for some of its reported inflammatory activity and can be used as antioxidant supplement.
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Serum soluble interleukin 6 (IL 6) receptor and IL 6/soluble IL 6 receptor complex in systemic juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

Serum soluble interleukin 6 (IL 6) receptor and IL 6/soluble IL 6 receptor complex in systemic juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

addition of increasing concentrations of human recombinant IL-6 to normal sera resulted in a dose-dependent increase in specific optical density, demonstrating that this assay system is [r]

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Anti-aging effects of <em>Piper cambodianum</em> P. Fourn. extract on normal human dermal fibroblast cells and a wound-healing model in mice

Anti-aging effects of <em>Piper cambodianum</em> P. Fourn. extract on normal human dermal fibroblast cells and a wound-healing model in mice

Results: PPF treatment demonstrated in vitro and in vivo anti-aging activity. Western blot analysis of PPF-treated normal human dermal fibroblast cells showed a dose-dependent increase in the expression of extracellular matrix genes such as collagen and elastin, but decreased expression of the aging gene matrix metalloproteinase-3. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that PPF-treated cells displayed dose-dependent increase in messenger RNA expres- sion levels of collagen, elastin, and hyaluronan synthase-2 and decreased expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-1 aging gene. PPF treatment led to decreased production of reactive oxygen species in cells subjected to ultraviolet irradiation. Furthermore, PPF extract showed positive wound-healing effects in mice.
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Assessment of Oxidative Stress parameters in wistar rats after subacute treatment with Fe2O3 Nanomaterials

Assessment of Oxidative Stress parameters in wistar rats after subacute treatment with Fe2O3 Nanomaterials

The endogenous antioxidant system comprising SOD, CAT and GR plays important roles in free radical and peroxide metabolism and is responsible in part for protecting the cells against oxidant stress (21). In this study we observed that the increase in LPO and depletion in GSH content were accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in CAT and GR activity, and a decrease in SOD activity after acute oral treatment with Fe 2 O 3 NMs. In antioxidant

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Exposure to alkyl anilines may lead to bladder cancer, which is the second most frequent cancer of the urogenital tract. 3,5-dimethylaniline is highly used in industry. Studies on its primary metabolite 3,5-dimethylaminophenol (3,5-DMAP) showed that this compound causes oxidative stress, changes antioxidant enzyme activities, and leads to death of different mammalian cells. However, there is no in vitro study to show the direct effects of 3,5-DMAP on human bladder and urothelial cells. Selenocompounds are suggested to decrease oxidative stress caused by some chemicals, and selenium supplementation was shown to reduce the risk of bladder cancer. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether selenocompounds organic selenomethionine (SM, 10 µmol/L) or inorganic sodium selenite (SS, 30 nmol/L) could reduce oxidative stress, DNA damage, and apoptosis in UROtsa cells exposed to 3,5-DMAP. 3,5-DMAP caused a dose-dependent increase in intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species, and its dose of 50 µmol/L caused lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and changes in antioxidant enzyme activities in different cellular fractions. The comet assay also showed single-strand DNA breaks induced by the 3,5-DMAP dose of 50 µmol/L, but no changes in double-strand DNA breaks. Apoptosis was also triggered. Both selenocompounds provided partial protection against the cellular toxicity of 3,5-DMAP. Low selenium status along with exposure to alkyl anilines can be a major factor in the development of bladder cancer. More mechanistic studies are needed to specify the role of selenium in bladder cancer.
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Postea, Otilia Adina
  

(2005):


	Influence of homocysteine on the interaction between circulating monocytes and endothelial cells.


Dissertation, LMU München: Medizinische Fakultät

Postea, Otilia Adina (2005): Influence of homocysteine on the interaction between circulating monocytes and endothelial cells. Dissertation, LMU München: Medizinische Fakultät

Figure 5. Putative mechanisms and effects of homocysteine-induced endothelial dysfunction. Exposure of endothelial cells to homocysteine leads to reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide resulting in impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilator function. This may be caused either by increased oxidative inactivation of nitric oxide by oxygen-derived free radicals or by increased endothelial synthesis of the endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine. Decreased bioavailable nitric oxide together with a decrease in the endothelial synthesis of prostacyclin promotes platelet activation and aggregation. Elevated homocysteine levels induce the expression of several chemokines and adhesion molecules by endothelial cells that lead to increased recruitment and adhesion of circulating inflammatory cells. This may be caused by decreased bioavailable nitric oxide and/or increased vascular oxidant stress leading to increased activation of the redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-κB that may mediate the inflammatory response. Homocysteine may further promote thrombosis by activating endothelium- dependent prothrombotic mechanisms, such as the expression of tissue factor, or the activity of factor Va, and by inhibiting antithrombotic and fibrinolytic mechanisms. 5
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Pulmonary Vascular Effects of Fat Emulsion Infusion in Unanesthetized Sheep: PREVENTION BY INDOMETHACIN

Pulmonary Vascular Effects of Fat Emulsion Infusion in Unanesthetized Sheep: PREVENTION BY INDOMETHACIN

Berkeley, Calif.) into an awake sheep lung lymph preparation. The emulsion caused a sustained increase in pulmonary artery pressure to approximately twice base line with little change in left atrial pressure. Pa O 2 decreased an average 13 torr and lung lymph flow increased two- to threefold. Lymph/plasma total protein concentration fell as lymph flow increased; the magnitude of the lymph/plasma protein decrease was similar to that reported previously when lung vascular pressures were mechanically elevated. Heparin infusion (loading dose = 4,000 U, maintenance dose = 2,000 U/h) cleared the serum of triglycerides but did not alter the response to fat emulsion. Indomethacin infusion (loading dose = 5 mg/kg, maintenance dose = 3 mg/kg × h) blocked the rise in pulmonary artery pressure, the increase in lung lymph flow, and the fall in Pa O 2 . Neither extravascular lung water nor [ 14 C]urea lung vascular permeability surface area products were altered by fat emulsion infusion. We conclude that fat emulsion infusion in sheep increases lung microvascular filtration by increasing vascular pressures, but has no effect on vascular permeability. Since the effects are […]
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Recognition of Betaine as an Inhibitor of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Nitric Oxide Production in Activated Microglial Cells

Recognition of Betaine as an Inhibitor of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Nitric Oxide Production in Activated Microglial Cells

two significant reasons for neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, and betaine is capable of decreasing both of these factors in order to control neurological damages [17- 20, 27]. The result of this study showed that betaine is a strong inhibitor of NO production in LPS-stimulated microglial cells. We observed that betaine decreased the amount of NO release in a dose-dependent manner 24 h after treatment. In fact, treated cells with higher concentrations of betaine, released lesser amounts of NO. Our hypothesis is that betaine might inhibit iNOS indirectly via suppressing NF-κB. Moreover, GO and colleagues [22, 28], in their investigations of aged rat kidney cells, elucidated the anti-inflammatory effects of betaine on NF-κB activity and TNF-α expression.
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Antioxidant and gastric cytoprotective prostaglandins properties of Cassia sieberiana roots bark extract as an anti ulcerogenic agent

Antioxidant and gastric cytoprotective prostaglandins properties of Cassia sieberiana roots bark extract as an anti ulcerogenic agent

constituted major chemical substances in the roots ex- tract. Evidence of the presence of flavonol/flavonoid/fla- vone or a related compound with polyhydroxy and/or phenolic groups is consistent with the significant antioxi- dant effect of the roots extract. Flavonoids or poly- phenolic substances exert antioxidant actions by scavenging free radicals, chelating metal ions or inhibit- ing enzyme systems that generate free radicals. Several studies demonstrated that flavonoids from various plants are reportedly capable of preventing the occurrence of gastric ulcer. This may take place through an increase in the amounts of neutral glycoproteins and in prostaglan- din concentrations, and inhibition of histamine secretion from mast cells by inhibition of histidine decarboxylase, thus reducing stimulation of H 2 receptors, or by secre-
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AXIOLYTIC EFFECT OF METHAOLIC EXTRACT OF ROOT OF COUROUPITA GUIAESIS AUBL.

AXIOLYTIC EFFECT OF METHAOLIC EXTRACT OF ROOT OF COUROUPITA GUIAESIS AUBL.

203 Although the precise mechanism involved in the observed anxiolytic activity is not yet clear, the experimental observations suggest a possible direct or indirect facilitation of the central serotonergic transmission for the species studied. The anxiolytic effect was also evidenced through the light–dark test, based on the innate aversion of rodents to brightly illuminated areas and on the spontaneous exploratory behaviour of rodents in response to mild stressors, that is, a novel environment and light. It has been assumed that the time mice spend in the illuminated side of the box is the most useful and consistent parameter of anxiety. It has been reported that simply the measurement of the time spent in the light area, but not the number of transfers, is the most consistent and useful parameter for assessing an anxiolytic action (19). The present study showed that CGRM (125,250 and 500 mg/kg) could increase the time in the light area, suggesting CGRM possesses anxiolytic properties.
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Diuretic Effect of Ethanol Extract of Stereospermum Suaveolens

Diuretic Effect of Ethanol Extract of Stereospermum Suaveolens

The urinary output over a period of 5 h and 24 h of study has been presented in table1 and 2. The urine volume was increased significantly in EESS of both doses, urea and frusemide administered rats compared with control rats. The EESS 200 mg/kg increased the urine volume of 1.30 ± 0.11 and 2.20 ± 0.26, and 400 mg/kg of 2.33 ± 0.13 and 3.93 ± 0.15 at 5 h and 24 h, respectively. Control, urea and frusemide showed 0.66 ± 0.04 and 1.23 ± 0.08, 1.10 ± 0.06 and 1.96 ± 0.14, and 2.40 ± 0.08 and 4.06 ± 0.10, respectively Followed by the measure of urine volume, diuretic activity of frusemide and EESS (200 and 400 mg/kg) were calculated, which showed the extracts act in a dose dependent manner.
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Anxiolytic effect of morin in mice

Anxiolytic effect of morin in mice

are based on unconditioned behavior relying on natural behavioral reactions and do not require specific training of the animals (Bhattacharya and Satyan 1997). The elevated plus maze test has been regarded as an ‘approach-avoidance’ model because it reveals the conflicting tendencies of a rodent to naturally explore novel environment (approach) versus their innate aversion for potentially dangerous open spaces (avoidance) (Crayan and Holmes 2005). Naturally, rodents spend the majority of the test session in the closed arms of the maze. But anxiolytic drugs increase exploration to the open arms. Such an effect has been revealed for morin in the present study. The percent time spent in open arm by morin (50 mg/kg) treated mice was comparable to that of a standard anxiolytic drug diazepam(fig.2).
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