For the prevention of drug abuse at the workplace it is necessary to focus on the identification and rehabilitation of workers with severe alcohol and drug abuse problems. According to the ILO, one of the most challenging issues in com- bating drug and alcohol abuse in the workplace and in society lies in ignoring the fact that alcohol and drug use is an accepted part of many social and cultural sets. It is difficult to develop a distinction between social drinking of alcohol and the real dangers to health and safety of abusive consumption. It is also proble- matic in some wine and beer producing countries to discourage workers drink- ing . For example, in Portugal, in a sample of 100 interviewed, 25% of work- ers in the construction and public works sector declared they had drunken alco- hol during working hours and most of them stated that they drank it with a meal .
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from drug abuse, has showed that the participation of older people –not peers- as teammates and also gaining popularity among teammates had been effective in encouraging people to drug and Alcohol abuse (8). In Iran, the study of Zadeh Mohammadi et al. (2010) showed that membership in the sports team and the participation in sports camps has relationship with an increase in alcoholism among adolescents (23). In their explanation of the higher levels of risk tendency among members of the sports team, they pointed to the stress caused by the conflict between the role of students and athletes, the conditions of sports camps, and the normative pressure of peers. The study evaluates high school adolescents and "tendency to abuse" rather than "abusive behavior". Hence, the relationship between the membership in the sport teams and the high-risk behavior among the public, especially young people in Iran needs attention. The difference between males and females in the relationship between sport participation and drug abuse is another point that has been underestimated. According to traditional socialization (24) and social control (25), females are less likely than men to engage in behaviors such as sport participation and drug abuse, which generally considers them "manly" (26, 27). Research on gender differences in the relationship between sport and smoking, alcohol and drug abuse is small and inconsistent; for instance, while Stafforter, Storger and Larsen (2005) found that membership in organized sport teams, increase the risk of alcohol abuse in male and female adolescents (28), more recent research, introduce competitive sport as a risk factor for alcohol abuse among females and a factor in preventing smoking among males (29). Despite the research being accomplished so far, there is no clear answer to the question that "Does sport help preventing and reducing the abuse of drug, alcohol and smoking in young people as it believed in public ". The discrepancy between the results of the relationship between sport and abusive behaviors makes further studies necessary. Some of this discrepancy may be related to the effect of different sports activities in or out of the framework of the team structure. Understanding these differences and current differences between males and females in this regard can help to improve the accuracy and
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I think mainly their assessment likely has a lot to do with offense levels…. What ends up happening is that they’re sent to us… We have a plan, but there’s also a plan at the drug court level. And the plan at the drug court level has a lot to do with sobriety. How long can this person remain sober? A lot of their plan is based on adherence to sobriety, in other words, passing urine tests. Where our plan is based on individual psychotherapy, group psychotherapy that includes a lot of education, relapse prevention, education about alcohol abuse, the neurobiological impact…. I think part of the problem is that these people [in the courts] are legal entities [rather than clinical entities]. There is an important link of this issue to the fiscal in- terests of the providers. Considering that the treatment organizations depend upon the court and its referring agencies for clients, which frequently constitute a signifi- cant part (and in some cases the majority) of their pro- grams’ income, there exists a powerful incentive in the current system for providers to “go along” with decisions affecting clinical care that are made by the criminal justice entities. As a Program Director reported,
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The statistics speak for themselves. One in four children in the United States today lives in a family with alcohol abuse or alcoholism. Many others are impacted by a family member’s drug addiction. Given these statistics, it is probable that some of these children are in your congregation. Knowing some basic facts about the effects of addiction on children and families, and what you can do to help, can make a sig- nificant impact in assisting these children to heal and lead safe and healthy lives. This handbook calls special attention to the opportunity and capacity you have to help children of alcohol or drug dependent parents as they strive to face the confusion, anger, embarrassment, fear, guilt, and the many other problems that are the by-prod- ucts of familial addiction.
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Our results showed that although infectious diseases provided a small contribute to the UC among PWA, they represented the most common cause of death when considering the MCOD (Fig. 1); this result stressed the relevant role of these conditions (which are, in most cases, preventable or treatable) in the survival of HIV- infected individuals. The high proportion of infectious diseases among AIDS deaths has to be attributed in part to the immunodeficiency caused by HIV infection  and in part to behaviors that expose HIV-positive indi- viduals to certain types of infections, such as viral hepa- titis [22, 23]. In Italy, the HIV epidemic has been driven mainly by injecting drug users until a decade ago; some behaviors associated with drug use, such as alcohol abuse or non-sterile drug paraphernalia sharing, may Table 1 Multiple cause of death analysis, comparing certificates of AIDS deaths and non-AIDS/HIV deaths: crude proportions of deaths and age-standardized proportion ratio (ASPR) § , with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI), by any mentioned cause of death (Continued)
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child feels banished or unloved by the family, s/he could take such beliefs to school, apart from the fact that his/her self- confidence and relationships would decline, and the world would seem unsafe (Vézina et al., 2011). A wrong belief might be established in the child’s mind, paving the way for a mental disorder, ranging from acquired schizophrenia or behavioral confusion to being ready to break the law, all of which comes from the idea of being unloved and unsafe (Ghezelseflo and Rostami, 2015). Various kinds of misbehavior in childhood could influence the emotional well-being and psychological aspects of the child, and the impact could become apparent years later. The long-term and immediate effects of abuse can consist of psychosomatic health problems, like anxiety, depression, substance abuse, eating disorder, and self-destructive behavior. All these symptoms could play a significant role in the individual’s character formation (Ehring et al., 2014).
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would have higher BI/RT rates. Several factors may have contributed to low BI/RT rates in the NPP and MA arm. First, because this was a naturalistic implementation study, we trained non-physician providers working in the health system rather than using research or externally or grant-funded clinicians, who may have different char- acteristics and motivations (because of being paid by a research study and invested in the success of the inter- vention) rather than having an existing operational role with competing duties. Non-physician providers were not always available immediately and thus the work- flow often required an additional appointment either by phone or in person, or required phoning the pro- vider when possible via a “consult phone”, which meant a delay. Second, exam room availability was often an issue, which translated into concerns about backlogs if inter- ventions were provided there. Third, providers reported that patients were resistant to seeing the non-physician providers, regardless of whether they were told that the discussion would be about their alcohol screening results or whether a more vague script about “healthy lifestyle” was used.
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There are a number of limitations which warrant future research. The non-probability sampling method limits the generalizability of the current findings. A randomized, larger-size sample would overcome this limitation. Moreover, as Li and Jackson (2016) suggested that cultural background may play a role in the gender–substance abuse relationship, future work may want to consider whether males irrespective of cultural background are more at-risk substance abusers than females. Furthermore, future work may consider the role cultures play in substance abuse of older Australians. In particular, are older Indigenous Australians more likely than their mainstream counterparts to be consuming alcohol at a high-risk level? In addition, although the manual of CASE states that high scores of substance abuse always suggest problems associated with alcohol use, the CASE does not distinguish between alco- hol and drug abuse, which limits the meaningfulness of the findings. It is worth assessing abuses of alcohol, prescrip- tion drug, and illicit drug separately.
Brain maturation during adolescence (ages 10–24 years) could be governed by several factors, as illustrated in Figure 1. It may be influenced by heredity and environment, prenatal and postnatal insult, nutritional status, sleep pat- terns, pharmacotherapy, and surgical interventions during early childhood. Furthermore, physical, mental, economical, and psychological stress; drug abuse (caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol); and sex hormones including estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone can influence the development and matura- tion of the adolescent brain. MRI studies have suggested that neurocircuitry and myelinogenesis remain under construc- tion during adolescence because these events in the central nervous system (CNS) are transcriptionally regulated by sex hormones that are specifically increased during puberty.
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Cluster analysis showed a spectrum of abuse with drugs and alcohol dependency of varying degrees. As the severity of drug abuse increased, so did the extent of alcohol related problems in all the relevant clusters. How- ever, the scale moved towards increasing alcohol dependency, correlation with drug co-use diminished and fi- nally disappeared. This is an important finding in this study. The main inference which can be drawn from this study is that alcohol dependency is a unique disorder that is unrelated to other drug addictions.
The pattern of substance abuse among teenagers has undergone significant change during the past 30 years. Before the late 1960s, the abuse of alcohol and other psychoactive drugs including tobacco was pre- dominantly by adults. Beginning in the late 1960s and early 1970s, substance abuse became widespread among adolescents and more recently among pread- olescents. Alcohol and tobacco as well as opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, barbiturates, marijuana, hal- lucinogens, anabolic steroids, and prescription and nonprescription medications and inhalants (volatile substances) are used/abused by many teenagers and a growing number of pre-teens. 1 The use of even
disagreement with a study done in USA revealing that the two important associated factors for alcohol drinking were drug and smoking. Concerning associated factors with drug abuse, the main reasons for using drugs were because of peers pressures, girls, drug availability, internet use, family problem and poverty. Our findings agree with a study done in Saudi- Arabia 15 that showed the main associated factors of drug abuse were social peer pressure and family pressure. This finding disagreed with the result of a study done on 4903 students from Tabriz city in Iran 16 that showed that the majority of associated factors for drug abuse were related to not living with the parents and smoking cigarette. The prevalence of drug abuse was considered low in our study, which is mostly related to legal prohibition of illicit drugs, social norms in Kurdistan families against substance abuse and parent's disapproval of drug abuse by adolescent. The current study revealed that there was significant association between drug abuse and age group, and there was no significant association between other health risk behaviors and age group. The current study was in agreement with a study from Cyprus 17
Records of the identity, diagnosis, prognosis, or treatment of any patient which are maintained in connection with the performance of any program or activity relating to alcoholism or alcohol abuse education, training, treatment, rehabilitation, or research, which is conducted, regulated, or directly or indirectly assisted by any department or agency of the United States shall, except as provided in subsection (e) of this section, be confidential and be disclosed only for the purposes and under the circumstances expressly authorized under subsection (b) of this section.
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in adolescent marijuana use have decreased since 1999 , and another study reports that the differences in drinking patterns of adolescent boys and girls narrowed between 2002 and 2012 . Drug abuse is associated with an extensive psychiatric comorbidity and carries an increased risk of premature death, especially in male users of opiates or barbiturates . Estimated lifetime prevalences of SUDs in adolescents and young adults range from 4.6  to 17.7 % . In adolescents, SUDs are of considerable importance in the etiology and prog- nosis of psychiatric disorders such as mood disorders, conduct disorder (CD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and anxiety disorders . In adults, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and SUDs are highly comorbid, and GAD–SUD comorbidity is associated with a host of poor psychosocial outcomes, including higher rates of hospitalization, disability, functional impairment, and inferior GAD and SUD treatment outcomes .
in the mouth, which is also called huffing. Some aerosols are sprayed directly into the mouth or nose, and volatile solvents can be applied onto the nasal mucosa or a nearby surface such as fingernails or a shirt collar or cuff and then inhaled. “Glading” refers to the inhalation of air-freshener aerosols, whereas a recently coined term, “dusting,” refers to the abuse of aerosol computer and personal electronics cleaning products by placing the canister straw into the mouth or nose. Familiar and innocuous containers are often used to help conceal inhalant abuse (eg, inhaling spray paint fumes out of a soft drink can or nitrous oxide–filled balloons). A paper or plastic bag containing the inhalant can be held to the mouth and nose or over the head (“bagging”).
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The research instruments consisted of 3 self-administered questionnaires: (i) A researcher designed Social Demographic Questionnaire (SDQ) which included gender, age, year of study, marital status, their place of residence while they pursued their studies, religion and KMTC Campus, (ii) Beck’s Anxiety Inventory (BAI). This is a 21 question instrument designed to measures the severity of anxiety in a general population. It has proved to show high interval consistency and test retest reliability over 1 week (Beck et al., 1988). In the general population, respondents who score more than 36 scores are the only ones considered to have Anxiety. (iii) The WHO alcohol, smoking and substance involvement screening test (ASSIST). The National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA) has adopted the WHO ASSIST version 6 used among the general population and has been found to be a valid screening test to investigate the risk of psychoactive substance use/abuse in individuals who use a number of substances and have varying degree of substance use of minimal, mild, moderate or severe (Newcombe et al., 2005). The scores of all the substances which included; alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, cocaine, amphetamines, inhalants, sedatives, hallucinogens, opioids and others are given (Newcombe et al., 2005).
The term “risky alcohol consumption” designates a drinking behaviour which can have negative effects on the healthy and (psycho-)social development of children, adolescents and young adults. There are different defini- tions of risky alcohol consumption. For adolescents who are 14 years old and older the tolerable upper amount of alcohol of < 12 g pure alcohol for women and < 24 g for men is defined as risky alcohol consumption. But it has to be considered that these upper limits are based on adult samples. Children and adolescents under 14 years should be abstinent from alcohol.
individual or the name of the organization to which disclosure is to be made.” Thus, as was previously noted in previously issued FAQ Number 18 published by SAMHSA and ONC in 2010 ( Applying the Substance Abuse Confidentiality Regulations to Health Information Exchange (HIE) (PDF | 381 KB) ), Part 2 consents cannot refer patients to the HIO’s website for a list of potential recipients of their data but rather must identify within the consent all the HIO affiliated members by name or title that are potential recipients of the Part 2 data. Therefore, a new consent form (e.g. by the additional Part 2 program or the HIO) would be required when a new recipient of the information is added.
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At 24-h and 30-day followup we found that injured patients who tested positive for substance abuse were more likely to require major surgery than those who tested nega- tive. The outcomes and relative risk findings above suggest that substance abuse contributes to more severe injuries leading to surgery, and that these trauma patients had high rates of prolonged return to the normal activities, and of death. Studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa and HICs have shown similar outcomes [29, 30]. Regulations and education on alcohol and illicit drug use, and their acute and chronic effects should be implemented or reinforced on this matter, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa.
drug use, in the past year and in the past month, was collected for cannabis, amphetamines, crack, ecstasy, tranquillizers, opiates and volatile substances, such as glue. These questions, originally used in the 1993 survey (Meltzer et al. 1995), were amended slightly to bring them in line with those used in the British Crime Survey (Ramsay & Partridge, 1999). Included in the questions about drug use in the past year and month were ﬁve questions, taken from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area study (Robins & Regier, 1991) and used in other previous Oﬃce for National Statistics psychiatric morbidity surveys, to measure drug de- pendence, indicated by a positive response to any one of them.
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