Unlike its predecessors there was less emphasis in the 2010 drug strategy on breaking the drug- crime link (Duke, 2013; Monaghan, 2012), but some attention was paid to how the criminal justice system might work most effectively with drug-using offenders. Specifically, in relation to prisoners, it introduced a series of pilots of abstinence-focused drug recovery wings. Given what we have noted already about the challenges of acknowledging the drug ‘problem’ within prisons and responding to it in a way which does not appear to threaten order and control, we can appreciate why a concentration on abstinence might be favoured within the prison context. It appears to ‘square the circle’ between treatment and punishment by addressing drug dependence whilst not condoning drug use. Addressing drug dependence then feeds into positive outcomes such as reduced reoffending, which has been a priority of successive Governments over the past two decades. Recovery is referred to in the 2010 drug strategy in high-level terms i.e. in terms of freedom from dependence, well-being and citizenship, but there is also an attempt to operationalise this through emphasising that achieving and sustaining recovery requires drug users to establish recovery capital (social, physical, human and cultural, see Best and Laudet, 2010 for an overview of the concept). This has significant implications for work with drug-using prisoners who typically have low levels of recovery capital and experience problems which are likely to make it difficult for them to recover; for example, poor mental health, lack of access to suitable housing and limited work histories (Hopkins, 2012; Light et al., 2013; Williams et al., 2012). There is also a growing appreciation of the need to recognise that the nature and extent of recovery capital may differ for females and males (Neale et al., 2014; Thom, 2010; Wincup, 2016).
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The service users who have graduated from the Drug Recovery Community will have the opportunity to remain within the wing and support those who are still in the programme. Those who are interested in remaining as a Peer Mentor will undergo a formal application process. The Peer Mentors will be expected to play an active role in the activities within the wing, by sharing experiences and providing support and guidance for others. Mentors will also assist the staff in wing drop-in sessions and be instrumental in the development of ongoing advertising and newsletter creation. In return, the Mentors will be given a chance to complete a Peer Mentoring qualification with Weston College. The Mentors are identifiable through the Peer Mentor T-shirt.
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Liu Rui  discussed the current situation and development dilemma of drug recycling in Harbin, and felt that reverse logistics of medicine had a profound impact on environmental protection, social interests and corporate interests, and put forward the incentive measures for the government to formulate relevant policies. Liu Ting  studied the behavior of pharmaceutical companies, government and customers in reverse logistics of drug recovery in China. Based on the assumption of incomplete information and limited subjective rationality, she established a tripartite game model and suggested that the government take different measures in different periods. Cheng Xiao  put forward the concept of economized logistics and its causes, discussed the necessity of building economized logistics, and introduced to realize economic logistics of drugs from four ways: information communication, vehicle routing optimization, drug recovery, and the establishment of reverse logistics center of medicine. Tong, Alfred Y. C.  said that in some cases,
needs (Ministry of Justice 2010). DRWs are also situated within the recent broader recovery movement leading to a call for drug services to focus on ‘the person not the substance’ (Centre for Social Justice 2007, p19), and an end to people being parked indefinitely on methadone (NTA 2010b). This move towards recovery, and therefore implicitly away from harm reduction treatment toward abstinence-based programmes, is not without its critics. One concern is that the new focus on payment-by-results – with the result being abstinence – will encourage service providers to ‘cherry pick’ clients and thus reject those with more complex needs amongst whom are likely to be women offenders (Duke, 2013). Furthermore, women offenders are likely to struggle to easily develop the requisite ‘recovery capital’ 13 required to achieve abstinence due to their higher rates of mental health issues, experiences of abuse and violence and greater social stigma (Cloud and Granfield, 2008).
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Both DRWs and WCSs are also safe places for the DRWs this safety centred on being protected from the temptation of drugs available in the wider prison; for WCSs this is more about keeping women safe from risky and dangerous people and environments. Like WCSs, DRW1 offered an emotionally safe place too, where women felt more able to open up about their issues and concerns. It is important to note that isolation in prison is likely only to be a protective factor if other conditions are met too in DRW2 the women were isolated but bored and insufficiently supported which over time might impact on their resolve to stay drug free.
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More broadly, the reconceptualisation of OST as a problematic ‘addiction’ was part of a move away from a specific focus on heroin as the dominant concern of drug services. Dedicated funding streams for heroin users’ treatment were removed, as a renewed call arose for services to focus on ‘the person not the substance’ (Centre for Social Justice 2007:19) and to expand treatment for cannabis, alcohol and other drug users. Nonetheless, heroin use continues to act as a specific marker for social disadvantage and particular difficulties in achieving recovery outcomes (e.g. Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (ACMD) 2013; ACMD 2015). The rise of recovery services and the removal of protected funding arrangements for heroin users thus raises particular questions about the position of heroin users within new service models (ACMD 2013:17). The ACMD’s Recovery Committee cites US population studies indicating ‘that most people who experience a period of dependence on alcohol, cocaine, or cannabis, overcome that dependence and remission is the ‘norm’’ (ACMD 2013:10), making such individuals appealing targets for recovery services in an era of performance monitoring, regular recommisioning, and the prospect of Payment by Results (HM Govt 2010:20). Simultaneously, the ACMD advises tempered expectations of recovery outcomes for heroin users, contending that the most straightforward routes to abstinence, ‘forced detoxification and time-limited opioid prescribing’ (2013:17), lack an evidence base and may cause harm. Instead, the report calls for ‘an extensive approach… for a number of years, especially for the UK population of ageing heroin users’ (2013:54). Changes to service structures consequently have the potential to place unrealistic expectations on heroin users, whilst withdrawing any protection for their levels of funding.
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Participants were taught various Lean tools and tech- niques on day 1 of the workshop week, and were then asked to consider application to their service, with encour- agement to note any additional wastes or new ideas. Wastes were added to an A0 poster-sized waste wheel and ideas were captured on an ideas form. Clinicians and clients identified 84 wastes and 45 improvement ideas. During day 2, the team reviewed the wastes and ideas and redesigned the clients’ journey by creating a future state process flow map from referral to discharge (see online supplementary file 3: Process Flow Map Future State). The team divided into three groups, based on areas identified for improvement, with the aim of developing a recovery pathway: screening and administration, assessment and treatment, and transfer and discharge.
increase the NPs size, high concentration of PVA was also observed to reduce particles size. Increasing the concentration of PLGA was observed to increase percentage DR. Optimum formulations were obtained, equations to predict both particles sizes and percentage drug recovery of PLGA NPs were also derived. Furthermore, optimum formulations showed a prolonged release of ciproflox- acin hydrochloride from PLGA NPs within 1 - 24 hours. However, during expe- riments, centrifugation as a technical parameter was observed to affect the amount of drug recovered due to low amount of NPs collected. Conclusively, this experimental approach provides an optimum condition to produce PLGA NPs encapsulating ciprofloxacin hydrochloride for drug delivery applications.
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ABSTRACT : A new simple, sensitive, spectrophotometric method in UV region has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of benzoyl peroxide and resveratrol. The method involved absorption subtraction method using two wavelengths, with one being of benzoyl peroxide (234 nm, ) and the other being the isoabsorptive point of both drugs (246 nm). The Standard solution of benzoyl peroxide and resveratrol shows maximum absorbance at 234 nm and 306 nm respectively. Beer’s Lamberts law is obeyed in concentration range 1-7 μg/ml for resveratrol while for benzoyl peroxide, Beer’s Lambert law is obeyed in concentration range 1- 10 μg/ml. The results of analysis have been validated statistically and by recovery study. The accuracy ranged for resveratrol was between 103.16 and 104.49% and for benzoyl peroxide 104.05 to 110.49. The method was found to be precise, reproducible and rapid.
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A Simple, rapid, accurate and economical UV Spectrophotometric method is developed for determination of tamsulosin in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. In methanol, the λ max of the drug was found to be 224 nm. Using UV instrument (analytical), in this proposed method tamsulosin follows linearity in the concentration range 1 – 5µg/ml with a correlation coefficient of 0.9989. Assay results were in good agreement with label claim. The methods were validated statistically and by recovery studies. The relative standard deviation was found to be 0.23516 with excellent precision and accuracy.
The main motivations for selecting methadone therapy clinics have been the fear of inaccessibility to drugs, hav- ing a replacement, and preventing drug withdrawal syn- drome, especially for those who have experienced failure with other withdrawal methods or arbitrary ones and have relapsed again. Participants believe that methadone thera- py brings rapid changes in both family and society toward the patient and they would not only be accepted by socie- ty, but also can find jobs. Improved sexual relationships and reduction of withdrawal side effects are two conse- quences of fast recovery. This is why patients believe in this method and it has a direct relationship with their ad- herence to the treatment. The notable fact in most of the interviews is controlling the temptation of drug use by methadone therapy, which is the most important conse- quence of this method according to participants’ view- point.
that emphasizes peer support as the essential ingredient in recovery. No onsite services are offered but residents are encouraged to pursue services they need in the community, and all are required to attend 12-step meetings. While living at the house, residents are expected to be involved in work, school, or other productive activities. Residents are expected to abstain from alcohol and drugs, required to attend house meetings, and involved in upkeep of the facility. Costs associ- ated with the homes are primarily covered through resident fees, although some criminal justice programs will pay 1 month or 2 months of rent for ex-offenders upon entry into the SLH. Residents are free to live in the homes for as long as they like, but most use it as transitional living into indepen- dent living in the community. The average length of stay is slightly over 5 months (mean = 166 days; standard deviation = 163). An evaluation of resident outcomes showed significant improvement on measures of alcohol and drug use, sever- ity of drug and alcohol problems, employment, and arrests. Improvements were evident between baseline and 6-month follow-up and continued at 18 months even though the vast majority had left the homes at that point. 10 Consistent with the
inhaled particles usually end up in the gastrointestinal tract (or the IP & PS in the ACI) after adhesion to the lactose diluent. Aerosolization of dry-powder formulations depends on bulk flow and the carrier must be selected with consideration of the desired particle size and its compatibility with the drug and the polymer. The common critical factor in DPI drug development is the particle size range. In the formulation tested here, the particle size tended to increase due to solid-phase interaction after blending with lactose. The smaller particles give remarkably superior 28 bronchodilation. There is also connection
dissolution medium on magnetic stirrer at 37+0.5 C at 100 rpm and the amount of nanoparticles was varied in order to keep constant the amount of drug. A measure of 1 ml samples were withdrawn at appropriate time intervals. Same volume of dissolution medium was replaced to maintain a constant volume. The withdrawn samples were diluted suitably with SLF and absorbance of the resulting solution was measured at 289 nm by UV spectrophotometer. The cumulative amount of drugs was obtained from the calibration curve of Moxifloxacin in Simulated Lung Fluid (SLF) 11 . The test was done in triplicate.
Statistical analyses. Statistical analyses were performed as follows. First, we examined differences in the times to recovery (when the severity score declined to 0) among patients with different severity scores at the initial examination by creating box-and-whisker plots and performing the Kruskal-Wallis test. We also examined differences in the relapse rates using Fisher’s exact test. Next, potential factors influencing the times to recovery were examined by multiple regression analyses, including the age, drug resistance, severity score at the initial examination, biofilm for- mation (average of 9 measurements), invasion rate (average of 3 measure- ments), and improvement in the severity score at 1 week after the initial examination. A forward-backward procedure was employed to construct a regression model. We confirmed the significance of each factor selected by controlling for the influence of sex and age as covariates. A significance level of 0.05 was used in the regression analyses. R statistical environment software (version 2.14.2) was used for all analyses.
• support people to recover, as set out below in the section ‘Building recovery in communities’. This Government is committed to an evidence-based approach. High quality scientific advice in this complex field is therefore of the utmost importance. This is why we value the work and independent advice of the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (ACMD), which has experts from fields that include science, medicine, law enforcement and social policy. We are committed to both maintaining this expertise and ensuring the ACMD’s membership has the flexibility to respond to the accelerating pace of challenges. the proper consideration of that advice is at the heart of enabling us to deliver this strategy, including the reforms required to tackle the problem of emerging new psychoactive substances (‘legal highs’).
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Addressing dependence on alcohol or drugs involves much more than merely stopping heavy drinking or drug use. National and international literature shows that there are many dimensions to recovering from alcohol or other drug dependence (AOD). Though some of these aspects have previously been explored in detail there is still insight to be gained about what makes recovery from alcohol or other drug dependence possible. One of the fundamental questions that warrants exploration is: what enables people with AOD dependence to achieve and maintain abstinence and improve their well-being, in the first two years, within the New Zealand context?
respectively. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship with R 2 =0.9999 and 0.9999 for MONT and THEO respectively at the concentration range of 100-500ng/spot for MONT and 4000 to 8000ng/ spot for THEO. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, specificity and robustness. The limit of detection and quantitation were 131.01 and 597.82 ng/spot and 399.54 and 181.15ng/spot for MONT and THEO respectively. The proposed developed HPTLC method can be applied for identification and quantitative determination of MONT and THEO in bulk and drug formulation.
As important as dialytic clearance may be, non-dialytic mechanisms for clearance (e.g. hepatic or biliary excretion) still have a large role in dictating drug elimination during hemodialysis. In particular, almost all of carvedilol clearance was a result of non- dialytic pathways. Metoprolol had a considerably higher total clearance as compared to all other beta blockers, most likely explained by combinations from both high hepatic metabolism and high dialytic clearance. Atenolol and bisoprolol required the largest post- dialysis dose at nearly 23% (11 mg) and 40 % (2 mg) of their initial prescribed dose. For healthcare professionals determining the supplemental dose required to maintain patients within a therapeutic window, both dialytic and non-dialytic means of elimination must be considered. However, regulatory agencies should consider invoking specifications for highly dialyzable drugs to be taken only after dialysis in order to overcome the need for supplemental doses. These additional pharmacokinetic parameters that we examined have never been incorporated in previous dialyzability studies. Nonetheless, other groups investigating drug dialyzability can implement these equations to determine clinically- relevant supplemental information.
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For those who complete the LiR survey meeting the inclusion survey and expressing willingness to participate, there is a more extensive survey which will be carried out among 150 respondents per country,providing baseline quantitative data on 600 participants in total. This Outcome Study at Baseline (OSB) survey comprises of standardised measures that will adequately address the research questions. Measures in the OSB include: Commitment to Sobriety (Kelly & Greene, 2014), Recovery Group Participation Scale (Groshkova, Best, & White, 2011), Maudsley Addiction Profile (Marsden, Gossop, Stewart, Best, Farrell, & Strang, 1998), MANSA (Björkman & Svensson, 2005) and Perceived Stigma (Link, Struening, Phelan, & Nuttbrock, 1997). The OSB survey will be carried out within one to three months after participation in the LiR survey. An incentive of €10/£10 is given for participation in this survey. Respondents can fill in the survey online, on paper, by telephone, or face-to-face, whichever they prefer. The questionnaire contains questions about e.g. quality of life, key life events, physical and psychological health, barriers and facilitators to recovery, past 30 day drug use, perceived stigmatization, social networks, and social identity.
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